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Theology Final


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Benedict of Nursia
founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and author of the Rule for Monasteries, which eventually became the primary style of monasticism in the West
a. Online Notes: Born in Nursia and educated in Rome where he found spiritual standards – withdrew to Subiaco to live in isolation and was sought by others – began founding monasteries – moved to Monte Cassino and founded a monastery that still exists today – wrote “the rule” – regulated a zealous spirit that often bordered on fanaticism – codified vows of poverty, chastity and obedience – moderate way of life – prayer is the heart of Christian life – connected spiritual ideals with realities of work, study, eating and sleeping – preserved centrality of scripture where there was tendency to focus on inner spiritual illumination – provided ideal of the monastic life that still inspires many today
b. Notes: a rule is a standard guide on how to live – assisted poor, sick and needy – montasarys grew wealthy from land
– the buying and selling of spiritual things, including church leadership positions
a. Notes: trading money for office – once a family purchased an office they would pass it on through their family
b. Online Notes: Pope Gregory VII, in what is known as the Lay Investiture Struggle, attempted to enforce clerical celibacy and to abolish simony (selling of a church office).
Lay Investiture
during the early medieval period, the emperor and secular leaders took upon themselves the right to appoint bishops, abbots, and other church officials
a. Notes: lay people (non priests) appointed other lay people to offices through simony
b. Online Notes: Pope Gregory XII attempted to enforce clerical celibacy and abolish simony – main opponent was Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV who appointed his own choice to archbishopric of Milan – controversy settled in 1122 at Concordat of Worms – church maintained right to elect officeholders but in presence of the emperor or his representative
Gregory 1
“Gregory the Great,” statesman, theologian, and prodigious writer, he was a fierce supporter of the reforms advocated by the monastery at Cluny, speaking out against the practices of simony, alienation of property, and lay investiture
a. Online Notes: born Roman nobleman – established several monasteries – called into service of the church – accomplished in ecclesiastical diplomacy – reformer of worship – preacher and mission strategist – sent missionaries to Spain and England – remained humble and pious – set high standard for popes who came after him – pope became a prime church figure and served as a representative of western Christianity to the east
– Benedictine monk and archbishop of Canterbury, Anselm is known for his “debt satisfaction” theory of atonement and for his ontological argument for the existence of G-d
a. Online Notes: Benedictine monk – rose to Archbishop of Canterbury – troubled by Ransom Theory (Christ’s death functioned as a ransom paid by G-d to Satan in exchange for sinful humanity) – troubled Anselm because it assumed Christ’s divinity was deceptively concealed from Satan – G-d deserves no one – it also assumed Satan could justly demand payment from G-d for humanity – G-d owes nothing to Satan except punishment – Anselm’s satisfaction theory (Christ’s death functioned to satisfy humanity’s debt to G-d) - only a divine person was able to satisfy the debt incurred by human sin, but only humanity was qualified to satisfy the debt – G-d had to become human and suffer and die if humanity was to be restored to a right relationship with G-d – G-d if defined as “that being than which nothing greater can be though, must necessarily exist” – since if that being existed only in though one could think of that being also existing in reality, which would be greater
a term that modern historians have given to the thorough merging of Christianity and culture, which took place in Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, also known as the High Middle Ages
a. Online Notes: based on three principles – humans need to be saved and salvation comes only through G-d’s grace – G-d’s grace is communicated through sacraments (baptism, confirmation, penance, eucharist, marriage, extreme unction and holy orders) – the church, as the sole administrator of the sacraments, provides the foundation for every area of life
– form a Latin word for ‘begging,’ a type of religious order that emerged in High Middle Ages. Unlike the monks, they lived in towns and cities, begged for their livelihood, and performed whatever ministry needed to be done
a. Online Notes: They were characterized by “orthodox” teaching and their willingness to “settle down,” to create “a new, stable form of life for their members through founding of religious houses, congregations, or orders, in which the fulfillment and pursuit of religious principles and vows could be strictly controlled” (Noll). They were not under the authority of bishops (as the traditional orders had been), but under the direct authority of the pope.
Dominican Guzman
– founder of the Dominican order of mendicants, also called the “Order of Preachers”
a. Online Notes: Spaniard who was turned off by the pomp (they did not take vows of poverty, etc.) of three Cistercian monks sent to his town to confront heresy – formed simpler order to combat false teaching – first chapter in Bologna – joined ideas of poverty and rigorous study – founded houses at Oxford and Paris Universities – Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican
– independent communities of laywomen which first emerged in Europe in the High Middle Ages. They had no rule or permanent religious vows, but they shared some form of common life and engaged in contemplative prayer or ministries of caring for the sick and poor
a. Notes: order of nuns – because of the plague a lot of women were widows – groups of 2-3 women per house – worked for a living – part time monastic vows – made part time vow of chastity – can leave whenever when marriage proposal came – Church didn’t like it because it was operating outside control of bishops and it was only a part time vow, and they were women, and they found a way to operate outside control of men – ordered to dissolve houses and get married or go into houses of nuns
named for the founder Valdes, these twelfth-century “Poor Men of Lyons” sought to return to the apostolic life of the early church. Their hostility to the clergy (because of clerical abuses) eventually led to their condemnation by the Council of Verona in 1184
a. Online Notes: New Testament purists – devoted to poverty and lay preaching – used unofficial and unapproved vernacular translations of scripture – accused of rejecting the doctrines of purgatory, transubstantiation and veneration of saints – opposed the church hierarchy – persecuted because they were not controlled by the church
b. Notes: preached gospel in the streets in the language of the day and translated scripture to the language of the day
meaning “pure ones,” this anticlerical, Christian reform movement emerged in the twelfth century AD teaching that the world and the flesh were the work of an evil g-d. Thus they practiced severe asceneticiksm. Catharism was widespread in southern France, where they came to be known as the Albigensians
a. Online Notes: taught a radical dualism of a good god (associated with the spiritual realm) and an evil god (associated with the world and the flesh) – inquisition was started to deal with such heretical groups
a legal body set up to investigate and punish heretics. Although the inquisition itself was usually under the jurisdiction of church officials, civil leaders were often called upon to execute whatever punishments were assigned
Innocent III
pope of the Roman Catholic Church perhaps best known for his political involvements. The Fourth Lateran council took place during his reign
a. Notes: reign pope in 1200 – excommunicated English King and placed England under suspension of all sacraments – all bishops and priests of England should stop performing sacraments for 5 years – they did and the King was in trouble – King gave in and England was under control of Pope – made bold claims – called the 4th Lateran Council where clergy was pressured to administer sacraments, preach, say mass – also doctrine of transubstantiation was the official doctrine of the church – bead and wine are body and blood – distinction of substance and accidents – idea that any item can be made into distinction between its being and its meaning – Papal power came to peak under his rule and then began to fall apart – Christendom unravels (national identities)
a kind of “strike” in which the church shuts down the sacramental system. It was used in the medieval period by popes who wished to discipline civil leaders
– the community founded by Francis of Assisi, also known as the Friars Minor. Known for their radical understanding of the vow of poverty, their primary vocation was to preach the gospel and to witness to it in action
a. Notes: founded by Francis – son of cloth merchant – assisted his father until 20s – mother was French – took vow of poverty and worked with lepers – felt a call by G-d to restore old church building – father didn’t like it and disowned him – became hermit – joined poverty and preaching – preached gospel among poor and sick – huge following of men and women – poor Claries were female Franciscans – received direct permission from the pope – had foothold in universities
an order of beggar friars founded by St. Dominic, also called the “Order of Preachers.” Known for their radical understanding of the vow of poverty, their primary vocation was to preach and hear confessions
a. Notes: Online Notes: Spaniard who was turned off by the pomp of three Cistercian monks sent to his town to confront heresy – formed simpler order to combat false teaching – first chapter in Bologna – joined ideas of poverty and rigorous study – founded houses at Oxford and Paris Universities – Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican
