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Bio Final #1

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
exaptation
adaptation for one reason becomes another
larynx
voice box. comes after pharynx
biological species concept
populations that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
blood
connective tissue as fluid
sex linked gene
most often found on X chromosome. If male ascertains one dominant allele for a sex linked gene on x chromosome then he has it, not so with girls.
habitat isolation
species live in different habitats
how to get stem cells
from whole bone marrow, concentrated from the blood, or obtained from the placenta and umbilical blood.
fibringin
plasma protein helps to form a clot when a blood vessel is injured
base substitution mutation-two types
the replacement of one nucleotide with another; it can be silent, meaning the switched nucleic acid ends up bringing the same amino acid, or it can be harmful(not actual name), meaning it brings a totally different amino acid
behavioral isolation
there is little or no sexual attraction between species
allopatric speciation
the formation of a new species as a result of ancestral populations becoming isolated by a geographic barrier
temporal isolation
a reproductive barrier to two species that mate at different seasons
yellow bone marrow
stored fat brought into the bones by blood
permian and cretaceous...
mass extinctions-these provided mammals with new opportunities
polygenic inheritance
many genes result in one characteristic ex: skin color
monohybrid cross
where breeding partners differ in one trait (like when a white flower is bred with a purple one)
mutation
a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
integumentary system
consists of skin, nails, hair
epithelial tissue
simple squamous epithelium (lines the air sacs of the lungs) simple cuboidal epithelium-forms a tube in the kidney. Simple columnar epithelium-forms lining of the intestine. Stratified squamous epithelium-lines the esophagus
systole
contraction of atria pumps blood through aorta and pulmonary arteries
fibrin
severe cut- enzyme makes fibrin which traps blood, making a connective seal until connective tissue can come in to repair.
tRNA
it matches an amino acid to each codon; it has an anti-codon which matches with a certain codon to find the appropriate amino acid
ruminant mammals
have stomach with four chambers, chew cud
homologous structures
similar bone structures in two similar species
breathing
the alternation of inhalation and exhalation
capillaries
carries blood to tissues in the body
exaptation
the phenomenon of a structure evolving for one purpose and later being adapted for a different function
introns
non-coding regions of DNA
bone
rigid connective tissue
amino acid sequencing
you can find how closely related two species are through their amino acid sequences
blood pressure
the force that blood exerts on the walls of our blood vessels.
tissue
cooperative unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function.
gene loci
locations of alleles on gene
adipose tissue
stores fats
peristalis
rhythmic contractions by smooth muscles that propels food to stomach
pharynx
where the paths for air and food cross
alveoli
branchioli dead end in grape like clusters called alveoli. these air sacsare lined with epithelial cells that form respiratory surface where gases are exchanged.
trachea
wind pipe surrounded by rings of cartelidge that branch off into two bronchi that then branch off into bronchioles
hybrid inviability
hybrid zygotes fail to develop or reach sexual maturity
cardiac cycle
a complete sequence of filling and pumping
joints
ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint
phylogenic tree
the trace of evolutionary relationships
ABO blood groups
O, A, B, AB
codominance
ex: AB blood: characteristics of both alleles are expressed
phenotype
genes expressed as physical traits
respiration
animal breathes, air diffuses across cell lining in the lungs into blood vessels. then that air attaches to hemoglobin and is carried from the lungs to other tissues of the body. Then tissue cells absorb air and release CO2.
paedomorphic structures
juvenile body structures in adults
diaphragm
bounds chest cavity. it is a sheet of muscle
molecular clock
comparisons of genes to older species or new species shown to have a reliable average rate of change
exons
the coding regions of DNA
organ
consists of several tissues adapted to perform a specific function.
gametic isolation
male and female gametes fail to unite
carrier(genetics)
an individual that carries one copy of a recessive disorder but does not exhibit symptoms
reading frame mutation-two types
deletion or addition of nucleotide, either way the whole polypeptide does not function
hemoglobin
oxygen is not very soluble in water, so it needs to bond with iron in hemoglobin within the blood in order to travel throughout the body. It also helps to transport carbon dioxide and to buffer blood.
