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AP History Test 2


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Great (Connecticut) Compromise
• Created by Rodger Sherman • Compromise between the Virginia Plan (big state plan) and New Jersey Plan (small state plan) • Created a bicameral legislature • In House of Representatives representation decided by the population of states and in the Senate each state gets one vote • Also says that monetary laws must start in the House and the president is to be elected by the Electoral College • They were creating a government of laws that would be enforced nationaly/ federaly not by state
Federalist Papers
• Written in New York by Hamilton, Madison and John Jay • 85 essays explaining the constitution and it's importance • #10 Madison, addreses the concern that large republics can't work, says that there is no way one group with in the government can grow big enough to overthrow and take control of the system, argues that a large republic is more stable that a small one
John Jay
responsible for Jay's Treaty; sent by Washington to make a treaty with GB to work out issues -treaty was divisive and he because a very hated political figure
Stamp Act
- 1765 initiated by Grenville a) A tax specifically aimed at raising revenue b) Broad-based tax, covering all legal documents and licenses c) A tax on goods produced in the colonies d) This created a crisis: i) Demonstrated that the colonies' tradition of self-taxation was being usurped ii) Led to the Stamp Act Crisis
Common Law
• The heart of the English legal system • Based on judicial decisions • Common law courts preformed trials with jusries usually made up of local men • Under common law sldiers could not fire on civilians without the order from a civil magistrate, the Boston Massacre broke common law
Poll tax
a tax based of people or population rather than property. Usually a fixed amount per adult
The Hartford Convention
a. New Englanders considered themselves victims of republican trade policies and their congressmen had originally voted against the war b. Federalists called a convention at Hartford in December 1814 i. wanted the "three- fifths" clause- thought it led to overrepresentation of the south in congress- and the electoral college taken out of the Constitution ii. wanted to deny naturalized citizens, who were republican, the right to hold office iii. wanted to make it harder for new states to join the union iv. required a 2/3 majority of both houses for a declaration of war c. when proposed to Washington, they were branded as unpatriotic
Maryland Constitution
adopted a variation of the VA constitution i) Chose state senators through an electoral college
Phillis Wheatley
• 18 year old African girl, arrived in Boston in 1761 and became the Wheatley slaves • they educated her and she began to write poetry and published her first poem in boston • visited London to celebrate a volume of her work bein gpublished there • when she returned she was emancipated • helped break sereotypes
a. Act of charging a public official with misconduct in office b. Virginia thought Jay's treaty was unconstitutional, but Washington told them that their request to remove the treaty would only be legitimate if the house impeached the proceedings
John Adams
Federalist 2nd President of US -greatest achievement was avoiding war with France during XYZ Affair -VP to George Washington - Founding father... one of the writers of the constitution
New Jersey Plan
William Patterson (wanted small states to be protected) i) Strengthening of the Confederation Congress (existing Congress) ii) Given power to levy taxes/ collect them iii) Gives power to levy and collect stamp tax iv) Each state will have one vote
Sons of Liberty
protest groups in response to the Stamp Act a) Especially seen in Boston, they would burn down houses i) Andrew Oliver- they burned his effigy, he was the stamp distributor in Boston ii) Governor Thomas Hutchinson- burned his mansion
Internal Taxes
• Taxes on land, people, specific items, legal documents, newspapers (ex: stamp act) • Most colonists, especially whigs, were against these taxes
Charles Cotesworh Pinckney
-represented South Carolina at the Constitutional Convention -sent to france to Sort out XYZ Afair
Non- Intercourse Act
a. Passed by congress in 1809 b. Retained the ban on trade wit Britain and France but reopened trade with other nations c. Gave Madison power to reopen trade with Britain or France once they agreed to respect American rights i. Neither gave in- completely ineffective
Edmund Randolph
• Proposed the Virgina Plan
Election of 1796
first contested presidential Election Washington not runny Federalist- John Adams wins Republicans- Jefferson vice president - the federalists get what they want, but Adams and Jefferson have completely different views
James Madison
(up to Federalist Era) • Drafted the "large state" Virginia Plan after doing a lot of research • Co-wrote the Federalist Papers, wrote #10 • Wanted to completely start over and write a new government plan • Republican
Philadelphia Convention
February 1787- Confederation Congress calls a meeting to revise the Articles of Confederation a) Called the Constitutional Convention- delegates from all states except Rhode Island i) Elect George Washington as President of convention ii) Delegates decide to keep proceedings secret because they knew some people did not support it and they wanted to keep enemies off balance b) QUESTION: how powerful of a central government can you have while retaining republicanism and liberty- created two different plans of government
Tea Act
- 1773 imposed by Lord North a) He tried to rescue the East India Company by enabling it to undersell smuggled Dutch tea i) This act repealed import duties on tea in England by retained the Townshend duty in the colonies ii) Gave it a monopoly on the shipping and distribution of tea in the colonies b) Patriots saw the tea act to destroy their liberties by seducing the settlers into accepting parliamentary sovereignty
Gaspee Incident
- 1772 a customs vessel called the Gaspee ran aground in Rhode Island while pursuing peaceful coastal ships a) After dark, men boarded the Gaspee - wounded it's captain and burned the ship i) This incident happened because the colonists were angry with one another for failing to appreciate how menacing British policy still was; the tea duty remained ii) This led to the creation of permanent committees of correspondence
George Washington