Francis of Assisi
founder of the Franciscan order of friars
Fourth Lateran Council
urged reform of the clergy and defined the dogma of transubstantiation, concerning the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Boniface VIII
a. Notes: made last attempt to hold together Christendom – failed – conflicts with French king – he lost – issued a papal bull called unamsactom – Latin for one holy – made out of desperation – he was arrested by French authority and died in their custody
a practice popular in the medieval church in which the church would cancel all or part of the punishment due to an individual who had sinned, when the individual had completed certain devotions, acts of charity, or services for the church
a place or state following death in which sinners destined for heaven undergo the punishments still remaining for forgiven sins and thereby are ‘purged” or made ready for heaven
a process by which the church designates certain persons as saints and therefore models of the Christian life
a symbolic ritual consisting of words and visible gestures or material substances which, when properly performed for a recipient disposed to its action, becomes the means of transmitting the grace of G-d. Traditionally, it has been defined as an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace
Thomas Aquinas
Catholic theologian and saint; author of the Summa Theologiae, a comprehensive overview of Christian theology; best known for his integration of the philosophy of Aristotle into Christian faith, his view of the compatibility of reason and revelation, and his “proofs” for G-d’s existence
a. Notes: university professor with scholastic model – son of nobleman – parents wanted him to be a monk in the rich benediction order – he wanted to be a Dominican monk (begging order) – became theology professor at University of Paris – write Summa Theologiae – themes (natural order/supernatural order, we know nothing about supernatural without revelation, need grace to receive revelation, natural and supernatural are in harmony because G-d created both, faith properly understood cannot contradict reason, reason can demonstrate, G-d is the prime mover of everything in the universe)
b. Online Notes: The Argument from Motion – things move (change) – whatever moves must have the potential to move – no potential can move itself – there cannot be an endless series of movers – there must be a first mover
Greek philosopher and scientist of the fourth century BCE; his ideas were seen as a challenge to religions like Christianity because—without any access to divine revelation—he had developed an account of reality that seemed more complete, more sophisticated, and more coherent than that of Christianity
a. Online Notes: university theologians sought to integrate Christian faith with Aristotle’s naturalistic view of the world—that is, an understanding of the world as a purely natural system that can be understood by human reason without the aid of revelation. Their theology is called scholasticism (after the Latin word for “school”), which sought to harmonize faith with reason—not by denying or revising elements of the Christian faith, but by showing how reason can deepen one’s understanding of what one believes.
originally the “guild” or association of teachers and students united in the “craft” of teaching and learning. Universities developed into institutions of higher learning with permanent faculties and offered basic degrees in the ‘arts” and more advanced degrees in various fields of specialization
a. Online Notes: early medieval period education took place in only monasteries and cathedral schools – subjects taught (grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music) – then the cathedral schools were transformed into universities (guilds of teachers and students united the “craft” of teaching and learning
name given to the theology that was written and studied in the medieval schools and universities. In general, scholastic theology, the theology of the “Schoolmen,” tried to harmonize faith with reason. Scholasticism tried to take the undeniable truths uncovered by philosophers like Aristotle and show how they were compatible with Christianity
a. Online Notes: university theologians sought to integrate Christian faith with Aristotle’s naturalistic view of the world—that is, an understanding of the world as a purely natural system that can be understood by human reason without the aid of revelation. Their theology is called scholasticism (after the Latin word for “school”), which sought to harmonize faith with reason—not by denying or revising elements of the Christian faith, but by showing how reason can deepen one’s understanding of what one believes.
Summa Theologiae
– literally a “summary or compendium of theology.” Perhaps the most famous Summa was written by Thomas Aquinas
Avignon Papacy
referring to a period in the Late Middle Ages when the pope moved his court to Avignon, France. Before the papacy returned to Rome, the church leadership would be involved in an even greater struggle for power called the Great Schism
a. Online Notes: during the 14th century the papacy was moved to Avignon as a result of French power, and led to the perception that the pope was a puppet of the French king. During their time in Avignon, popes heavily taxed the churches to finance extravagant building projects. Finally, Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome.
Great Schism
referring to a period in the Late Middle Ages when the Roman Catholic Church had two, and for a brined period, three reigning popes at the same time. Civil leaders joined forced behind the one whom they considered to be the true pope, producing a schism in the church (schism is split)
a. Online Notes: Gregory XI died in 1378, leading to the election of two popes (first Urban VI, then Clement VII) by the same college of cardinals. They proceeded to excommunicate one another, with various cardinals, theologians and European nations lining up behind each pope. This situation would last for nearly 40 years.
theory of church authority advanced by the bishops of the Roman Catholic Church during the Great Schism. According to this theory, the bishops, when they were gathered together in an official council, had the right to make binding decisions independent of the pope in time of crisis
a. Online Notes: the schism had to be resolved and it was decided to resolve it by a general council – the council of Pisa – well attended by cardinals, bishops and theologians, it declared the authority of general councils over the pope, desposed of both popes and elected a new one, the two deposed popes refused to recognize the validity of the council and so there were now three popes - Council of Constance – was also well attended, advanced the notion of the council’s authority over the pope and declared conciliar theory to be the official teaching of the church (each nation received one vote), council deposed of the three rival popes and elected a new one – Council of Basle – poorly attended, ended conciliare because if pope could be controlled by kings, then kings could be controlled by people – conciliarism was condemned in the bull of Execrabilis
John Wycliffe
a reformer of the late medieval period. He preached against abuses in the church and challenged some of the church’s doctrines. He also advocated the translation of the Bible into English, the language of the people
a. Online Notes: well-educated philosopher who sought truth in scripture. Earned his Doctor of Theology at Oxford by writings a series of lectures on the entire Bible - He was rector of several churches, and worked for the English government in dealings with papacy - He sponsored the first translation of the Bible into English (published by his followers after his death)- He was a “Protestant” before the Protestants, teaching – the bible is the only source of religious authority – the only qualification for salvation is G-d’s grace and people on earth do not know if they are saved or not – against indulgences, relics and prayers to saints – against the popes’ extravagant lifestyles and grabs for power – the Eucharist is not Christ’s body and blood – his followers were known as Lollards (mumblers) – thrived under persecution – sponsored first translation of the bible into English
Council of Constance burned his remains and spread his ashes in the river Swift - His followers were known as Lollards, a pejorative term derived from a word meaning “mumblers.” The movement thrived under constant persecution until the English Reformation
John Huss
a reformer of the late medieval period. Like his contemporary, John Wycliffe, he preached against abuses in the church and challenged some of the church’s doctrines. He was eventually executed as a heretic
a. Notes: supported views of Wycliff – excommunicated but had the support of people – pope is unworthy than you can ignore him – did not support Wycliff on transubstantiation
a group of reformers in the Late Middle Ages who attempted to put into practice the ideas of John Wycliffe. They were active in several social uprisings, and as a result many were put to death for their heretical ideas and their radical political actions
a spiritual phenomenon that expresses itself in direct, intense experiences of union and oneness with G-d. Generally, the mystical journey consists of three phases: purgation, illumination, and union
a. Online Notes: Mysticism is a spiritual phenomenon that expresses itself in direct, intense experiences of union and oneness with God. The mystical journey typically consists of three phases: purgation (cleansing from sin), illumination (an attraction to the things of God, like scripture and prayer) and union (the state of oneness with God). Mysticism had always been part of Christianity, but it flourished in the Late Middle Ages, probably because the mystics could provide guidance in troubled times.
