This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Greek Mythology Section III

Section 3 of Greek Mythology
Characters
Stories
Plays
Details and definitions

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
How does Laius die?
Oedipus kills him (not knowing he is his father) when Laius would not yield on the road
What does Deus ex machina mean?
god from a machine -help from supernatural assistance
Argus
Builds Jason a ship (The Argo) and says that Jason must be the leader (Not Heracles)
What does the first shepherd do with baby Oedipus?
He gives Oedipus to another shepherd and his wife (Polybus and Menope) who raise him as thier own and don't tell Oedipus that they are not his natural parents
How does Acrisius die?
He is accidentally killed by a discus while he was visiting his father
Binary Opposition examples:
To divide between two opposites: 1/2 man and 1/2 horse = centaur
What happens when Perseus goes to Atlas' house?
He is turned away because of the prophecy that Zeus' son would steal his golden apples -Perseus uses Medusas head to turn Atlas to stone --He becomes Mt. Atlas
What are the Cadmus' five strongest men called?
The Spartoi or the Sown men (Important b/c THebians claim they are the descendants of them-- NOTHING to do with Sparta)
Sophocle's play: Antigone
-Creon tries to put the citie before his own feelings, won't bury Polyneices -Antigone somewhat buried body -Creon upset but lets it go -Antigone does it a second time (finishing job) and is caught
Phaedra
The wife of Theseus -- She is in love with Hippolytus (Theseus' son), but he does not love her --She is angry by this and tells Theseus that he was coming on to her (Makes a fake not from Hippolytus) and she hangs herself --Theseus is very upset and he wants to use 3 wishes against son (Troezan ends up getting killed) --Theseus dies in exile on Island of Scyros
Story of Salmacis and Hermaphrodites
Salamicis, a nymph has an unrequited love for Hermaphrodites, a handsome hunter -She prays they can become one, hence hermaphodites
Heracles (The glory of Hera) and also called Hercules
-not musically inclined (kills lyre teacher) -Tended sheep to learn to control temper at Thebes, where he helps the king -Marries Megara (The king;s daughter)
What does the king, Creon (different Creon, the king of Corinth instead), do?
He tells Jason to divorce Medea and become the wife of his daughter so that he can be king
Oedipus at Colonus is about:
his sons (Polyneices and Eteicles) fighting over Thebes --Oedipus will not help either and curses both
Culchis
The place where the golden fleece is
Heracles' first conception:
Zeus disguises as Alemene's husband (Amphitron) so he can sleep with her --Eventually Zeus' identity is revealed -Almene gives birth to two kids; Heracles is Zeus' child
Greek belief that inspired the Dionysus play
"Nothing in excess" -- Their needs to be a balance between the rational and irrational (orgiastic- emphasizes feeling over reasoning)
What advise does Athena give Cadmus?
Cadmus must put the dragons teeth into the ground-- group of men are born from the teeth (They fight and kill each other until only the five strongest are left
Heracles labors to achieve glory
learns throught the three fates that he has to: 1)strangle a lion and take pelt (where leo the zodiac sign comes from) 2) must kill the Hydra (Hydra's blood is poisonous-- cuts many heads off and uses the poison to dip his sword in)
What does Hera do to Semele?
Hera is jealous of Semele so she disguises as Semele's old nurse Beroe --Convinces Semele that to prove Zeus is a god she should ask him to show her all all of his fire bolts-- killed by them --Zeus was able to save their child
Sophoclean/Ordramatic Irony:
When someone says something and is not fully aware of the situation but the audeience is
What does the play of Antigone teach us?
That the laws made by kings should conform to the unwritten laws of the gods - Conscience first
The son of Laius and Jocaste is:
Oedipus- Who is abandoned by his parents (Laius=Jocaste) at Mt. Cithaeron with his feet bored through and tied (Oedipus means swollen feet) until a shepherd finds him
When they open the cave, how do they find Antigone?
She hung herself
Burlesque:
Making fun of
Niobe:
Refuses to take part in the Leto festival so Apollo shoots her fourteen kids, she wept and turned into a weeping rock
Oracle tells Cadmus:
to follow a cow and when it lies down, rest and build a city-- must sacrifice the cow-- send companions to spring to get water
King Aeetes says to Jason when asked for the golden fleece:
that he can have the fleece if he: plows a field with fire breathing cows and then plant dragon teeth (the dragon is guarding the golden fleece) and then he must fight the men that grow from the dragon's teeth (after the teeth were planted)
Story of Minyades/Minyas
women refuse to worship Dionysus --He turns them into bats
Who is Pentheus?