(up to Federalist Era) • Fought in the French and Indian War and lost the battle that he was in but was still welcomed back as a hero • Lead the army in the Revolutionary war, was made the commanding general at the Second Continental Congress • Won the Battle of Yorktown, the last battle of the war, didnt like to use the unreliable militia • A federalist in the sence that he wanted to modify or rewrite the Constituttion • Had slaves but manumitted them
Lord Frederic North
• Townshend's replacemenet as the chancellor of the exchequer (royal treasury)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
-VP Jefferson led the opposition to Alien and Sedition Acts - him and Madison drafted the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions -argued that the states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws
Virginia Constitution
June 1776; became the first state to adopt a permanent, republican constitution i) Legislature chose the governor, the governor's council and all judges ii) The governor had no veto and hardly any patronage iii) Lower house faced annual elections but the upper house served 4-year terms iv) George Mason- drafted declaration of rights that the VA delegates passed before constitution- people should define their rights before empowering the government, affirmed human equality (except slaves), condemned hereditary privilege, called for rotation in office, trial by jury and extolled religious liberty
Public Virtue
as it relates to the revolution means patriotism and the willingness of a free and independent people to subordinate their interests to the common good and even to die for their country
Unicameral legislatures
a legislature with only one chamber or house unicameral legislatures: Confederation Congress
Patrick Henry
• Member of the irginia House of Burgesses • Launched the first wave of resistence against the Stamp Act by introducing 5 resolution which once passed were printed in newspapers • Spoke out against slavery • One of two of Virginia's representative in the First Continental Congress
John Hancock
• Patriot an dmerchant from Massachusetts • His ship was seized for smuggling wine without paying the sugar tax on it • Arrested by Gage • President of the Second Continental Congress
Excise tax
a. Internal tax on goods or services b. Hamilton proposed the idea that to fund the national debt, they needed an excise tax on wines, coffee, tea and spirits—led to the Whiskey Rebellion
Proclamation Line of 1763
issued by the Privy Council a) Tried to prevent the colonists from encroaching upon Indian lands by prohibiting settlement west of the Appalachian watershed unless the government first purchased those lands by treaty b) It agitated colonial settlers who settled in this land; they regarded it as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs c) It was created in response to the colonial initial attacks such as the Seven Years War from 1754-63 and Pontiac's War d) Signaled an end to Britain's salutary neglect
Virginia Plan
Edmund Randolph proposed this plan while James Madison drafted it i) Sovereign bicameral legislature (states loose sovereignty) ii) Legislature selects executive and judiciary branches iii) Regulate tax and trade iv) Population would decide representation (small states = less power) (VA, PA, MA = big states)
Alien and Sedition Acts
without consulting President Adams, Federalist dominated congressed passed 4 laws - first 3 directed at immigrants -extended naturalization period from 5 to 14 years and empowered president to detain enemy aliens during wartime and to deport those he deemed dangerous to the United States -4th law Sedition Act - set jail terms and fines for persons who advocated disobedience to federal or who wrote, printed or spoke false malicious statements against the govt. of the US - Adams used Sedition act to prosecute 14 Republicans - Republicans said that it violated the first Amendment and that it gave the gov. powers not mentioned in the constitution
Henry Clay
a. Elected speaker of the house b. Represented war hawks c. Controlled debate, packed key committees, imposed order in congress d. Helped lead the US into war with GB in 1812
America and the Napoleonic Wars
a. In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte declared war on GB—dominated the national politics of the US b. America began to get involved because of trade c. Battle of Trafalgar- GB destroyed French and Spanish ships d. Battle of Austerlitz- Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia i. N's army dominated the land, GB controlled the seas e. GB made the Essex Decision- they could seize any American ships engaged in trade with France f. Congress passed a non- importation Act against GB g. N responded with the Berlin Decree h. GB answered with the order in council- demanded the neutral ships trading with Europe stop first for inspection and licensing in a British port i. N responded with the i. Impressments took place again i. Chesapeake affair- GB went on the American ship- Chesapeake- killed three and took 4 deserters ii. Jefferson responded by barring British ships from American ports and American territorial waters & ordered state governors to prepare to call 100,000 militiamen
• Pro constitution • Hamilton was a leading Federalist • They wanted to have 2 or more systems of government acting on the same group of people (America being lead by the bicameral government) • Based on the new idea that a strong government will protect the poeple liberties, not smuggle them
Marbury vs. Madison
a. 1803- case involving the disputed appointment of a federal justice of the peace in which John Marshall expanded the Supreme Court's authority to review legislation b. William Marbury was one of the justices who was eliminated by Jefferson c. He sued Madison (secretary of state) for the non delivery of his commission
John Marshall
a. (See Marshall court) b. Supreme court justice and Adam's secretary of state c. Presided over Marbury vs. Madison d. Instigated judicial review
Common Sense- January 1776
- January 1776 written by Thomas Paine a) Attacked the monarchy and aristocracy as decadent institutions and urged Americans to unite under a simple republican regime of their own i) Advocated colonial independence
(a treaty) a. Process of abolishing a treaty so that it is no longer in effect b. Washington abrogated treaties with the French when Britain and France went to war in 1793
Paxton Boys' Uprising
- December 1763 the Scots-Irish of Paxton Township, PA murdered 6 Christian Indians; later 14 more a) After Pontiac War, many frontiersmen began to assume that all Indians were enemies of all whites b) Benjamin Franklin and others met them when they were on their march at Germantown and persuaded them to go home c) Known as "Christian white Savages"