Catherine of Sienna
a mystic of the late medieval period, she was a Dominican tertiary and influential in bringing an end to the Avignon Papacy, only to see it fall into the situation of the Great Schism. Catherine’s prayer life had led her into a vision of mystical marriage to Christ. Her visions often were of the nourishing and cleansing blood of the sacrifice of Christ on the cross
a. Online Notes: from an early age, she dedicated herself to Christ alone, devoting herself to contemplation and serving (especially feeding) the poor. Her prayer life resulted in a vision of mystical marriage to Christ. She wrote of her experiences of God in a work called the Dialogue – she was a local celebrity – outspoken critic of scandal and abuse in the church – brought end to captivity of the papacy in Avignon – she was canonized and named a Doctor of the Church
Julian of Norwich
an English mystic of the Late Middle Ages. She is the author of Showings, in which she describes a series of visions she received during a brief illness and offers her theological reflections on that mystical experience. She also reflects on the motherhood of Christ, the meaning of sin, and the question of why G-d allows sin and evil to exist
a. Online Notes: anchoress of the church of St. Julian in Norwich – pledged to live in prayer and contemplation encloded in anchorholds (private rooms attached to churches with only windows onto the outside world (to receive food, the Eucharist, and visitors)) – experienced overwhelming series of mystical visions during period of illness – spent the rest of her life reflecting on them (shewings or showings) – talked of G-d as mother
a hermit who pledges his or her life to prayer and contemplation. During the Middle Ages, they lived in small enclosed rooms attached to a church, where they could be spiritual counselors for the people of the area
meaning “rebirth”; a cultural movement that began in Italy approximately AD by the time it came to a close in 1600. It involved in renewed interest in the Latin and Greek classics, a focus on the individual person and the natural world, and a more scientific approach to history and literature. It was accompanied by a burst of creative activity in art and architecture
a. Online Notes: renaissance humanism (view that human beings are at the center of things – individual creativity, reasoning and aesthetic power – sought out forgotten Latin texts – expanded study of Greek – anthropocentric (human-centered) instead of G-d centered) – humanity was placed at the center of the world – valued individuality of the human person and emphasized individual accomplishment, fame and glory – humanists were interested in studying the natural world for its own sake – art (discovery of perspective and Leonardo da Vinci) - cartography (mapmaking – more accurate) – exploration (interest in horizontal exploration and benefits it could bring into life) – science (knowledge derived from empirical observation) – education (the way to develop human potential) – historical criticism (use of of historical knowledge to evaluate existing traditions and institutions)
Renaissance humanism was a literary and historical movement to recover the Latin and Greek classics, and with them, a more secular and individualistic view of humanity. Modern humanism is a philosophy which focuses on and exalts humanity
a. Online Notes: the view that human beings are at the center of things, stressing the individual’s creative, reasoning and aesthetic powers. Renaissance scholars identified humanism with the study of classical literature, applying the term “humanist” exclusively to classical scholars.
human-centered/G-d centered
Studia Humanitatas
meaning “humane studies” or liberal arts, including Latin and Greek literature, history, and ethics. In studying Latin, students learned to read, write, reason, and speak well—skills that were especially necessary for civic leaders and scholars
Historical Criticsm
a development of the Renaissance movement, the use of historical knowledge to evaluate ancient writings, as well as existing traditions and institutions – a modern approach to the study of the Bible, whereby the Bible is subjected to scientific scrutiny and the critic attempts to discover if the events it records can be verified historically the same way that other historical facts are verified
a. Online Notes: The humanists developed historical criticism, the use of historical knowledge to evaluate existing traditions and institutions. For example, Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457) challenged the Latin of the Vulgate translation of the Bible, showed that the Apostle’s Creed could not have been written by the apostles, and exposed the “Donation of Constantine” as a forgery. This document was supposedly a deed written by Constantine himself, granting to the pope certain lands in central Italy that became the basis for the Papal States. Based on an analysis of its vocabulary, Valla showed that the document was written no earlier than the eighth century, thereby undercutting the pope’s claim to political authority (although the Papal States would not be dissolved until the unification of Italy in 1870)
Desiderius Erasmus
a. Online Notes: greatest of the northern Humanists – wrote In Praise of Folly – critized the vices of the church – ridiculed the power-loving bishops and popes, the excess of the cult of the saints and the sale of indulgences – published the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament along with a fresh Latin translation and commentary – although he was critical of the church he remained a devout Catholic
generally making straight that which is crooked or ragged – in theology, being in a right relationship with G-d
a. Online Notes: God reveals himself in law and gospel. Revelation is always a word of judgment and a word of grace at the same time, exemplified in the doctrine of justification (God’s concern with holiness) by faith (God’s forgiveness). This means that a Christian is at the same time sinful and justified. Justification is not the absence of sin, but the fact that God declares us to be just while we are still sinners
Papal Bull
a formal document issued by the pope
– a teaching about how the bread and wine of the Eucharist is the body and blood of Jesus Christ; the accidents remain as bread and wine, but the substance changes and becomes the body and blood of Jesus Christ
a formal assembly or meeting
Edict of Worms
the statement issued by the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation to declare Martin Luther an outlaw and a heretic
a. Online Notes: statement from Germany condemning Luther
meaning “image breaking.” During the Reformation, some reformers forcibly entered churches and removed or destroyed statues, stained glass, and paintings containing images
a. Online Notes: Zwingli - spoke out loudly against the use of images in worship, citing the second commandment (“You shall not make for yourself an idol”). He thought the presence of images led to image-worship, and ordered that they be removed from the churches. This was not always calm and peaceful, and many images were destroyed.
