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Roman Dictators
Most famous Cincinnatus; only 6 months and only during a difficult war
Believing in more than one god; Egyptians, Indians, Chinese, and Romans were polytheistic
Hunter-gather societies
Developed language, art, and religion; Migrated-helped people learn to adapt; made clothes; spread to India, China, South East Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East; New tools- hooks, fishing spears, bow and arrow, canoes, and pottery;
Elected by Plebeians had the right to veto laws
Woman's rights in Athens
Least of all of Greece; almost none
River in Egypt; Nile gave life to the Egyptian desert; Biannual flooding; longest river in the world (Over 4000 Mi. long) Had cataracts or rapids; provided fertile soil
Early tools
Hooks, fishing spears, bow and arrow, canoes, and pottery
Paul's letters
converted Christians; spread Christianity
A government where all participate directly in the government; a government in which the people rule; Cleisthenes created the world's first democracy
Organized group of up to 5 or 6,000 soldiers. Each legion was divided into centuries or groups of 100 soldiers
Roman painting with water colors on plaster
1st Democratic constitution
Cleisthenes came up with it; overthrew the aristocracy; citizen participate
Han dynasty and center of Chinese society
started out at a peasant rebellion; confusion official government policy; peasants 2nd highest rank
Writers; kept track or items people traded and wrote down government records; scribes could social class; wrote literature, stories, proverbs, songs; wrote poems about gods and military victories; created epics, longs poems that tell stories of heroes
First Kushian pharaoh
Greek mythological heroes
Theseus: traveled to Crete killed Minotaur; Jason: sailed across seas in search of great treasure; Hercules: most famous, fought many monsters, performed nearly impossible tasks
A way of supplying water to an area of land; Mesopotamia invented it for the Tigris and Euphrates River
Persian religion
First Empire
Indian Caste
1: Brahmanism or Priests 2: Kshatriyas or Rulers and Warriors 3: Vaisyans or Commoners, Farmers, Craftsmen, and Traders 4: Sudras or Laborers and Servants The caste system was family based and you could not move up a class
Battle of the Goths VS. Rome; Goths won because they had better weapons, and iron stirrups; 378 AD
Developed to preserve bodies and keep the link between the body and the spirit; wrapped in cloth and were called mummies
Famous Byzantine Emperor
"Scattering of the Jews outside of Caanan," Persians took over and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem. Some did not return; however, and settled in other parts of the Persian empire
Head officials; 2 for a 1 year term; magistrates
A Triangular shaped piece of land at the mouth of the Nile river; in lower Egypt that has the most fertile land
Neolithic Era
New Stone age; Began as early as 10,000 years ago in Middle East, Ended about 5,000 years ago as Egypt and the Middle East toolmakers began to use metal
Roman Republic
509 BC elected officials ran the city; protected of anyone staying too long; Consuls; Senate; Tribunes; Checks and balances; written laws; forum
"Bearded Lady;" encouraged trade and used the profits to support the arts and architecture
The three parts of the Roman Republic
Magistrates; senate; assembly and Tribunes
They took over a group called the Harappans; came to control the Ganges River; Spoke sanskirt; Social class: 1: Brahmanism or Priests 2: Kshatriyas or Rulers and Warriors 3: Vaisyans or Commoners, Farmers, Craftsmen, and Traders 4: Sudras or Laborers and Servants The caste system was family based and you could not move up a class
Menes founded the first dynasty; a series of rulers from the same family; 1st dynasty; a series or rulers from the same family
Divided the empire because it was too large for one person to rule
Egypt VS. Kush
Egypt and Kush were trading partners; Egypt feared Kush would get too powerful; attacked and Kush was under their control for 450 years then revolted and Kush became the central power system
Mountains of Italy
Alps and Apennines
Trojan War
Iliad was the epic poem written about it; cause by the Trojans taken Helen who was known for her beauty
Mesopotamia developed this; A division of labor; Potter, Weavers, and Metal work were the first few