He is the son of Agave and Cadmus' grandson --Cadmus gives him his kingdom
What does Cadmus find at the spring (when he searches for his men)?
A dragon that he must fight and kill
Andromeda
Perseus finds her chained to a rock and they fall "madly in love" with eachother and Perseus asks permission to marry her, which is granted of course once he saves her
What does Aeetes do after Jason completed the tasks?
He will not give Jason the golden fleece (Jason decides to use sleeping potion on dragon and steals the fleece, and takes Medea with him)
Nisus:
the king of Maegara- has purple hair which gives him political power
What does Dionysus do when he finds out that Pentheus does not believe he is a god?
he convinces Pentheus (while in a disguise) to spy on the false wrshippers --tells him to climb a tree --gives the woman unnatural strength and tells them to attack him --The woman brutally murder Pentheus (including his mother and sister- who are out of thier senses until Cadmus brings them back to thier senses)
What does Jason do on Circe's Island?
(Medea is Circe's neice) so she helps them get rid of their "blood pollution" but will not help them further
Asrisius
told by oracles that he won't have a son and his daughter's son will kill him -He locks up his daughter, Danaie, so she can't get pregnant -Zeus impregnates her and she has two sons (Perseus and Acrisius--Acrisius ends up dying) --To save them she puts them a bronze chest and floats them out to sea
What happens to Jason in Cyzicus?
The king of Cyzicus and his wife (Cyzicus=Cleite) become friends with Jason when he visits -Jason leaves but a storm blows them back to Cyzicus -Cyzicus thinks they are invaders and they attack each other -Jason accidentally kills the king and Cleite commits suicide
How Minos dies:
Cocalus offers to have his daughter give him a bath --They scold him to death
Hippomenes
prays to Apphrodite to win race -given three golden apples and told to throw then down when Atlanta is near becasue she won't be able to resist the temptation to pick them up --Hippomenes wins the race and then marries Atlanta (maybe she let him win b/c she wanted to marry him --who knows)
Story of Medusa and Poseidon:
Poseidon wants to make love with Medusa in a temple --which angers Athena and she turns Medusa into a horrible monster (hair of snakes and eyes that turn you into stone)
Heracles at Mt. Oeta
Heracles goes to Mt. Oeta to die and gives bow and arrow to Philoctetes --the funeral pyre burns away his mortality and he is able to join the gods on Mt. Olympus
Who answers the riddle?
Oedipus answers the riddle and gets to rule Thebes and marry Jocaste (not knowing that she is really his mom)
What ends up happening to Medusa's head?
Perseus places head on sea weed and it becomes coral
What kind of leader is Jason?
he is different than most heros, and more like the every-day man
Sinis (Pitycamptes/Pine bender)
Theseus kills him after they compete (gives him a taste of his own medicine too)
Cepheus=Cassiopeia:
Cassiopeia said she (or her daughter?) was more beautiful then the nymphs -- they punish her for saying this with a flood and a sea monster --The king is desperate and told that in order to get rid of the sea monster he must sacrifice daughter (Andromeda tied to a rock) --Cassiopeia is turned into an upsided down constellation as punishment
Euhemerism definition:
The theory held by Euhemerus that the gods of Mythology were but deified mortals; hence, the interpretation of myths as traditional accounts of historical personages and events
What is the idea of the Callimachus?
"A big book is a big evil" --away from the long epic stories
Story of the woman of Lemnos
-They failed to worship Aphrodite so she inflicts the woman with B.O. --Husbands leave their wives for slave girls which makes the woman so angry that they kill their husbands (Known as the crime of the Lemnon woman) -Instead of hiding this from Jason and his men, the women become the Argonaut's lovers to repopulate Lemnos -Hypsicle has Jason's Son
Dionysus' cult:
Called the Viticulture- growing grapes, Dionysus is the god of wine and the liquid principle of life and the sap in plants = the basis of his cult
What does Oedipus do when he finds out the truth?
He destroys his eyes with Jocaste's brooch and then goes into exhile
Thespis
where we get the word thespian --comedies and tragedies
Queen of Lemnos is_________
Hypsipyle
What does Pentheus find out when he comes back?
He finds out that the woman go out and worship Dionysus --Cadmus joins in the worshipping but Pentheus refuses to
Why does Thebes have a plague?
