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Chapter 26 Biology Vocab


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Sex- Chromosomes
the two unmatched chromosomes that detemine the sex of an individual, Represented as X and Y
the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
X Chromosomes
one of the types of sex chromosomes (female)
Y Chromosomes
one of the types of sex chromosomes (Male)
Sex Linked Trait
a trait that is controlled by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes
Color Blindness
a sex linked trait in which an individual cannot percieve certain colors
Linkage Group
all the genes that are on the same chromosome
Crossing Over
The process in which pieces of homologous chromosomes are exchanged during synapsis
Mulitple gene inheritance
the type of inheriance in which two or more pairs of genes affec the same characteristic, polygenic inheritance
a five carbon suar found in DNA
a nirtogenous base found in DNA and RNA
a nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
a nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
a nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
the base units of nucleic acids, each containing a sugar, a phosphate group, and one of the four nitrogenous bases
a shape like a coiled spring, used to describe the structure of DNA molecules
One gene- One polypetide hypothesis
the hypothesis that everygene directs the snthesis of a particular polypeptide chain; originally called the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
Messenger RNA(mRNA)
the type of RNA that carries the code for a polypeptide from DNA to the ribosomes wher it is translated
the copying of a gentic message from a strand of DNA in to a molecule of RNA
a group of three bases in n mRNA molecule that specifies a particular amino acid
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
the type of RNA that carries a particular amino acid to mRNA at the ribosome in protein synthesis
a sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
a type of RNA transcribed from DNA in the nucleolus and found in the ribosomes
the process by which the information coded in RNA is used for the assembly of a particular amino acid sequence
in prokaryotes, such as bacteria, the promoter, the operator, and their associated structural genes
a segment of DNA that codes for amino acids that will become part of a protein
a sefment of DNA that does not code for amino acids of protein
a section DNA that controls the access of an enzyme to a promoter
Homeotic Genes
in fruit flies, the genes that control key events in the flys' development
any of various genes that, when activated may cause normal cells to become cancerous
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Offered first evidence that genes are part of chromosomes; tested with Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly
Reginald Crundell Punnett and William Bateson
Found first few examples of linkage, studied flower color in pear plants
Frederick Griffith
-Injected mice with type s--Mice died
-Injected mice with Type R--Mice Lived
-Injected mice with dead type s--Mice live
-Mixed dead type S with live type R--Mice soon died, Live type S found in mice
*Concluded that sme factor from dead type S changed or transformed Type R into Type S
Geroge Beadle and Edward Tatum
Formed the One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis by using Neurospora Crasa after mutating them with radiation and only feeding it agar with salt, sucrose, and biotin

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