a term used to describe members of the churches that trace their ultimate origin to the Reformation of the sixteenth century AD; it derives from an incident in the early period of the reformation in which six German princes protested a declaration of the Second Diet of Speyer designed to suppress Lutheranism
Augsburg Confession
a statement of faith drafted by Philip Melanchthon, representing the Lutheran position, at the Diet of Augsburg. The diet, which was called to resolve differences between Protestants and Catholics, failed, but Lutherans signed Melanchthon’s statement, making it one of the most important documents of Lutheran doctrine even today
a. Online Notes: At the Diet of Augsburg (1530), Charles V requested a written exposition of Protestant theology. The document was written by Luther’s right hand man, Phillip Melancthon, and is now known as the Augsburg Confession. The Emperor demanded that its signatories recant by April of the following year.
a reform branch of the Franciscan movement, this religious order was officially recognized in 1528 during the Catholic Reformation. They get their name from the unique four pointed hood that they wore with their brown habit
Martin Luther
a. Online Notes: his father was a mining engineer with a govn’t position – unhappy childhood with strict parents – he studied law but got scared during a storm and became a monk (Augustinian) – very strict order and he practiced a more stringent discipline than was required – received his doctorate in theology – he became a teacher of scripture – he decided justice does not refer to the punishment of sinners but to G-d’s righteousness given to the sinner as a gift – he posted 97 theses but nothing happened – he posted 95 new theses to a castle church in Wittenberg attacking the sale of indulgences and its theological presuppositions, also attacked the efficacy of the system and the exploitation – people became angry and the Diet of Augsburg was held – he was ordered to recant under the threat of arrest but secretly returned to Wittenberg where he was hidden – he entered a scholarly debate where he was forced to acknowledge that he supported the teachings of John Huss (a heretic) – the pope issued a bull condemning Luther – he appeared before the Diet of Worms – then he was hidden in a castle and began work on a German translation of the bible – peasant rebellion took place which Luther opposed – Catholics blamed him for the revolts and peasants felt betrayed – he married a former nun and had 6 kids – the Died of Speier withdrew the edict of Worms and granted each German sate the freedom to choose its own religion – second died of speier – reaffirmed the edict of worms which prompted Lutheran to present a formal protest (thus the name protestant) – his theology – the word of G-d is G-d the Son – the Bible is the Word of G-d because in it Jesus comes to us – the bible did not make the church and the church did not make the bible but the word of G-d made both – final authority rests in the gospel – when the gospel cannot be found there is no authority – bible has authority over church - replaced theology of glory with theology of the cross – (glory seeks G-d in those things humans find most valuable, therefore concerned with G-d’s power, glory and goodness, etc) – theology of the cross seeks G-d in weakness, suffering) – G-d is revealed in law and gospel – all Christians are priests – a sacrament must have been instituted by Christ and must be a physical sign of the promise of the gospel (only 2 sacraments – baptism and communion) – the bread and win remain, but the body and blood of Jesus are also present in, with, under, around and behind the bread and wine
Believer's Baptism
the idea, popularized by the churches of the Radical Reformation, that since Baptism involves entering into a covenant with G-d, it requires an act of conscious, active belief on the part of the person being baptized. Since only adults are old enough to formulate such belief and make such a decision, infant Baptism is ruled out
a. Online Notes: The volunarist principle—becoming a Christian and becoming the member of a particular church always requires an active decision. The church is a “gathered” church, in which members seek out like-minded individuals. This is in contrast to the “parish” system, in which a person simply attends the church of his or her own town or parish. The Radical Reformers applied the voluntarist principle to the sacrament of baptism, arguing that it requires a positive, active belief on the part of the person being baptized. Thus, they rejected infant baptism and insisted on believer’s baptism (the baptism of adults, or at least older children). Since the first generation of people being baptized as adults had already been baptized as infants, their opponents called them “Anabaptists” (which means “rebaptizers”), and the name stuck. Many churches continue to practice believer’s baptism today; the practice is especially associated with Baptists and with the Christian Church denominations (the non-instrumental Churches of Christ, the Independent Christian Church, and the Disciples of Christ).
John Calvin
– the French reformer and theologian who led the Swiss city of Geneva through the Reformation. Calvin is known especially for the doctrines of election and double predestination and for grappling with the problem of authority after the Protestant rejection of the authority of Rome. His teachings are more influential in the Christian Reformed Church ad the Presbyterian Church
a. Online Notes: Calvin was born in northwestern France into a wealthy and well-connected family, and from a young age was being prepared for the priesthood. By 1525 he had earned a Master of Arts at the University of Paris and was ready to study theology, when his father sent him to Orléans to study law. In 1531 Calvin abandoned law and returned to theology. He was drawn to the ideas of the Reformation, and in the mid-1530s he was drawn to Basel, one of the leading cities of the Reformation. It was there that he began work on his life-long work, Institutes of Christian Theology—a systematic statement of theology from a Reformation point of view – places stress on the doctrine of election (G-d chooses those with whom he will enter into a covenant relationship) – double predestination (idea that G-d chooses some for salvation and others for damnation – eucharist (agreed with church that the bread and wine are more than just symbols) – significance of the eurcharist is spiritual – rejected catholic-lutheran claim that Chris’ts body and blood are physically present – taught there is a real, spiritual presence of Christ -
– the governing council of the Calvinist Geneva, consisting of members from the city government, the church leadership, and the laity
a. Online Notes: a city council made up of twelve members: four from the government, four from the church leadership (called “pastors” or “elders”), and four from the laity. This balance of power was difficult to maintain, and the religious laws instituted by Calvin were quite strict. Thus, there was constant conflict between Calvin and some of the city’s other rulers. Nevertheless, Calvin remained in the service of the Genevan church until his death.
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop of Canterbury for most of the early years of the English Reformation. He is recognized for his contributions to the Thirty-Nine Articles, which sets out the specific similarities and differences between the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church, and the 1549 and 1552 versions of The Book of Common Prayer, a hugely popular and influential liturgical document
a. Online Notes: tried to slow the reforms and argued for a middle way between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. He helped to establish the basic beliefs of the English Reformation, finalized after his death in the Thirty-Nine Articles (laying out the similarities and differences between the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church) and the Book of Common Prayer (the first major liturgical document written in English, still in use today). -
Double Predestination
the Calvinist idea that G-d has already chosen some people for salvation and others for damnation, a result of emphasizing G-d’s sovereignty and knowledge over human free will
a. Online Notes: Calvin taught the idea that God chooses some for salvation and others for damnation. He writes: “By predestination we mean the eternal decree of God, by which he has decided in his own mind what he wishes to happen in the case of each individual. For all men are not created on equal footing, but for some eternal life is pre-ordained, for others eternal damnation”
– the idea, emphasized most strongly by John Calvin, that G-d mysteriously chooses to enter into special relationship with some persons and groups, but not with others
a. Online Notes: Calvin’s places a great deal of stress on the doctrine of election—the idea that God chooses those with whom he will enter into a covenant relationship.