Causes of the War of 1812
a. Basically all above, but the Federalists decided the US should invade British Canada i. People started to think that Madison was planning a war of territorial aggression b. British determined to blockade the whole coast of the US and raid coastal town c. Both sides weren't capable of conquering the other d. 1 outcome: Americans wanted to destroy Indian resistance east of the Mississippi
Charles Townshend
• Created the hated Townshend Acts • Head of colonial policy in England
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773 a) Boston's Sons of Liberty threw 342 chests of East India company tea into the Boston harbor rather than allow them to be landed and pay the tea duty i) Did this in response to the Tea Act and also because they felt that Parliament once again taxed them without their consent b) They disguised themselves as Mowhawks- dumped 10,000 pounds worth of tea
The Development of policital parties
1790's Federalists Republicans Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson - disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson: they have 2 different visions of what the gov should do and how it should function. People in the government begin to gravitiate towards Hamilton or Jefferson
First Continental Congress
- September 1774 Philadelphia; in response to the Intolerable Acts a) All colonies except Georgia sent delegates to discuss their grievances b) Goals of the congress: i) Enumerate American grievances ii) Develop a strategy for addressing those grievances iii) Formulate a colonial position on the proper relationship between the royal government and the colonial government c) Came up with a list of grievances/ imposed a boycott on British goods until their grievances were addressed d) Agreed towns should set up committees of observation (Associations)- became the towns de facto government; enforced the boycott i) The creation of these groups was an important sign that Congress was beginning to act as a central government e) Congress also formulated a limited set of parameters within which it considered Parliamentary interference in colonial affairs justified i) This position represented a major break with British traditionalism and a major step towards independence ii) Created a new principle of no legislation without consent f) They petitioned the king rather than Parliament- patriots no longer recognized Parliament as a legitimate legislature for the colonies
James Madison
- Wrote the federalist papers with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay - leader of the First Congress under GW -4th President of the US -founding father of the constitution
Vice-Admiralty Courts
• Royal courts that dealt with the configurations of enemy ships in times of war, standard or routine naval disputes and when necessary tried cases • Did not have jury therefore cases tried by this court were controversal • They regulated British trade to the colonies and tried violators of he Navigation Acts
a. Person from another country who is living in the U.S. b. Under the Alien and Sedition acts, Hamilton empowered the president to detain enemy aliens during wartime and deport those who were deemed dangerous
Treaty of Paris
1783; ended the war and granted the US independence and generous territorial rights
Edmond Genet
French ambassador to the United States during the early 1790s, and conspired to reclaim Florida for France and Spain by recruiting Americans to enlist in combat against British forces. He eventually fell out of political favor with President Washington and was recalled, later claiming asylum in the United States and marrying a daughter of George Clinton.
Pontiac's War
- 1763-64 greatest Indian uprising against the British a) Indians disliked the British because of English expansionism-> disruptive, AND they raised the price of goods sold to the Indians and ceased paying rent on the western forts b) Brought together Senecas, Mingos, Delawares, Shawnees, Wandots, Miamis, Ottawas c) Attacked 13 British posts in the West -> all fell except Niagara, Fort Pitt and Detroit d) Colonel Henry Bouquet was ordered by Amherst to distribute smallpox infested blankets to the Indians e) 1764- British and provincial forces ended resistance and restored peace
George Greenville
• George III's prime minister • Felt that the colonists should help pay for the debt from the Seven Year's War • Under his rule of parliament the sugar, navigation, currency and stamp acts were put in place • After parliament repealed the stamp act George III replaced Greenville with Rockingham • Loathed by the colonists
XYZ Affair
After the signing of jays treaty France began seizing American ships on open seas, John adams sent a team to go settle the drama Under John Adams incident that precipitated an undeclared war with France when three French officials (identified as x,y,z) demanded that American emissaries sent to resolve issues pay a bribe before negotiating disputes between the two countries Led to anti French sentiment
The treaty of Ghent
a. After Britain's defeat of Napoleon, GB and America wanted to stop their war b. Simply ended the war i. Border of Canada remained the same, Indians south of the border were left to the mercy of the US, and British maritime violations weren't mentioned
Anti- Federalist
• Against the constitution • They thought that a central (not state) government would be too powerful, too aristocratic and too monarchial • Worried that there would be no protection for individual rights • Didn't believe that a large republic could work • Appaled by the absence of a bill of rights • Jefferson was a leading anti federalist
a legal writ ordering a person, usually a public official, to carry out a specific act. In Mass. 1774 the new royal councilors were appointed by a writ of mandamus
Separation of powers
the theory that a free government, esp in a republic should have 3 independent branches capable of checking or balancing one another: exec., legislative. (usually bicameral) and the judicial
Nonimportation Agreements
• Agreements, usually between colonies, not to import goods from Britain • Used to pressure England into repealing unpopular parliamentary acts (ex: stamp act)
Northwest Ordinance
of 1787; written by Thomas Jefferson a) Lays the path on how the land will become a territory and later a state i) 5,000 population- territory, gets a government and legislature ii) 60,000- write constitution and become a state b) All states had equal rights c) Also abolished slavery in NW territories d) Also contained a bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, freedom from excessive punishment (staude did NOT teach us this part) e) This ordinance is seen as a forerunner to the Bill of Rights