Judah's conqueror
Chaldeans; Babylonians; Persians
Assyria's most famous ruler; created the world's first library
Rosetta Stone
Was written in three languages: Hieroglyphics, A later form of writing from Egyptians, and Greek; It helped crack early Egyptian hieroglyphics
A teacher that taught by asking questions; came up with the Socratic method; believed knowledge was sacred
Homer's Poems
Iliad and Odyssey
Fall of the roman empire
Too big; high taxes; no one to farm the land because too many people were in the army; corruption
Mesopotamian Advances
New farming techniques; irrigation and canals; specialization in job occupations; potters, weavers, and metal work; armies; walled cities; system of writing (cuneiform); wheel, sewers, math, and science; architecture, art,
New Persian Capitol
Created in Rome in 509BC; a government in which elected officials ran the city
An Egyptian building; a tall, four-sided pillar that is pointed at the top
Etruscan contributions
Temples; sewers; phases; shoes
Egyptian Empire
The New Kingdom was the only point in time that Egypt was an empire; didn't last for long
First Emperor
Sargon I
Battle of Marathon
last battle between Greece and Persia; First Marathon was ran
The head of all Egypt ruled as both king and god; first pharaoh was Menes
Phoenician travel
Ceder logs which made boats and harbors; access to the sea for trade
New capitol of Rome no power remained in Western Rome
Clay pot or leather bag system of dipping water out of the Nile to use as irrigation
Location of the Minoans
The Island of Crete on the Mediteranean Sea
Fall of the Romans
Too large; Too many people needed for the army; not a lot of farm land; Disease and high taxes; invasions in Rome
Jewish holy books
Torah; Commentaries; Dead Sea Scrolls; Hebrew Bible
Kush's downfall
Loss of resource (Cattle overgrazed land, leaving nothing to hold the soil down and allowing it to be blown away); Iron makers used up the forests near Meroe; Military power declined when weapons were not produced
Ancient Greece's marketplace
Qin Military
Unified China; always had the army prepared for war
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John told about Jesus's life
Romance languages
Latin developed into many languages French
Famous Jewish women
Queen Esther, Judge Deborah; Miriam
A Pyramid-shaped temple tower, rose above each city
Hittite Advances
Iron working (Strongest weapons of the time); Chariots
Trace history back to this Trojan; Aeneid was an epic poem written by Virgil about him; Formed alliance with Latin
Summarian's system of writing; used clay tablets and a stylus; used to keep business records, write books, history, poems, and math
Rosetta Stone
Was written in three languages: Hieroglyphics, A later form of writing from Egyptians, and Greek; It helped crack early Egyptian hieroglyphics
A type of execution in which a person was nailed to the cross; normally died from asphyxiation
Unified Egypt
Menes unified Egypt by marrying a lower Egyptian princess; Pharaohs were in charge of the unified kingdom; Start of the old, middle, and new kingdom
Babylon's king and greatest monarch, or ruler of a kingdom; Brilliant war leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into his Babylonian empire; Oversaw Building and irrigation projects and improved the tax system; Hammurabi's code was a set of 282 laws he created that dealt with almost every part of daily life- (Prisons, Royal Judges, Innocent till proven guilty)
Almost all political power; rich powerful people of rome
Followers; 12 apostles
Injecting a small amount of disease so your system can become immune to it; This is an Indian Contributions
built as tombs for the pharaoh; displayed amazing engineering; built because the Egyptians wanted the spirits to be happy
Mycenaean wealth
violent in trade; took over Crete; shipped goods over Mediterranen
Battle of Salamis
One on the major turning points was the Greeks luring the Persian navy into Salamis where the more maneuverable Greek shops destroyed the Persian Navy
A group of soldiers in a square with spears overlapping; a fighting technique Macedonia used
Jesus's birth
Born in Bethlehem; studied carpentry and Judaism
Prohibit a law; the Tribunes and consuls could veto, or prohibit the laws in Rome
Egyptian writing system; written with brushes and ink on Papyrus which is a long-lasting, paper-like material made from reeds