CVS
finds diseases in fetus. tube stuck into vagina where tissue from the placenta is sucked off. karyotyping can be done in minutes
hybrid sterility
hybrids fail to produce functional gametes
fibrous connective tissue
makes up ligaments which attach joins bones together. it also forms tendons which connect muscle to bone
pyloric sphincter
regulates food going out of stomach into small intestin
P site
to the left of the A site, and it is the space on the ribosome that allows tRNA to fit in
A site
it is to the right of the P site, and it is the space on the ribosome that allows tRNA to come in with a incoming amino acid
diastole
blood flows into all four chambers of heart through right atrium and left atrium into right ventricle and left ventricle.
amniocentesis
amniotic fluid taken by needle. fetal cells taken from this. doctor test fetal cells for diseases. takes weeks to get results.
recombination frequency
percentage of recombinants, meaning percentage of of offspring that had traits from crossover. recombination frequencies are lower when alleles are closer together.
skeletal muscle
attached to bone by tendons
test cross
mating between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual
monoecious/hermaphroditic
a plant or animal that is monoecious produces sperm and egg
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine sex of individual.
emphysema
cause alveoli to rupture
adaptive radiation
the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced to new and diverse enviroments
mechanical isolation
structural differences in genetalia
Alzheimer (recessive or dominant?)
dominant
deafness (recessive or dominant?)
recessive
genotype
genetic makeup
polyploid cells
each cell has more than two complete sets of chromosomes
pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
maintains the heart's pumping rhythm by setting the rate at which all of the muscle cells of the heart contract.
lytic cycle-Viral DNA(phage)
phage injects DNA into host bacterialcell, phage DNA circularizes, new phage DNA and proteins are synthesized, phages are assembled, cell lyses and releases phages
cardiovascular system
right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs via two pulmonary arteries. as the blood flows through capillaries in the lungs it loads oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide. oxygen rich blood then flows back to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins. Then it flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle. the muscles in the left ventricle pump blood to all the body organs through the systematic circuit. Oxygen rich blood leaves the left ventricle via the aorta which pumps blood to our head and arms, abdominal organs, and the legs.
catilage
cushioning, end of bones
dyhybrid cross
breeding pair differentiating in two charcteristics
retrovirus-like HIV
they use reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that turns virus RNA into DNA; then, a complimentary strand of DNA is added. The two strands become a double helix and enters the nucleus. Occasionally this double helix will have a strand transcribed into RNA which will create viral proteins.
modern synthesis
melds population genetics with the theory of evolution
temporal isolation
different times of mating keep a species separate
genealogical species concept
a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
blood
consists of white blood cells, plasma, red blood cells, and platelates
hybrid breakdown
offspring of hybrid are weak or infertile
loose connective tissue
matrix of loose weave of fibers. holds tissues and organs in place
ecological species concept
identifies species in terms of it niche
appendix
contains a mass of white blood cells
linked genes
genes that are located close together on a chromosome. They are usually inherited together
morphological species concept
classification of species based on measurable phenotypic traits
sympatric speciation
creation of a new species after a single generation due to mutation.
red bone marrow
specialized tissue that produces red blood cells
incomplete dominance
ex: white flower and red flower make pink flower
pleiotropy
ex: impact of single gene on more than one characteristic
Lysogenic cycle-Viral DNA(phage)
phage injects DNA into host bacterial cell, DNA circularizes, phage DNA becomes part of bacterial DNA, bacterium cell reproduces its own DNA and DNA of phage, sometimes phage DNA comes out of host DNA and the cycle continues
transpiration
when a plant loses water through its leaves
vitamins
they serve as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes; there are water and fat soluble enzymes

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