Abigail Adams
• Wrote to her husband John Adams telling him to "remember the ladies" • One of the first women's rights advocates
Shay's Rebellion
1786-87; a tax dispute in MA between Western farmers and Eastern elite bankers a) Farmers wanted to pay their taxes in paper money but the bankers said no because they only wanted to use coins- this led to a riot b) PROBLEM: the federal government cannot control the people in MA and the little army (1/3 of the rebels) were in Ohio protecting the border from the Indians c) Washington, Madison, Hamilton and others decided that they needed to revise Articles and create a stronger central government or America will fall apart d) 1787- Boston papers suggested in separating the 13 states
Whiskey Rebellion
(1794) - Hamilton proposes excise tax on whiskey saying if you buy or make whiskey you have to pay a tax - when tax collectors come to Pittsburgh there are riots and people refused to pay the tax Federalists -saw a test of Fed. Gov -if majority rules was still true - supported tax and GW militia Republicans -agree that tax is legit and should be collected but not by force
Drafting of the state constitutions
in 1776 agreed that every state needed a written constitution to limit the powers of government and moved towards expressions of popular sovereignty- the theory that all power must be derived from the people themselves
John Wilkes
• Radical oppositionist member of Parliament • Outlawed and imprisoned for publishing an attack on the king • Sparked the Wilkes Crisis and its followers Wilkites • They fought with British soldiers in England to have him re seated in Parliament • Sons of Liberty identified with him • Becasue of the Wilkes movement and the Townshend crisis colonists began to think about indapendance from England
Jay's Treaty
(1795)- treaty that John Jay wrote between American and GB - why? American was getting drawn into French/ British conflict because of trade Issues because of trade with British 1) impressments- stoppage of American merchant ships and taking of genuine American citizens as deserters of British Navy and made them serve on British naval ships 2) British had not evacuated forts in Great Lakes area - GW sends John Jay to make a treaty with Great Britain to work out issue and brings back treaty Federalists - support it b/c they have an affinity towards England Republicans -hate it and believe it a huge betrayal of the allegiance they have with France and believe Britain=enemy -openly criticize Washington - treaty eventually passes, but is a very divided vote
Currency Act
- 1764 initiated by Grenville a) In response to wartime protest of London merchants against VA's paper money b) Forbade colonies to issue any paper money as legal tender
Judicial review
a. Supreme court's power to rule on the constitutionality of congressional acts i. Under John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison
The Marshall Court
a. John Marshall= chief justice, federal b. Was the judge in Marbury vs. Madison i. Used the case to provide a number of rulings 1. convinced Republican moderates to repeal the judiciary act of 1801 2. laid the basis for the Supreme court's power of judicial review (power to rule on the constitutionality of congressional acts) c. Was secretary of state under Adams i. Helped end the undeclared war with France and expressed doubts about the alien and sedition acts d. Favored by the republicans and Federalists
External Tax
• Taxes based on oceanic trade such as port duties (ex: sugar act) • Not as controversial as internal taxes
Circuit courts
a. Court that meets at different places within a district b. Three circuit courts were established under the Judiciary Act of 1789
Roger Sherman
(not on the list but in our notes so I think we should know him) • Created the Great Compromise which saved the Constitutional Convention
Midnight Judges
a. Federal judicial officials appointed under the Judiciary Act of 1801, in the last days of John 's presidency
Macon's Bill number 12
a. Rescinded the ban on trade with France and Britain but authorized the president to reimpose it on either side if the other agreed to end its restrictions on the US trade i. French repealed the Berlin and Milan decrees and Madison warned British that they had 3 months to follow the French—they didn't 1. led to war hawks
Paul Revere
• Bostonian silver smith • Rode to Lexington (his goal was Concord but he was captured at Lexington) shouting "the British are coming!" to warn the people
Massachusetts Constitution
in response to MA Gov Act of Intolerable Acts in 1774, colonists prevented royal courts from sitting i) Provincial congress moved into the city and reestablished itself as the General Court under the royal charter of 1691 (1) New system lets towns choose reps in proportion to population (2) Also revived royal practice by appointing its own members as judges and justices of the peace (a) Caused western towns outrage- Berkshire refused to open courts (b) Insisted on contracts as the basis of authority in church and state ii) 1776- General Court asked towns to authorize it to draft a constitution- towns rejected it iii) Hampshire and Berkshire courts reopened after the war in April 1778, but Berkshire threaten to secede from the state unless the called a constitutional convention (1) Convention met in Boston in December 1779- John Adams drafted a constitution that was set as their basis to be ratified by the people (a) Began with a Bill of Rights, both houses elected annually (b) House of Reps elected by towns and Senators elected by counties and assigned according to property values not pop (c) All free adult males were eligible to vote (2) It was received by the 2/3 required vote and went into effect in 1780
Daniel Shays
• Lead Shay's Rebellion an uprising of farmers in w.Massachusetts in 1786-87, they were objecting to high taxes and foreclosures for unpaid debts, militia suppressed the rebels • The rebelion was the last straw of the crytical period, acted as a catalyst for the creation of a new government
a. A tax on imports b. Leadership of the first congress under James Madison, passed a tariff to act as the governments source of income
Provincial Congress
a type of convention elected by the colonists to organize resistance. They tended to be larger than the legal assemblies they displaced, and the played a major role in politicizing the countryside. As these congresses took hold, royal gov began to collapse in the colonies