An official that was in charge of controlling the city's helots or slaves; and perioci; or traders and merciants
Rome's public meeting place; the heart of Roman society; where written laws were kept; popular meeting place where citizens could shop, chat, and gossip
led the Hebrews to Canaan; demanded the pharaoh to free his people; plagues; 10 commandments given to him by GOD
Pax Romana
Roman Peace for 200 years
Roman Invaders
Huns; Goths; Barbarians
River of Rome
Tiber River
A land with different territories and people under a single rule
Weath of Kush
Traded with Egypt the took over Egypt and became trading power; rich because of iron and wood; Menroe the capital became the center of trading network
attacked in 1750 BC which started the Middle kingdom which was a time of disorder; Ahmose of Thebes declared himself kind and drove the Hyksos out; This began the new kingdom
Indian Caste System
1: Brahmanism or Priests 2: Kshatriyas or Rulers and Warriors 3: Vaisyans or Commoners, Farmers, Craftsmen, and Traders 4: Sudras or Laborers and Servants The caste system was family based and you could not move up a class
Parts of the Bible
Old Testament; New Testament
Athenian Tyrant
common people of Rome
Menes rose to power in upper Egypt and unified the two kingdoms by taking control of Lower Egypt and by marrying a Lower Egyptian Princess; 1st Pharaoh; 1st dynasty
Siddhartha Gautama
Young Prince "Enlightened one" developed Buddhism; he is buddah
Zhou Philosophy
Confucius: order in society comes from moral values or ethics; Daoism: Live in harmony with guiding force; Leigalism: society needs strict laws to keep people in line
Hellenistic Age
Alexander the Great started it; it means Greek-Like
Julius Caesar
Partnership with Pompey and Craissus; after 10 years Caesar is dictator; Brutus killed Caesar
Avenged Caesars death; became the 2nd sole ruler
A government in which only a few people held power. In Athens the Aristocrats held the oligarchy power
A Greek City-state; independent city-states; made for protection and security; started in Greek's dark age
Age Sparta began military training
Spartan Life
Dominated by military; kids started training at 7 were full time army at 30 and citizens, stayed in the army til 60; women had the most rights; ruled by 2 Kings and had Satraps
The Punic wars
3; fought against Carthage
1st Israelite king
Two parts of Egypt
Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
Jewish holidays
Hanukah; Pass over; High holy days (Rosh hashonah, Yom Kippur)
A part of the Persian army; composed of 10,000 soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill
On the Tigris and Euphrates river; means "Between the Rivers," in Greek; on the fertile crescent; Specialization- Potters, Weavers, and Metal Work; world's first advance society; city-states; strong armies; walled cities; Ziggurat; Upper class, Middle class, and lower class; Polytheistic; Social order (Kings, Priest, Skilled Craftspeople, farmers and laborers, Slaves); Men held political power; first system of writing; scribes; wheel and sewers; math and science; Babylon; Hittites and Kassites, Assyrians, Chaldeans (Hanging Gardens and astronomy; Ponenicians all attacked Mesopataimia
World's first democratic constitution; father of democracy
Savior of the Twins
She wolf
The worship of one God; Jews and Christians are monotheistic
Locations of the Indus River Valley
Located in present day Pakistan
A group of 10,000 men that were chosen for their skill and bravery
A long-lasting, Paper-like material made from reeds; Egyptians wrote Hieroglyphics on it with brushes and ink
Socrates student; created the school, the academy; wrote the Republic which is a book that he wrote about the ideal society
Sumerian Writing
Cuneiform; involved using a sharp tool called a stylus; represent syllables; wrote on clay tablets
Founders of Rome
Remus and Romulus
Delian League
Greece City-states of Athens and Sparta joined alliance with each other called this
New farming techniques
Grew plants and raised animals; Domestication- the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans; plants seeds; Irrigation (Mesopotamia), Canals (Mesopotamia)
Rise of the Persian Empire
Became and empire under Cyrus the Great; Won independence from Medes; People kept customs which kept people from rebelling

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