Episcopal Church
the American branch of the Anglican communion that consists of all churches that trace their roots to the Church of England
Henry VIII
king of England who led his country through the Reformation. At first a supporter of Catholicism against the reformers, Henry eventually broke with the pope and the Catholic Church and established the Church of England with himself at its head, at least in part in a dispute with Rome over Henry’s desire to divorce his wife
a. Online Notes: started the English reformation – started with his break with Catholicism – he wanted to annul his marriage to his first wife but pope would not give permission – there had been a rise in the power and independence of the English royalty over the previous decade especially in dealing with the pope – he created a new church that was politically and financially secure – he broke with the pope – placed the church under the authority of the monarch – dissolved the English monasteries and took control of their property – henry’s version of Protestantism was called “Catholicism without the Pope” – not interested in instituting any major changes in doctrine or practice -
Marburg Colloquy
– the debate between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli held in 1529. Zwingli and Luther did not resolve their differences, but Zwingli convinced Luther to see that reconciliation with the Catholic Church was not really possible
a. Online Notes: In 1529 Zwingli and Luther met in the city of Marburg (this meeting later became known as the Marburg Colloquy) and could reach no agreement on these issues. They both appealed to the Bible as the final authority, but their interpretations clearly differed. This will prove to be an on-going problem for Protestants.
– the idea that the way to reform and renew Christianity was to “restore” the church to the original structures, beliefs, and practices that prevailed during the time of Jesus and the apostles. The Radical Reformers advocated restorationism
a. Online Notes: the attempt to restore the church to the original structures, beliefs and practices that prevailed during the time of the apostles. Many Radical Reformers looked to the NT book of Acts as a model for the present-day church. Today, “non-instrumental” denominations (like the Churches of Christ) refuse to use instruments in worship, since there is no mention of them being used by the church in the NT
William Tyndale
an admirer of Martin Luther, he was the first to publish an English translation of major parts of the Bible
Voluntarist Principle
the idea, popularized by the churches of the Radical Reformation, that churches of the Radical Reformation, that becoming a Christian (and a member of a church) always requires an active decision. It never occurs simply because of where people live or because of their parents’ beliefs
a. Online Notes: becoming a Christian and becoming the member of a particular church always requires an active decision. The church is a “gathered” church, in which members seek out like-minded individuals. This is in contrast to the “parish” system, in which a person simply attends the church of his or her own town or parish. The Radical Reformers applied the voluntarist principle to the sacrament of baptism, arguing that it requires a positive, active belief on the part of the person being baptized. Thus, they rejected infant baptism and insisted on believer’s baptism (the baptism of adults, or at least older children). Since the first generation of people being baptized as adults had already been baptized as infants, their opponents called them “Anabaptists” (which means “rebaptizers”), and the name stuck. Many churches continue to practice believer’s baptism today; the practice is especially associated with Baptists and with the Christian Church denominations (the non-instrumental Churches of Christ, the Independent Christian Church, and the Disciples of Christ).
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss reformer and theologian, known especially for his emphasis on justification by grace alone, his “spiritual” reliance on the Bible rather than church traditions and proclamations, and his opposition to priestly celibacy and the use of images in worship. Zwingli was killed defending the city of Zurish, the city he led through the Reformation, against attack by Catholics
a. Online Notes: reformer in Zurich – parents were farmers – earned master of arts and studied theology – became parish priest – practically worshipped (accorinding to Zwingli) a statue of the virgin mary who he claimed had magical healing powers – became preacher of the largest church in Zurich – adopted many Lutheran-sounding views – bible alone holds final authority – if traditional practice is not required by Scripture it is optional – faith is the first Christian virtue without it no one can be saved – bishops and the church councils can make mistakes – clergy should be allowed to marry – perpetual virginity of Mary – importance of communion – differed with Luther in 2 ways – iconodasm (against the se of images in worship) and eucharist (eucharist is best understood as a memorial or a remembrance allowing believers to remember the actions of Jesus on their behalf)
Catholic Reformation
– a term given to the efforts of those Roman Catholics who wanted to bring about the internal rebirth of Catholic sensibility—in theology, spirituality, religious piety, and morality—in the sixteenth century, during the time of the Protestant Reformation
a. Online Notes: The Catholic Reformation (which used to be called the Counter-Reformation) refers to Roman Catholic efforts to reform the church and to counter the teachings and practices of the Protestant reformers. It actually began before the initial crises of the Protestant Reformation, and continued after the establishment of Protestant churches. Many of the figures associated with the Catholic Reformation were as critical of the corrupt practices of the church as the Protestants were, but they decided to work for reform within the church. The Catholic Reformation is characterized by two major movements: the founding of new religious orders and the Council of Trent.
Ignatious of Loyola
– founder of the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits. A Spaniard, Ignatius was trained as a knight, but he took up a life dedicated to the church after reading devotional books, including a life of Christ and lives of the saints, during a long convalescence
a. Online Notes: founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) – he was a Spaniard trained as a knight (hired soldier) – as a young man he loved the military life – while recovering from a serious injury he was only able to read christian material – he decided to become a soldier for Christ – went to a monastery and dedicated himself to prayer and meditation – e was tortured by his sins and excessive penance offered no help – developed the Spiritual Exercises (month-long meditation and participation in the drama of sin and salvation) – became a tool of spiritual formation for all Jesuits – lived a simple lifestyle relying on charity for their livelihood – took a vow of absolute obedience to the pope – commitments to ministry to the poor (especially children), world missions (especially the evangelization of unbelievers), education (especially higher education – in order to serve the pastoral needs of the church and to combat Protestant scholars of the day)
Society of Jesus
– also known as the Jesuits, this religious order was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Dedicated to the service of the pope, they placed an important role in the Catholic Reformation both as missionaries and teachers
Spiritual Exercises
developed by Ignatius of Loyola, this month-long spiritual examination allows the individual to participate in the drama of sin and salvation, leading to a turning over of everything, especially the will, to obedience to one’s religious superior, to the teachings of the church and its traditions, for the spread of the faith
College of Cardinals
– the groups of bishops and clergy responsible for electing a pope and for advising him on matters pertaining to the operation of the Roman Catholic Church
a. Online Notes: the papal advisory panel
Council of Trent
declared by Roman Catholics to be an ecumenical council, this church council met over a period of eighteen years to address doctrinal and practical issues of reform, both within the Catholic Church and in response to the Protestant Reformation
a. Online Notes: met in the city of Trent over a series of three sessions in 18 years and the reigns of four popes – first session dealt with doctrinal definitions – second session dealt with a mixture of doctrinal and practical matters – third session dealt with disciplinary correction and means of regulating church activities – human nature is damaged but not destroyed – humans are capable of cooperating with G-d’s grace – justification by faith is just the beginning of salvation, when one is infused with faith, hope and charity (all are necessary for a person to be united to Christ) – one can and must increase in justness through faith united to good works – set the number of sacraments at seven (baptism, eucharist, confirmation, marriage, penance, ordination and extreme unction) – recognized that Jesus died once for all but insisted the Mass is a representation of that one sacrifice – insisted on the doctrine of transubstantiation – ended local variations on the mass, fixing its form until Vatican II – developed the notion of “sacramentals,” objects that convey spiritual benefits but without the full efficacy of the seven sacraments – declared the vulgate to be the only authoritative translation of the Bible (trent could be seen as taking a step backwards) – abolished the office of seller of indulgences – ended simony and nepotism (giving bishops the power of supervision in their own dioceses) – imposed penalties for blasphemy and violations of celibacy – breviary (prayer book for priests and monks) was reformed to make it simpler to use and more scripture –based – bishops were instructed to send their priests to the university or to a local seminary for training – roman cathechism was developed for the instruction of clergy -
a Latin translation of the Bible, containing also the books of the apocrypha, widely used in the West at least from the sixth century AD and declared by the Council of Trent to be the only authoritative translation of the Bible
a school of theology especially designed for the training of priests. The council of Trent ordered that every Roman Catholic diocese establish a seminary for the training of its priest candidates. Many dioceses still retain their own seminaries today
Teresa of Avila
founder of the Discalced Carmelites and a Spanish mystic. Her writings include the Life, an autobiographical account of her life, and the Interior Castle, a description of her method of prayer
a. Online Notes: The Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites, a reform branch of the Carmelite Order (officially recognized in 1580, established as a separate order in 1598): established by Teresa of Avila and her follower John of the Cross, mystics in Spain who founded houses for men and women. Members literally went barefoot (following Jesus' words in Mt 10.9-10), committing themselves to poverty and prayer. Teresa and John are famous for their spiritual writings—Teresa for her Life and the Interior Castle, John for the Acent of Mt. Carmel and the Dark Night of the Soul—and both have been named Doctors of the Church.