Electoral college
the group that elects the president Each state receives as many electors as it has congressmen and senators combined and (the people) can decide how to choose its electors. Every elector votes for two candidates, one of whom has to be from another state Reasons for founding: gives the people an indirect vote because the people vote for the electors, common people didn't get to vote directly, general public didn't know enough about the candidates to vote directly, founding fathers did not completely trust the people and didn't think they could make an educated decision
Boston Massacre
- March 5, 1770 after the Townshend duties were repealed, the soldiers remained in Boston; took up employment off duty which led them to compete with colonists for jobs a) Numerous confrontations resulted between the soldiers and the colonists b) March 5- a mob threw snowballs at the soldiers, leading the soldiers to fire their guns into the crowd, killing five c) John Adams - defended the soldiers in court
Marquis de Lafayette
• A French volunteer who lead soldiers in the Revolutionary War
a. Military and political leader of the northwestern tribes that sided with the British in 1812 b. Came closer than any other native American leader to unifying Indian people against white territorial expansion c. Killed by Richard Johnson- a war hawk congressman
Sugar Act
- 1764 initiated by Grenville a) Cracked down on smuggling of molasses and placed duties on wine, coffee, sugar b) Greatest revenue -> molasses (3 pence duty)
a term used by Americans to describe the 17,000 mercenary troops hired by Britain from various German states, esp. Hesse. Aided Britain at Battle of Saratoga
Embargo Act
a. Jefferson asked congress to suspend all US trade with foreign countries and promoted "peaceful coercion" (Europe needed America, more than America needed Europe) i. Failed— British found other markets and encouraged smuggling ii. US ships left port to do a task, and would just go trade with GB b. Slowed commerce
Popular Sovereignty
the theory that all power must be derived from the people themselves 2)the concept that settlers of each territory would decide for themselves whether to allow slavery
Thomas Jefferson
a. Basically everywhere- was president in 1801 b. Led the republicans
• Metal money or coins, usually gold or silver, hard currency • Preferable to paper money because it was not subject to inflation in th esame way paper backed by the government is • Regulated and controlled by mercantalism
Jefferson and the federal courts
a. Distrusted the federal courts because they were dominated by federalists b. Increased distrust with the lame duck administration (see key terms) and the judiciary act of 1801 & resented the midnight judges (see key terms) c. Jefferson therefore replaced the new federal marshals and attorneys with republicans and dismissed some federal justices d. Abolished judges jobs in order to get rid of their jobs (since they were promised their job for life) e. 1802- he repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801
Alexander Hamilton
• -one of the writer's of the Federalist Papers • -Secretary of Treasury Under Washington o -Hamilton's Financial Plan • -the first emerging figure of the Federalist Party • favored a broad interpretation of the constitution
• A western Delaware Indian • Spread the idea that indian's should be independant from teh europeans and should preserve their native culture • He said that he had had a vision of God telling him all of this and that God was punishing them for accepting the European ways • Based on these ideas the Indians united as never before in Pontiac's War
Battle of Yorktown
October 19, 1781; last major engagement of the Revolutionary War a) Washington's army, two French armies and a French fleet trapped Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown and forced his army to surrender b) The Continental army had trouble recruiting good soldiers and eventually Congress recruited black soldiers, (up to 5,000)- in return most were granted their freedom c) Franco-American Alliance- 1778 devised by Ben Franklin brought the French into the war, they helped the US win the war d) This led Lord North to resign
Stamp Act Crisis
- 1765 in response to the Stamp Act a) James Otis- wrote a pamphlet called The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved- laid out the colonists argument against the taxes and became a bestseller of its day i) Put forward the idea of "No taxation without representation" ii) Because colonists did not elect members to Parliament, they were not obliged to pay taxes iii) He argued for representation in Parliament or a greater degree of self-government for the colonies b) The colonists wanted the right to determine their own taxes- Britain would not give that to them
Virtual Representation
• The english concept that the members of Parliament represent thet entire empire not just the area wherre the voters who chose the members are from • According to this idea the colonists were being represented in Parliament • "No taxation with out reresentation" is a response to this • The colonists did not feel represented, the root of their problems with England and the taxes they forced on the colonies
Declaration of Independence
- June 1776(July 4, 1776 published)- written by Thomas Jefferson a) Enumerates the colonies' grievances against the Crown b) Articulates the principle of individual liberty and the government's fundamental responsibility to serve the people c) Structure i) Part I: Statement of American political philosophy ii) Part II: Specific grievances d) They believed in Republicanism- self government i) People govern themselves through representatives e) 4 sources of thought/ models for republicanism (1) Antiquity- "virtue", Roman republic; power is the enemy of all republics (2) Enlightenment- Locke- natural rights (3) Puritanism- they were God's chosen people; "Exceptionalism", "City upon a hill"; believed it was America's destiny to be the first free working republic (4) "Commonwealthemen"- 17/18 century England; believed that you could have a place ruled without a king (a) James Harrington- father of commonwealthmen (b) Properfied men- vested interest in seeing the state survival f) Protect the rights of people, their natural rights, and it is the states responsibility and duty to protect them, and if they don't, the people have the power to overturn that government and replace it with a new one
Thomas Paine