Oedipus sends Creon to see the oracle and finds out that the plague was caused by the murder of Laius (Who is still out there somewhere-- Oedipus)
Oedipus Rex (play)
play by Sophacles, about the struggle of Oedipus avoiding his destiny
Perdix
Daedalus is jealous of the boy and tries to kill him --before he dies Minerva turns him into a partridge
Why does a ship come from Colecus to see Jason?
He will take Medea back to her father if Jason and Medea don't get married -They get married and have the protection of Arete=Alcious (parents of Nausica in the Odyssey)
Europa=Zeus have three sons Story of Minos:
Poseidon sends a mull of out of sea and chooses Minos as king --Minos is supposed to sacrifice the bull but doesn't --Poseidon punishes him by making his wife, Pasiphae', fall in love with bull
Ino and Phrixus
Ino is jealous of Phrixus (Phrixus is Athamus' daughter from his previous marriage with Nephele -- He is now married to Ino) because he prevents her sons from taking the throne --Pays prophets to sacrifice her stepchildren --Nephele finds out and sends her children on a ram with golden fleece (Helle falls off of ram and drowns) but Phrixus makes it to Aceles and the King (Colenis) takes care of him, sacrifices and sheers teh golden lamb --Athamus goes insane and Ino jumps of a cliff and their children die
Argonauts
sailors of ship
anagnoreisis:
recognition scene
Who is Semele?
Another one of Zeus' lovers and she becomes pregnant
Why is Ares angry?
The dragon was the son of Ares-- Angry that Cadmus kills it-- fills his life with difficulties as revenge
War in Maegara:
Minos makes war in Maegara to gain captives to feed to the minotaur
Phineus' prophecy:
When Jason gets to Sympegades (the clashing rocks) they should send a dove through Sympegades and take it as an omen -They do this and the dove only loses a few tail feathers -They go through and Athena shoves throught to safety --they only lose the stern ornament... phew
What does Jason do for his father Aeson?
He ases Medea to make him younger -she rejuvinates him
Meleagar
When he was born the three fates came to his mother and gave her a log. -they said that as long as the log was ok, he would live -his mother hid the log --Later his mom takes vengeance against him and throws the log in the fire, and then she stabs herself in the heart
Euripede's play: Suppliants
about the sisters trying to bury the bodies (only buries Eteicles)
What happens when Medusa's head is cut off by Perseus?
Three kids come out of her head, one of them Pegasus
Perseus' tasks
Perseus is given tasks by Polydectes (in hopes that he would die during them) Task: He must cut of Medusa's head to win horse --Athena gives him a shield, and Hermes gives him sword to defeat Medusa
What does Apsyrtus try do?
He goes to retrieve the golden fleece and Medea -When he is about to catch up with the argonauts Medea has a plan (Tells Jason to send message to Apsyrtus that he will meet on an Island for negotiations but they kill him instead)
What is Euripide's version of the story between Creon and Jason?
-Jason divorces his wife -Creon tries to send Media and her children away but she tricks him into allowing her to stay one more day --She gives Jason a wedding gift for his wife (a poison covered robe and crown) and she melts to death and when Creon tries to help his daught he dies as well --she kills her sons and flees the country with the help of Helios (her grandfather)
Who does Cadmus marry (what happens to them)?
Harmonia-- Cadmus gives her a beautiful necklace (That gives the possessor of it difficulty) --locked in treasury house of Thebes- found out at the end of his life that the dragon was the cause of all his troubles --Cadmus and Harmonia ask to be turned into serpents
Why did Dionysus return to Thebes?
He wanted to prove that he really was Zeus' baby (Semele wasn't lying)
Eurydice
Orpheus' bride who was taken to the underworld -Orpheus goes to the underworld to get her back (He uses his lyre to keep the underworld guard dog at bay -Styx gives him permission to take his wife as long as he does not look back until he is out of there --he fails this and she is stuck there forever
Dictys
finds the bronze chest containing Perseus and brings him to his brother Polydectes (Polydectes is afraid of his kingdom being take from him)
How is the Minotaur killed?