John of the Cross
a follower of Teresa of Avila, the cofounder of the Discalced Carmelites, a reform branch of the Carmelite order, and a Spanish mystic. His writings include the Ascent of Mount Carmel and the Dark Nigh to the Should
Discalced Carmelites
a reform branch of the Carmelite order founded by Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross. It became a separate order in 1593. The term discalced means “unshod,” referring to the spiritual practice of going barefoot in order to fulfill Jesus’ mandate to provide themselves with nothing for the journey, not even sandals for their feet
the church policy that the native people of a country in which missionary work is being done should eventually take charge of the church in that country
a. Online Notes: The wave of the future was toward World Christianity—the indigenization (local appropriation) of Christianity in countless cultures around the world.
Encomienda-Doctrina System
a cooperative effort between the encomendero and the doctrinero to build a sound economic and spiritual base in the Spanish territories of the New World
a. Online Notes: The Spanish developed an organized system of pueblos called the encomienda-doctrina system—a cooperative effort between the encomendero (conquistador) and the doctrinero (missionary, usually a friar). The system resulted in the subjugation and slavery of the native peoples, as agricultural production and mining for gold were the main concerns of the colonizers and the integration of the native peoples into the social, economic and cultural life of Spain
b. Notes: cooperative effort between missionary and conquistador
i. Results – slavery of native people to meet agriculture and minding productions and integration of natives into social, cultural Spainiards (force them to become Spainiards)
Bartolome de Las Casas
a. Online Notes: Dominican friar in the West Indies (Haiti and Dominican Republic) who protested the encomienda system and the enslavement of Native Americans. He eventually won the support of Pope Paul III, who in 1537 issued a bull (Sublimus Deus) setting forth Native American rights. In 1544, de Las Casas became bishop of Chiapas (southern Mexico), but by 1547 the threat of violence forced him to resign his see and return home to Spain. [Note: de Las Casas did not challenge the system of slavery itself, but the morality of enslaving Christians. Nevertheless, he did help to lay the foundations for the modern understanding of human rights.]
Francis Xavier
a companion of Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit order, and the leader of the Catholic mission to India, Japan, and China
a. Online Notes: first Jesuit missionary. From 1549 to his death in 1552 he converted more than 700 Japanese to Christianity. By the 1580’s there were 75 Jesuits working in Japan and perhaps 150,000 converts (however, these were nearly wiped out by a series of persecutions early in the 1600s). Most importantly, Xavier adapted traditional Christian forms to Japanese culture
Matteo Ricci
a. Online Notes: brought Christianity to China, and was eager to find common ground between Christianity and Confucianism (he also dropped common Jesuit dress in exchange for the clothing of the Chinese literati, and sought to adapt aspects of Chinese veneration for ancestors).
a term used to describe the process by which a religion “learns” to live and act within a culture different from the one in which it began, so that the religion gradually comes to act naturally within that culture’s pattern of actions and thought
a. Online Notes: the awareness that genuine Christianity does not depend upon the specifics of any one culture, but that it is adaptable—and should be adapted
– the study of the nature and structure of the universe, or a particular view of the nature and structure of the universe
a. Notes: claim of the natural sciences better than the church
Nicholas Copernicus
sixteenth-century AD. Polish astronomer who proposed that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun
a. Online Notes: (a Polish astronomer) published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, proposing that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun
Galileo Galilee
astronomer and scientist who attempted to prove the Copernican theory that the earth resolves around the sun. He was disciplined by the church for advocating views that were contrary to the Bible and church teachings
a. Online Notes: In 1610 Galileo Galilei advanced Copernican cosmology after focusing his telescope on Jupiter and discovering that the planet had four moons revolving around it (and not around the earth)
b. Notes: if the earth is small, insignificant speck in the universe, then humans are even smaller specks
Isaac Newton
mathematician and scientist who was able to explain the motion of the planets by means of natural laws, rather than the will of G-d, and hence was a major contributor in the development of the “mechanistic” view of the universe
a. Online Notes: Mechanistic Philosophy—the universe is a vast machine that can be explained according to mechanistic principles: matter, external force, and inertia. This idea was most notably expressed in 1687 by Isaac Newton in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
Rene Descartest
seventeenth-century French philosopher; known for his skepticism about the value of tradition He began his philosophical method by doubting everything he had been taught—all tradition—and by believing only what could be shown by reason to be absolutely certain
the view that G-d created the world but does not thereafter intervene in its operation. In this view, the world is like a watch or clock, which runs on its own without the help of the watchmaker, G-d
a. Online Notes: belief that God designed the world and started it going, but does not now intervene in the workings of the universe. This entailed a rejection of prophecy, miracles, providence, the incarnation and special revelation. Deists espoused a religion based on nature and reason alone
b. Notes: G-d designed world and got it going but now does not intervene
– the belief that reason alone can provide us with knowledge of all reality. It is opposed to the belief that there are some dimensions of reality that are beyond reason, and which can only be known through revelation
a. Online Notes: the belief that reason alone can provide knowledge of all reality. Anything standing beyond reason, known only by revelation, was therefore rejected. Rationalists could acknowledge Jesus as a teacher of practical moral wisdom, but not as the Son of God
b. Notes: belief that reason alone can provide knowledge of reality – stuff only known by revelation is rejected (miracles, virgin birth, etc) – reason took the place of G-d for the enlightenment thinkers
an intellectual movement dating from about 1700-1789 which emphasized reason, science, the goodness and rights of humanity, religious toleration, progress, and human freedom
a. Online Notes: The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement dating from about 1700-1789, emphasizing reason, science, religious tolerance, progress, and human goodness, rights and freedom. Its main proponents were Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin in America, David Hume in England, Voltaire in France, and Immanuel Kant in Germany
b. Notes: rationalism (belief that reason alone can provide knowledge of reality) – very naïve (humanity is naturally good) – freedom and tolerance (free choice is the essence of religious commitment, don’t force people to believe something they don’t believe – Govn’t derived their legitimacy from the consent of the governed - romanticism (critique of enlightenment, but still enlightenment, human person is almost G-d like in potential) – liberation (freedom from political and religious persecution, separation of church and state, separation of economic and state (laze fair)) – Marxism (religion is actually drug designed by upper class to keep lower classes in place) – psychology (religion is wish fulfillment
Charles Darwin
– nineteenth-century scientist who developed the theory of evolution and the principle of natural selection
a. Online Notes: Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) explained the mechanism by which evolution takes place within species: (a) random variation among individuals; (b) a struggle for existence, so that only some survive; (c) natural selection, by which certain traits are selected for survival while other traits perish. His Descent of Man (1871) argued that human beings emerged from animal ancestors and were not miraculously created by God. Once an Anglican Christian, he lost his faith as a result of his own theory.