• English printer • Hated the monarchy, saw the king as "the Pharaoh of England" • Wrote a pamphelet called Common Sense to convince the middle colonies that english government was bad and that the colonies should unite under one republic
French intervention in the Revolutionary War
May 1776, Louis XVI authorized a secret aid to the Americans a) Without this aid, they could not have continued the war i) The French smuggled supplies through Britain's weak blockade b) Franklin and Vergennes signed 2 treaties in 1778 i) Commercial agreement- granted Americans generous trading terms with France ii) France made a perpetual alliance with the US, recognized American independence, agreed to fight until Britain conceded, and disavowed all territorial ambition on the North American continent c) Caused Lord North to concede to everything but their independence- was rejected d) Caused George III to declare war on France and ordered General Clinton, new general, to abandon Philadelphia
Jefferson's view on government
a. Americans were a free people with no need for a national state built on European models b. People should be blessed with isolation, resources, and liberty; given by a "wise and frugal government" c. People were free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and were protected by the Bill of Rights d. Wanted a smaller government that would pay its debts without creating new ones, ending all need for taxation e. Wanted a disciplined militia instead of a standing army- made substantial cuts in military f. Believed in simplicity, only rode horseback, wore casual clothing, never had banquets- only small dinners, didn't wear a wig at dinner
Battle of Saratoga
- September 1777 Lt. Burgoyne vs. Horatio Gates a) Major turning point in the Revolutionary War b) American forces prevented John Burgoyne's army from reaching Albany, cut off its retreat and forced it to surrender c) This victory helped bring France into the war
Thomas Jefferson
(up to Federalist Era) • From Virginia • Wrote the Declaration of Independence • Wrote "The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms" which justified the colonists hostilities • As governor during the war he called apon militia to fight
a type of warfare in which an effort is made to exhaust he manpower, supplies, and mrale of the other side. GW used a strategy of attrition against Britain
Alexander Hamilton
(up to Federalist Era) • Liked the idea that members of the senate and executive branch would serve for life but never formaly proposed that plan • Co-wrote the Federalist Papers • Leading Federalist who would become Secretary of Treasury
Benjamin Franklin
• "We either hang together or apart" he said about the colonies after they had written the declaration • Colonist who typified the Enlightenment ideals in America • Wrote Poor Richards Almanack a popular and influential work • Pioneering work in electricity • Invented bifocals, the lightning rod, the Franklin stove, and founded the colonies first public library and fire department • Served as ambassador in Europe where he negociated crucial alliances with the French and the peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War • Developed the Albany Plan of Union ( at the Albany congress) which was a plan for an intercolonial gorvernment that would collect taxes for the colonies defense , but this attempt to unite the colonies failed • Drew the "join or die" cartoon of a broken snake to show hoe important unity is • Brought the French into the Revolution on their side by negociating the Franco-American Alliance • Worked with the Quakers to try and get freedom for slaves
Thomas Gage
• English general stationed in New York • Requested the Quartering Act • Offered freedom to slaves who fought for England • Made Governor of Massachusetts but his power was later limited to just the Boston area • Closed Massachusetts port but other colonies smuggled goods in to help Boston survive • Lead the british army at the Battle of Lexington
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
- 1774 passed by British Parliament a) Boston Port Act- closed the port of Boston until Bostonians paid for the tea b) Quartering Act-(new), allowed the army to quarter soldiers among civilians if necessary c) Administration of Justice Act- permitted a British solder or official who was charged with a crime while carrying out his duties to be tried either in another colony or in England d) Massachusetts Government Act Stamp Act Congress- overturned the MA Charter of 1691, made the council appointive, and restricted town meetings i) Made MA like other royal colonies ii) The king appointed General Gage as the governor (he was already the commander of the British army in America) e) Also passed another law that was unrelated to the Intolerable Acts i) Quebec Act- established French civil law and the Roman Catholic Church in the Province of Quebec, provided trial by jury in criminal by not civil cases, gave legislative but not taxing power to a governor and council, and extended administrative boundaries of Quebec to the area between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River f) These 5 acts led the colonists to create the first continental congress to discuss their grievances
Sovereign power
a term used to describe supreme or final power
King George III
• King after the 7 Years War • Repealed the stamp duties • Refused to "accept the olive branch" from the moderates of the revolution thus stregthening the radicals, full on war resulted • Declared war on France • Divided England with his obsession with winning the war
Committees of correspondence
in the 1770's bodies formed on both the local and colonial levels that played an important role in exchanging ideas and information. Spread primarily anti-British material and were an import
Election of 1800
a. The south voted for Jefferson; New England voted for Adams i. Was decided by PA and NY—Jefferson won with his running mate Aaron Burr b. Federalists couldn't stand voting for Jefferson so they compromised by turning in blank ballots
in England, a meeting usually of the houses of Parliament to address an emergency In America- by 1780's had become the purest expession of the popular will, superior to the legislature as in the convention that drafted the Mass. Constitution of 1780 Constitutional Convention- summer 1787 Philedelphia delegates from all states except rhod island in order to revise the Articles of Confederation GW was president of Convention Main question of convention: Can you have a large powerful central gov. while simultaneously maintaining republicanism and liberty?