Theseus kills the minotaur by tying a string to himself and going to the center of the labyrinth -Athenians safe
Eponym
person after whom something is named (Ex: Europe after the goddess Europa)
Procrustes (Crusher)
Crushed and chopped guests who couldn't fit on bed --Theseus kills him (gives him a taste of his own medicine also)
Dionysus Zagrus
Zeus planned on leaving his kingdom to him but the Titans were jealous and they kill all of him but his heart--Athena saves his heart (Another story/way of how he was twice born) Represents the good and bad side of humans (Dionysus-good, Titans-bad)
Seyla
Nisus' daughter who falls in love with Minos -She cuts her father's hair -Minos does not take her with him
When Jason gets to Culchis...
Jason asks for advice on how they should get the golden fleece -decide to use peaceful means -Jason visites with king Aeetes and asks if he could have the fleece
What happens to Jason on Talos Island?
-A monster is guarding the island -Media has a plan (they must allign the ship with the monster so she can give it the "evil eye" --monster scrapes ankle and dies)
What does Echion do for Cadmus?
She convinces the five spartoi to help Cadmus found Thebes-- Cadmea becomes the fortress
Hero=Leander
Meet at a festival and lived in opposite sides of the Hellesphont strait --Leander said he would swim across to her every night --hero lights lamp for him every night --one night a storm blows out the candle --he drowns --she finds his body the next day, jumps in the water and drowns also
Peripeteia(perepity):
reversal of fortune
What does Haemon do when he sees Antigone in the cave?
He hangs himself
Who was Teiresias?
The prophet -- He saw snakes mating and seperated them --This made him turn into a woman for seven years --Saw snakes mating again and seperated them again and turned back into a man
Cadmus is the Son of:
Agenor (King) = Telephassa
Who founded Mycenae?
Perseus
What does Medea do when they go to Iolcus?
She tricks Pelios' daughter into thinking that she is going to make Pelios younger -she slits Pelios' throat -Medea has to leave Iolcus and move to Corinth
The Medusa Complex:
That an infant believes they are part of their mother and then become distinct; to become distinct they must follow one of two patterns:1 Act how they think they should be 2 Acting they way that others want you to (or the way you are percieved)
Short story of Europa
[The daughter of Agenor (King) = Telephasa (Cadmus' sister)] Zeus fell in love with Europa while in the form of a bull -carries her away to Crete -family looks for her (Telephassa dies before they find her) -Cadmus continues the search
Aeschylus:
about Polyneices (Creon calls him a traitor) and Eteicles trying to capture Thebes and they end up killing each other
When Laius dies who is the new ruler?
Jocaste's brother, Creon, is the new ruler unless someone can answer the riddle of the Spinx that is guarding the wall of Thebes
Admetis=Alcestis
Apollos slave master who is awarded by Zeus --convinces fates to not give Admetus an early death if someone else dies in his place --Alcestis takes his place (as long as he does not remarry) -have funeral for wife which Heracles crashes --Heracles finds out about Alcestis' death, wrestles with death to bring her back to Admetus (Play called Aristophane- Heracles portrayed as a comic character)
Sciron
lives on cliffs and some call him a bandit-- threw people off cliff and a turtle would kill that person --Killed by Theseus (gives him a taste of his own medicine)
How Medea helps Jason complete the tasks:
She gives him a salve that prevents Jason from being burnt by the fire breathing cows -gives advise on how to fight the men (He must allow the men to fight each other until thier are a few left, and then he must fight the remainder)
What does the name Dionysus mean?
Twice-born because his mortality was burnt away
Why does Oedipus want Theseus to be there when he dies?
It would bring protection to Thebes and make sure that Athens would win Thebes (Oedipus tells Theseus a secret that would protect Thebes from his sons)
Oegrus=Calliope have son called Orpheus:
taught by Apollo to play the lyre -was an argonaut
What does Creon do to Antigone when she tries to bury the body a second time?
He locks Antigone in a cave and punishes her sister Ismene as well
Deinara
-Angry that Heracles has kidnapped Iole because she is in love with him --makes a love potion and smears on a shirt and gives it to Heracles but it acts more as a poison -->putting Heracles in extreme pain, but not enough to kill him -Deinira realizes what she had done and she kills herself
procrustean
producing conformity with arbitrary means
Metempsychesis:
Orphids believe part of world sould put in body but wants to escape and join world sould (Transmigration of souls)
The story of Proetus and Anteia
Anteia tried to seduce thier guest (Bellerophantes) but she was rejected --wanted her husband to kill the Bellerophantes but he hesitates because of the hospitality laws --Sends Bellerophantes to his father's house with a letter (telling his father to kill him instead) --Proetus' father gives the Bellerophantes tasks (In hopes that the Bellerophantes would die while trying to complete them) --He successfully achieves the tasks but when he tries to ride to Olympus on Pegasus, Zeus knocks him off becasue he wants to put him back in his mortal place
Calydon Boar Hunt
Atlanta (goddess) is a great hunter who captures the boar and then Meleager kills the boar officially
The story of Phineus:
He is a prophet who is having difficulty getting rid of the harpies (he is being punished for giving people too much info) --The gods blind him and set the harpies on him -Jason helps him in exchange for a prophecy - Jason's flying argonauts finally catch up with harpies but are told not to kill them by Iris (rainbow) --The harpies no longer harm Phineus
Who doesn't change the color of sails/what happens because of this?
