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Renaissance Reformation

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Henry VIII
catholic king of England who had daughters Elizabeht and Catherine. Created the Church of Engladn and played a mojor role in the English Reformation.
Anabaptists
individuals who sought radical change. Mostly were peaceful and called for religious toleration with separation of church and states. Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish all trace their ancestry back to the Anabaptists.
Reformation
looking for ways to shape society. Church reform and movements. Changing the Christian Church and emphasizing on the present. The message was to express the role of faith, to use different techniques to different groups of people to show the problems of the Catholic clergy, and more.
Index of Prohibited Books
list of works that were immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read. The books were by Calvin, Luther, and other humanists.
Indulgences
in the Roman Catholic Church pardoned for sins committed during a person's lifetime. The clergy sold indulgences and had many points of view.
John Calvin
priest who shared many of Luther's beliefs.
Erasmus
one of the most important scholars who wrote texts on a number of subjects. Used his knowledge of classical ideas and language to produce a Greek edition of the Bible. Helped spread Humanism to wider public. To him individual duties were to be open-minded.
Justification (Salvation) by Faith
the religions had many views on whether it should be achieved through faith, good works, or predetermined. Catholicism and Lutherism were determined through faith.
Charles V
holy Roman Empire after Pope Leo X. Declared Luther an outlaw.
Catholic Reformation
led by Pope Paul III and their goal was to renew the moral authority of the Church and to lessen the protestant ways. Another goal was to end corruption within the papacy. Their rulers were very strong.
Machiavelli
a writer who wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power. Urged rulers to use any methods to achieve their goals. Provided a realistic look at politics.
Protestantism
a religion practiced during the Reformation and follows the humanist ideas. They were a very strong organized group that lasted throughout time.
Puritans
a group of people who disagreed with the Church of England and worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms.
Peace of Augsburg
charles V in the 1530's and 40's forced Lutheran princes back into the Catholic Church. This was unsuccessful and in 1555 after a number of wars Charles and the princes reached an agreement. Signed in 1555 allowed each prince to decide which religion would be followed in his lands—Catholic or Lutheran.
Protestantism
the faith practice and church order of the Protestant churches. Art and other ways of believing.
Martin Luther
started the revolt and was a German monk and professor of theology. Prayed and fasted and overall led a holy life. Christian monk who strongly believed in morality and ethics, not just buying indulgences.
Presbyterians
a reformed group within the Western Civilization. A sect of Christianity.
Renaissance
rebirth. Occurred in North Italy. An expanded world and economic growth and wealth were present. Changes were made. A progression from agricultural society to urban.
Anglican Church
the church after the Church of England. It involved Queen Elizabeth.
Jesuits
society of Jesus. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola. Involved moral and spiritual discipline, training, and absolute obedience to the Church. Jesuits embarked on a crusade to defend Catholic faith. They became advisors to Catholic rulers, set up schools, went to Protestant lands in disguise to get the Catholics ministered and this belief spread to distant lands.
Predestination
idea that god had determined who would gain salvation.
Johann Gutenberg
printed the first complete edition of the Bible using a print press. Innovative and his ideas transformed Europe.
Inquisition
church courts set up during the Middle Ages. It used secret testimony and torture to find out heresy. Off an on for about 20 years. Reaffirmed traditional catholic views, declared salvation comes through faith and good deeds, determined that while the Bible was a major source of religious truth, it wasn't the only source, to provided penalty for corruption of the clergy, and established schools for a more educated clergy to challenge the Protestant teachings. This occurred in the Catholic Reformation.
Jan van Eyck
flemish painter who used vibrant colors to depict lively scenes of peasant life. He addressed religious and classical themes against a background of common people.
Council of Trent
a group of Catholic leaders during 1545-1663 to react to Protestant challenges and to guide the future of the Catholic Church.
Leonardo da Vinci
made sketches of nature and realism. Mona Lisa, The Last Supper. Had many talents. Studied the works of great masters and had his own style of Christian and classical paintings. In some of his paintings he included Michelangelo, Leonardo and himself.
Humanism
focused on education and classical culture as an intellectual way of thinking, human beings, their achievements interests and capabilities were noticed. Studied classics to understand human nature. Realized that they could very well disagree amongst each other. Learning had no boundaries. It continues on.
Queen Elizabeth
the daughter of Henry VIII and was left wt the responsibility to determine the future of the Church of England. She enforced many reforms and made compromises to satisfy everyone.
The 95 Themes
luther invented them and they were arguments against indulgences. He said that they had no basis in the Bible and that Christians can be saved only through faith. Copies were printed and distributed across Europe.
Michelangelo
sculptor, engineer, painter, architect and poet. Decorated the chapel of the Sistine chapel in Rome.

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