a. A farmer who owned his own farm b. Jefferson, in the embargo, thought that our Yeoman republic could survive without European goods
Pinckney's Treaty
( 1795)- treaty b/t American and Spain which allowed America to use Mississippi River and to use New Orleans as a port w/out playing fees Free use of commerce of the Mississippi -Both Federalists and Republicans agree and support the treaty -Federalists use support of Pinckney's to gain Republican support for Jay's Treaty -least divisive issue of the 1790's
Pennsylvania Constitution
June 1776; radicals overthrew the Crown, proprietor and assembly and elected artisans to office in Philadelphia- drafted a new constitution i) Summoned a special convention to write it (1) It established a unicameral assembly and a plural of 12 men, one presiding as the president (2) All free men who paid taxes could vote (3) Elections were annual, secret ballot, legislative sessions open to the public, no representative could serve for more than 4 years (4) All bills published before passage for public discussion throughout state (5) "Council of Censors"- meet every 7 years to determine whether the constitution had been violated; also recommended amendments ii) During the war, the convention that drafted the constitution also began to pass laws; this caused outrage and many residents condemned the new constitution illegitimate (1) Radicals- "Constitutionalists" imposed oaths on all citizens obliging them to uphold the constitution- gave radicals majority in legislature in 1780's (2) "Anticonstitutionalists"(aka Republicans) won majority in assembly after war emergency passed and secured ratification of the federal constitution (a) 1790- replaced the state's radical constitution with a new one that made legislature bicameral and added a popularly elected governor
a skilled laborer who works with his hands. In early America often owned their own shops and produced good either for general sale or for special order
Lame- duck administration
a. Period of time between an incumbent party's or office holder's loss of an election and the succession to office of the winning party or candidate i. Passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 1. assured long term federalist domination of the federal courts 2. reduced the number of associate justices of the supreme court from 6 to 5—Jefferson couldn't appoint a new member 3. took supreme court justices off circuit and created a system of circuit courts, which benefited the dams and the Federalists
John Jay
• Co-wrote the Federalist Papers • Negotiated with John Adams in Paris with the British • Foreign Secretary in 1786, tried to negotiate with Spain but could not create a treaty that satisfied the North and South
Lexington and Concord
- April 19, 1775 the first military engagement of the Revolutionary War when British soldiers fired into a much smaller body of minutemen on Lexington green a) Prior to the event: English dispatched troops to confiscate weapons in Concord, MA in April 1775 i) Troops first passed through Lexington where they confronted minutemen (small colonial militia) ii) Battle of Lexington- when a minutemen fired a shot, which drew British to fire back b) Troops proceed to Concord where a much larger contingent of minutemen waited i) The minutemen held off the British soldiers and forced them to retreat c) After the battles, this caused for the Second Continental Congress to meet
The Regulator Movement
In South Carolina, a movement where the more respectable settlers organized themselves as "regulators" to impose order in the absence of any organized government a) This action was sparked by the heavy immigration from Europe that created social tensions with the backcountry b) In South Carolina: i) New comers in South Carolina provoked the Cherokee War of 1759-61 (1) After this war, many outlaws went through the countryside plundering farms and raping women ii) These regulators: (1) Chased outlaws out of the colony (2) They forced discipline on the "commoners" (like whippings and forced labor), which outraged the people (a) These people organized as "moderators" and got their commissions from the governor iii) The moderators and regulators confronted each other at Saluda River in 1769- this civil war was stopped because... (1) According to the governor, South Carolina would finally bring government to the backcountry by providing a circuit court system for the entire colony c) In North Carolina: i) Backcountry's problem was corruption, not government (1) Immigrants felt that the rich men were the powerful ones (a) County officials were appointed by the governor, which meant that you needed access to his circle to climb the social latter (2) 1768- regulators refused to pay taxes in Orange County (a) Governor William Tryon mustered militiamen who outlawed the regulators, but the regulators came back in 1769 and won 6 seats on the assembly (i) They called for the secret ballot, fixed salaries for justices and officials and a land tax rather than a poll tax
Colonial Resistance to Townshend Duties
strongest reaction to a tax a) Massachusetts Assembly- sent a letter to all other assemblies asking that they protest the new measures in unison b) Governors dissolved the legislatures over the matter which further infuriated the colonists c) Held rallies and boycotts -> sought for the support of "commoners" (before it had been the aristocrats leading the protests), this made the rallies larger and more intimidating i) Boycotts = most successful because affected British merchants who then joined the protest d) Colonial WOMEN essential in the effort to replace British imports with "American" products
Berlin Decree
a. Issued by Napoleon- outlawed all trade with the British isles
Stay Laws
a law that delays or postpones something during the 1780's many states passed stay laws to delay the due date on debts because of the serious economic problems of the times ( 1784 British merchants flooded American Markets with exports that American's could not pay for)
John Adams
(up to Federalist Era) • Radical patriot lawyer • Believed that every person should have a fair trail even the slodiers who had fired in the Boston Massacre • Drafted a constitution which was used as the stating point by the convention fo rthe later final document • Negociated secretly with in Paris with the British about peace and won British recognition of the Mississippi as thee western border of the new republic • Prompted Congress into making George Washington commanter general
Andrew Jackson
a. Led the Tennessee militia- attacked the red sticks (a group of united Indians) and broke the military power of the Indian people east of the MI river b. Led the Battle of New Orleans- killed/wounded 2000 British soldiers, while America only had 70 casualties
Thomas Hutchinson
• English lutenent and governor of Boston • Thought to have been responsable for the stamp act and therefore Bostonians rioted at his mansion • He refused to grant the tea ships, that were standed in Boston Harbor because of the Townshend duties, passage home, this caused the Boston tea party
a. Process by which people born in a foreign country are granted full citizenship with all of its rights b. Hamilton extended the naturalization period from 5 to 14 years in the Alien and Sedition Acts, without consulting president Adams
a. Removal of sailors from American ships by British naval officers b. John Jay's treaty made no mention of impressments or other violations of American maritime rights
Thomas Pinckney
- responsible for Pinckney's Treaty 1795
Washington's Farewell address
warned against long-term entangling alliances with other countries -said that America should stay free to operate on its own in international affairs - warned against political divisions - called for national unity and an end to partisanship
Declaratory Act