Theseus forgets to change the color of the sails (left black instead of white) -Aegus sees the black sails when the ship comes into port (The black sails are supposed to mean that they failed so Aegus committs suicide-- Where the name Aegean sea comes from)
Pasiphae' and bull
They have a child, called Minotaur, who is monster-like and eats people
Lynceus (An argonaut)
good at seeing from long distances
How does Polydectes die?
Danae does not want to marry Polydectes so she kills him with Medusa's head
Jason
-Son of Aeson=Alcimede -His parents are the rightful heirs of the throne but Aeson's brother (Pelios) took over -To keep Jason safe they send him off with a centaur (Cheiron) who raises him -Jason grows up and reclaims the throne of Iolcus -Hera tests him on his journey to Iolcus (asks Jason to cross river, he loses his shoe which a prophecy says that means he is the rightful heir to the throne) --Pelias told him that if he is able to get the golden fleece of the ram, he can have the thrown
Medea
King Aeetes' sorceress daughter -falls in love with Jason because Eros shot her with an arrow (Hera's request that Aphrodite grants) -goes against father's wishes and helps Jason
Who is Dionysus?
The Daughter of Semele and Zeus (an Olympia because the fire burned away mortality) -god of wine
Daedalus and son, Icarus:
Imprisoned by Minos because he is angry -Daedalus makes wings out of feathers and wax and he warns Icarus not to fly too high or too low --Of course Icarus flies too high and the wax melts, causing his death (drowning in the sea)
Phineus (Not blind prophet)
originally engaged to Andromeda but killed when shown Medusa's head
Sappho
She is most likely a lesbian (Where the name of the island of Lesbos comes from) -married with child
Euripede's play: Phoenician Maidens, Phoenissae
Says Jocaste was still alive and trying to prevent the brothers from killing e/o --they all end up killing each other, and Jocaste kills herself
How did Jason die?
A piece of ship fell on him
Haemon:
He is engaged to Antigone and begs Creon to let Antigone out of the cave (Creon refuses)
What does Oedipus find out when he sees the oracle?
That he is going to kill his father and marry his mother which makes him leave Corinth in order to avoid that scenario (not realizing that the shepherds are not his real parents)
Dionysus was raised by:
Ino, who shows off that she is caring for Dionysus. Hera is jealous and punishes her by making her and her husband (Athmas) insane --Aphrodite saves Ino and one of her children by turning them into sea deities
What does Jocaste do when she finds out what had happened?
She hung herself
What happens to Jason and his men when Heracles breaks an oar?
Heracles tells his squire (Hylas) to prepare dinner --A nymph spotes Hylas by the spring and pulls him in, making him her lover --Heracles searches all over for him, and stays behind to continue the search
The story about Narcissism and Echo:
Echo is a nymph who was talking to Hera while Zeus was having an affair -- She is punished by Herra/Juno and made to only echo other people's words -Echo falls in love with Narcissus --repeats hello and has a conversation with Narcissus in this way --Narcissus says he would rather die than be with her --Echo hides in a cave until all that is left of her is her echo --The godes are angry with Narcissus and make him fall in love with his own reflection (Pines over himself until he dies)
Females of the Dionysus cult:
Maenads (Means mad) because their rites involved dancing, singing and drinking until they were in a state of extacy (extacy- standout side of self)
Cedric Whitman:
Argued that Aristotle was wrong-- The hero/heroin is always trying to do the right thing and in the process messes up everything
Why is Teiresias blind?
Hera blinded him because Teiresias sided with Zeus in an argument
Eilythea
goddess of birth -Sent by Hera to be with Almene because whe is jealous -makes the birth difficult for seven days until tricked by Galanthis to stop (Turned into a weasel as punishment)

Deck Info

132

permalink