Natural Selection
a principle of the theory of evolution, which holds that individuals in a species who have characteristics that are advantageous for survival in their environment will survive, while individuals without these characteristics will perish. Gradually, this transformation of the character of individuals in a species will lead to the development of new species
a. Online Notes: by which certain traits are selected for survival while other traits perish. His Descent of Man (1871) argued that human beings emerged from animal ancestors and were not miraculously created by God. Once an Anglican Christian, he lost his faith as a result of his own theory
– the theory advocated by Charles Darwin about the development of species. The theory of evolution claims that species emerge by natural processes alone, rather than by the miraculous creation of G-d
Karl Marx
philosopher and economist, who advocated the socialist economic system, and on whose ideas communism is built. Marx was an outspoken critic of religion, calling it the “opium of the people,” since he believed hat it was like a drug which kept the lower classes passive and resigned in their economic oppression
a. Online Notes: taught that history is governed by simple economic forces, without any divine or spiritual influence. In fact, religion is the “opium of the people,” a drug designed by the wealthy and powerful to keep the lower classes passive in their economic oppression
Sigmund Freud
founder of psychoanalysis, a branch of psychology, known especially for his investigations into the unconscious aspects of the human mind. Freud was a critic of religion, believing that religious ideas were factious projections of child-like wishes
a. Online Notes: developed a theory that focuses on ‘unconscious’ motivation. He argued that religion is essentially wish-fulfillment: every person has an image of his or her father embedded in the ‘unconscious,’ and projects this image of an all-powerful father onto God. Religion is therefore a childish stage of human development, and one that will eventually be outgrown
– literally “the rule of G-d,” a system of government which has as its worldview a common set of beliefs about G-d and G-d’s relationship with their community, and whose civil laws were governed by its religious agenda
a. Notes: the new theocracy – reform movement in England that had been rejected – Puritans (wanted to purify the English church, especially the bishops) – puritans were in the middle between Catholic and Protestant – Anglican church did not go far enough – Calvinist notions on scripture – City Set Upon a Hill – John Winthrop (myth of American exceptionalism – view we still hold)
b. Online Notes: a society that has as its worldview a common set of beliefs about G-d and whose civil laws are goverened by its religious agenda – religious leaders exercised rigorous control over Puritan communities – forbidding religious dissent (MA has a heresy law requiring the death penalty for anyone who denied the bible was the word of G-d – Rhode Island was the lone exception, its charter guaranteed religious freedom for all – they were Puritans who wanted to reform the Anglican Church h of all traces of medieval Catholicism – particularly the office of bishop – they divided into Presbyterians (hierarchy of representative assemblies) and Congregationalists (locally autonomous churches) – inspired by reformed Calvinist churches – they were the pilgrims – strangers in the world in search of their true home - manifest destiny
Refuge of Tolerance
– a term used to describe the mid-Atlantic English colonies whose leaders had considerable tolerance for religious diversity, in comparison to some of their neighbors, thereby providing a refuge for Jews, Quakers, Mennonites, Moravians, Amish and Catholics
a. Notes: took place in midatlantic colonies – you could choose your religion – this was the view that was actually successful

b. Online Notes: mid-Atlantic colonies founded on the basis of religious tolerance – New Jersey was home to English and Scottish Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Christians and the Society of Friends (quackers) – quackers went on to found Pennsylvania – which became the home to German Lutherans, Mennonites, Moravians, Amish and Catholics – Maryland was an English colony open to Catholics – Jews settled in New Amsterdam
Manifest Destiny
a term used to describe the pilgrims’ belief that their call to come to the New World was a divinely granted second chance for the human race, and that G-d was making a new coven anent with them
a. Notes: special destiny G-d has called the Americans to establish theocracy – a society with world view of a common belief about G-d and bese its laws on those beliefs – exception was Rhode Island – based its charter on guarantee for religious freedom – all the other pilgrims just wanted to fulfill manifest destiny
Great Awakening
a spiritual renewal that took place in the English colonies of the eighteenth century AD. It was designed to foster a spiritual “quickening,” or awakening among Christians who had become lax in their faith
a. Notes: response to enlightenment – designed to awaken Christians in the colonies because enlightenment led to decline in religious life – great awakening marked the beginning of evangelicalism in America – beliefs: bible is absolute authority – Christ events are historically reality – true religion required personal relationship with Jesus – shared gospels with others and missionaries

b. Online Notes: because of the decline in people’s interest and involvement in organized religious life (spurred by the Enlightenment and economic opportunities in the New World) – response was several New England preachers initiating a movement to “awaken” Christians in the colonies from their spiritual slumber
a religious meeting designed to awaken in people an awareness of their sin and their need for forgiveness. Revival meetings were part of the Great Awakening, an eighteenth-century AD spiritual renewal movement in the English colonies
Jonathan Edwards
a Calvinist minister who was one of the more famous revival preachers of the Great Awakening, an eighteenth-century spiritual renewal movement in the English colonies

a. Online Notes: great theologian of the Awakening – provided theological foundation for the revival movement – Calvinist that reaffirmed G-d’s sovereignty and human sinfulness – yet allowed that one could be assured of his or her salvation through signs provided by G-d
George Whitefield
a Methodist minister who was one of the more famous revival preachers of the Great Awakening, an eighteenth-century spiritual renewal movement in the English colonies

a. Online Notes: great preacher of the awakening – preached revivals until he died – often preached outdoors in an emotional style placing stress on visible signs of conversion
a model of church organization based upon the style of the earliest Christian communities. Its leaders are part of the local community and their authority comes from within the local community
Holiness Churches
a family of Protestant churches who seek perfection in the world by developing a lifestyle of personal holiness and following a rigid code of behavior. It includes the Free Methodist Church, the Church of G-d, the Holiness Christian Church, and the Church of the Nazarene
a. Online Notes: revival in the Methodists known as the Holiness movement – entire sanctification is not absolute sinlessness but freedom from conscious sin in through, word and deed
Pentecostal Churches
a family of Protestant churches whose members demonstrate their Christian faith through the gift of the Holy Spirit, in particular, healing, wisdom to discern spirits, prophecy, and speaking in tongues. It includes the Assemblies of G-d, the Church of G-d, the Pentecostal Holiness Church, the Apostolic Faith church, the Church of G-d in Christ, and the Full Gospel Fellowship
a. Online Notes: revival movement of Baptist and Methodist traditions – gift of Holy Spirit in a believer’s life – Pentecostal gift is speaking in tongues – led to revival
a Greek term meaning “speaking in tongues,” one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit
Free Churches