repealed Stamp Act in 1766 under George III a) Replaced Grenville with Lord Rockingham b) Rockingham issue the Declaratory Act of 1766 i) Asserted British government's right to tax and legislate in all cases anywhere in the colonies ii) This meant that although the colonists won the battle over the stamp act, they had not gained any ground in power over Parliament
Thomas Jefferson
- main Republican - believed in a strict interpretation of constitution - 3rd pres. Of the US -believed that Britian should be the enemy - tied with Aaron Burr in 1800 for Presidents - endorsed by Hamilton over Burr -his election was arguably the most imp. in American history -peaceful transition of parties( from fed. To dem republic), federalists completely voted out of power - wanted to erase all traces of Federalism form the govt and return to pure and simple republicanism -reduced army and size of diplomatic corps - believed in a small fed. Gov that monitors commerce and foreign affairs and oversees a small army
Quartering Act
- 1765 requested by Thomas Gage, initiated by Grenville a) Quarter soldiers in public buildings
Second Continental Congress
May 1775 in Philadelphia (weeks after the Battles of Lexington and Concord) a) Organized the continental army i) Appointed George Washington commander in-chief b) Pursued policies of military resistance and conciliation with the Crown i) "The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms"- Thomas Jefferson; set forth the grievances of the colonies and justified their armed resistance (1) George III rebelled and denied all of these documents c) Congress assumed royal rather than parliamentary powers- parliamentary powers were taken over by individual colonies instead i) Congress took command of the Continental Army, printed paper money, opened diplomatic relations with Indian nations, took over the royal post office and decided which government was legitimate in individual colonies
Aaron Burr
a. Vice president under Thomas Jefferson b. Killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel and eventually hatched schemes to detach part of the west from the US
Bill of Rights
• Added to the Constitution in 1791 • Helped placate the ant-federalists • Introduced by Madison to the United States Congress • They protected the people's rights
Stamp Act Congress
- October 1765 Stamp Act Congress met, (9 colonies attended), in NY a) Condemned the Stamp and Sugar Act but it remained loyal to Britain b) Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766 c) Patrick Henry- put forth 5 resolutions, from VA, d) Nonimportation agreements
War Hawk Congress
a. Members of the twelfth congress, most young nationalists from southern and western areas, who promoted war with Britain b. Won control of congress under Henry Clay—elected speaker of the house c. Madison sent war message to congress—first declared war under the constitution d. Presented a list of British crimes i. Enforcement of the orders in council, impressemnt of American seamen, use of spies, wielding a malicious influence over the Indians e. Congress declared war on June 18 f. War hawks strengthened the US army, but left the navy weak g. Led into the war of 1812
Olive Branch Petition
to George III on July 5, 1775; affirmed the colonists' loyalty to the Crown, did not mention "rights", and implored the king to take the initiative in devising a reconciliation
people in the colonies that remained loyal to Britain during the revolution, most were in the south
3/5 Compromise
a method for counting slaves among populations of Southern states, even though they would not be considered citizens a) In the constitution, the larger the state, the more representation AND taxation b) Each slave counted for 3/5 of a person
Washington's crossing of the Delaware
- December 25, 1776 Washington and the New Jersey militia crossed Delaware and marched south, surprising the Trenton garrison a) Washington went against General Howe- won major victories in NY and NJ in 1776, but Washington regained control of NJ after Trenton-Princeton campaign; he took Philadelphia in Sep 1777 but was recalled in disgrace after Britain's northern army surrendered at Saratoga b) The Hessians- German-hired soldiers the British paid surrendered at the Trenton garrison- had a huge impact on the war c) Battle of Princeton- a battle which amounted to a series of sharp clashes in which the Americans mauled yet another garrison d) The Trenton garrison and Battle of Princeton victory had a huge impact on the war i) Because of this the British and Hessians eventually had lost the hearts and minds of the American people who at first were willing to comply with their demands
Sam Adams
• Arrested with John Hancock by Gage • Patriot and polotician
Townshend Duties
Townshend took control of colonial policy in 1767 and created various pieces of legislature a) Townshend Revenue Act- 1767; imposed duties on tea, paper, glass, lead, painter's colors b) Led to imperial crisis of 1676-1770; 1770- Parliament repealed all the taxes except the one on tea i) Main goal: to use the new revenues to pay the salaries of governors and judges in the colonies (1) This meant that the colonial assemblies could no longer withhold government officials' wages in order to get their way c) Also created vice-admiralty courts/ several new government offices to enforce the Crown's will in the colonies d) Suspended the New York legislature because it had refused to comply with a law requiring the colonists to supply British troops e) Instituted writs of assistance- licenses that gave the British the power to search any place they suspected of hiding smuggled goods
Milan Decree
a. any vessel that obeyed the British decrees was subject to seizure by France i. Basically all American commerce with Europe was outlawed
Articles of Confederation
1781; set up government a) Defined US as a Confederation of 13 sovereign states b) Central government- Confederation Congress (Continental Congress) i) Unicameral (just Congress)- legislature ii) No executive or judicial branch iii) Each state had one vote (1) Creates a weak central government because they feared a strong central government would be that of the same of England (2) This weakness allowed states to retain sovereignty; congress does not have the power to collect taxes or regulate trade (a) Amendments to the articles required the unanimous consent of all the states c) During wartime, the government tried to finance the war by printing more money which led to inflation; could not impose tariffs when the British denied the colonies access to West Indian markets and therefore led to economic sectionalism- a major conflict that eventually led to civil war d) Greatest successes of the confederation congress- policies with western lands such as the land ordinances of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 e) Shay's Rebellion led many to propose the idea of a stronger federal government and to revise the Articles
Elbridge Gerry
a. When Adams realized he needed to protect American commerce from a war with France and Jay's treaty, he sent a mission to France (which include Elbridge Gerry- of MA) b. Went to France where he was ignored until X, Y & Z (of the XYZ affair) hinted that they would only receive them if they bribed the French government—he refused
George Washington
First President of the US -veteran of French and Indian War - named commander in chief of the continental Army by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 -unanimously chosen by the electoral college - was very nervous about being President - important because he had to make smart decisions or else America might have collapsed - very anxious and self doubtful about becoming President - had a very big reputation because of the winning of the war -choses president of Philidephia Convention 1787 -served as President for 2 terms

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