a family of Christian churches rooted in the Radical Reformation movements. They developed because their members sought an asceticism that created a community separate from the mainstream of secular society. These free or nonstate churches place their emphasis on free will and preach a common priesthood of the believers. The family includes Mennonites, the Amish, the Brethren, Quakers, and Free-Church Brethren
a. Notes: sought freedom from society – try to stay separate from society

b. Online Notes: Mennonites, Amish, Brethern, Quackers, Hutterites – traced their roots to radical reformation – tried to remain separate from larger society – practice believer’s baptism – oppose war – refuse any involvement in secular government
Baptist Churches
– this family of Christian churches is similar to the Free churches in their emphasis on free will. However, their roots are in the Puritan community of New England. They were also influenced by the Dutch Mennonites and millennialist movements who looked to the books of Daniel and Revelation, seeking “signs of the times” and a proper way of life for Christian believers
a. Notes: began as puritans – began practicing adult baptism – heavily involved in large society
b. Online Notes: Southern, American, General, National – began as Puritans who chose to reject infant baptism – consistent with puritan roots – heavily involved in larger society
Fundamentalist Movement
Began as a militant reaction to liberal Protestantism and to developments in modern science and the historical study of the Bible. The name comes from a series of pamphlets called “The Fundamentals” publish by conservative Protestants, which stressed that there were certain fundamental Christian beliefs that could not be changed or watered down
a. Notes: the fundamentalists were against the modernist interpretations of the bible – they had views on biblical inerrancy, virgin birth, substantiutionary atonement, bodily resurrection and Jesus’ miracles

b. Online Notes: began as a militant reaction against modernist interpretations of the Bible (denying Jesus’ virgin birth, miracles, resurrection, etc) – were beginning to take hold of the mainstream protestant churches – some conservative protestants began publishing pamphlets which stressed (biblical inerrancy, virgin birth, substitutionary atonement, bodily resurrection and miracles) – eventually they came to be associated with dispensationalism and opposition to the theory of evolution – resulted in Presbyterians and Baptists
Seventh-Day Adventists
an American church that emerged out of the millennial expectation that accompanied the second Great Awakening, a spiritual renewal that spread across the United States and its territories toward the beginning of the nineteenth century. They observe Saturday as the proper day for worship and view a literal reading of the Bible as the only fuel of faith
a. Online Notes: started with the prophecies of William Miller (who predicted Jesus would return in 1843) – reorganized under the leadership of James and Ellen White – observe Saturday as day of worship and Sunday worship is the “mark of the beast”
Jehova's Witnesses
an American Christian church which has its origins in the International Bible Students Association founded by Charles Taze Russell. The church is intensely focused on eschatology and on the immanent return of Christ at the end of time

a. Online Notes: founded by Charles Taze Russell – predicted Jesus would return secretly in 1874 and openly in 1914 – deny divinity of Christ and refuse to recognize the legitimacy of any church or state
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
– also known as the Mormons, this American church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, based upon a vision he had concerning the appearance of the risen Christ in the Americas

a. Online Notes: Mormons – founded by Joseph Smith when he claimed the Book of Mormon had been revealed to him by an angel named Moroni – book tells the story of the migration of some Israelites to the New World long before Christ and of how Christ appeared to them after his resurrection – they think of themselves as the spiritual descendants of those Israelites – seem non-Christian because they teach that humans may become the g-ds of their own universes and claim to possess new, canonical revelation – they are patritotic, optonistic about human potential, and emphatic about family values
a Christian perspective on history, which says that scripture tells the history of G-d’s dealings with humanity, a history that can be divided into various stagescalled dispensations. Christians are living in the sixth stage, the age of the Spirit, and are about to enter the seventh dispensation, the fullness of time. Therefore, they ought to read the scriptures from this perspective in order to prepare for the final days
Social Gospel
– a term used to describe the solution of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant society o social problems of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century AD. Inspired by the writings of Walter Rauschenbush, the Social Gospel movement said that the church should be seen as the vehicle for spreading G-d’s kingdom on earth and therefore should be primarily concerned about social justice. They hoped to “Christianize” the United States by changing the social structure of the nation

a. Online Notes: advocated for collective solutions to deal with the needs of workers – associated with Walter Rauchenbusch who was a Baptist minister in NY – argued Jesus did not just preach individual salvation but there is a social dimension to the gospel – the transformation of life in the here and now
Ecumenical Movement
gathering of Christian bishops called to resolve urgent issues affecting the whole church

Online Notes: decree on ecumenism refers to Protestants as ‘separated brethren” and teaches that they are in real – though imperfect – communion with the Catholic Church
Quest for the Historical Jesus
a development of the Renaissance movement, the use of historical knowledge to evaluate ancient writings, as well as existing traditions and institutions; a modern approach to the study of the Bible, whereby the Bible is subjected to scientific scrutiny and the critic attempts to discover if the events it records can be verified historically the same way that other historical facts are verified
Liberation Theology
a. Online Notes: preferential option for the poor – as a result of Catholic social teachings some church leaders began to support the poor against oppressive political leaders – Gustavo Gutierrez published A Theology of Liberation – arguing that Christians cannot simply proclaim a gospel of good news to those who are living in abject poverty – they must advocate for justice on their behalf and confront their oppressors to liberate both the oppressors and the oppressed – parishes in Latin America formed communities to provide a place for discussion, mutual support and common action – some countries had the support of bishops and others did not – a key insight on their theology is that sin is not only committed by individuals but can be built into social structures – therefore those who develop, support, or fail to confront oppressive laws are themselves guilty of violence against the poor, even if they have never committed a personal act of violence
Feminist Theology
a. Online Notes: advocated for the quality of women in the churches – many protestant denominations now ordain women to various positions of leadership - feminists within the Catholic church are fighting for the ordination of women priests – they seek to reconstruct women’s place in Christian history and introduce women’s perspectives into questions about the nature of G-d – argue that all images for G-d are metaphorical and therefore nurturing, feminine images can be just as appropriate if not more appropriate – they argue that the church should use gender-neutral language in reference to G-d
Black Theology
a. Online Notes: goals of self-determination, community control and liberation replaced desegregation and integration – some demanded that white churches pay economic reparations for slavery – others developed a Black Theology in response to the challenge the black power movement was posing to the black church – G-d identifies himself with the struggle of black people and has signaled their ultimate victory in the resurrection of Jesus who comes to liberate the oppressed – white theologians failed to take account of the oppressed in their theologies

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