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Art History 181 with John Cunnally Exam 2 Review


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Etienne Boullee?
An architect of France. Designed the Grand Royal Library. Passat? Supported regularity & repetition. Interior of Library had cffers. Never built due to lack of resources. Believed in the religion of reason where all answers are solved with science.
Designed by Boulee, it contained a large sphere and had holes to represent the stars like a planetarium. Cypress trees?
Jean Chalgrin?
Designed the Arc de Triumphe when appointed by Napoleon, which was simliar to a Roman style arc except about 7 times bigger and it the center of all streets, like a square. Created in 1806.
Francois Rude?
Sculptor of the Arc de Triumphe in the 1840s.
La Marseillaise?
Based on a song in allegorical form. Has people dressed in Roman clothing to emphasize neo-classicism.
Robert Scot?
An engraver chosen to design the silver dollar, which had the goddess Liberty on obverse and eagle on reverse. Ben Franklin thought the bird was a bad omen and wanted a Turkey. Libery's hair is loose and is busty.
Obverse and Reverse?
Obverse if the head part of a coin and the reverse is the tails side.
I don't know why this in here since this is an English term.
Another name for an eagle that is used on the silver dollar. Ben Franklin did not want to use it as he thought it was a bad omen and wanted a turkey instead.
Thomas Jefferson?
Loved neo-classicism and the French Revolution although the US Congress did not support the Reign of Terror. This was tied to busying the Louisiana Territory in 1808. He redesigned the hose of Montecello.
Monticello, Virginia, begun 1796?
Jefferson's self designed house. Means "gentle hill or mountain". Designed in 1770, started in 1796 and rescrapped plans while talking to French artists while an ambassador and the house was finished in 1808. Featured a portico, podium, colonade, pediment and wooden columns. He believed that the home should be sacred.
A porch or walkway with a roof supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of a building.
Podium, colonnade, pediment?
1. The base.
2. Passage
3. used for sculpture or engraving.
Pierre L'Enfant?
Designed Washington, DC in 1791/2.
Washington, D.C., founded 1791?
Federal Capitol donated by Maryland.
Grid plan?
Used in Philedelphia by William Penn. He used it from the Romans.
Radial plan?
Planned by Pierre L'enfant for Washington, DC.
James Hoban?
Won for the design of the president's house with one side "hard" and the other "soft".
A tholos is a large Mycenaean tomb that is often described as a "beehive tomb" because of its shape.
William Thornton?
Designed the capitol building.
Benjamin Latrobe?
Responsible for the interior of the capitol building.
A flatten column.
A casket, chest, or trunk; especially, one used for keeping money or other valuables.
Thomas U. Walter?
Expanded the capitol building. He did this by putting a taller dome like St Peter's Cathedral , in a Rennaissance style. This dome was supported by iron, took 2 years to complete, and had sheets of marble, as opposed of solid marble.
Horatio Greenough?
Sculpted the Statue Portrait of George Washington. He was commissioned to do this around 1832 and it took him 9 years to complete. He tried imitating Zeus/Jupiter. He described it as Washington being the father of the nation, putting hte sword down for peace, pointing towards heaven as a source of power. Piece was put away in the basement do to non-understanding Congressmen.
This is based on the description of the statue of George Washington by Greenough. He tried imitating Zeus/Jupiter. He described it as Washington being the father of the nation, putting hte sword down for peace, pointing towards heaven as a source of power. Piece was put away in the basement do to non-understanding Congressmen.
Hiram Powers?
Painted a nude in 1847. It was based on Medici Venus. It represents the Greek sex slaves taken when Greek was fighting the Turks.
The new term for the middle class French. These are characteristics of a family: 1. Democracy. 2. Progress. 3. Consumption.
Honore Daumier?
Political cartoonist that hated Napoleon III.
Invented around 1800, it was a scary play with ghosts and goblins. It used a fog machine which would cast projections. This evolved into the Magic Latern Show where glass slides painted were projected on a wall by lamps.
Invented around 1850. Controlled advertisements in France as a place to post ads.
Fat Face?
A font with an exaggerated Bondoin in which it is super thin and fat.
Sans Serif?
Fonts without sefis or curvy ends.
A blocky font invented in 1852.
A fancy and decorated font.
Hoop Skirt?
Skirts made with rings to be easily collapsible. Gain in popularity due to the Bourgeoisie wanting pre-revolution aristocratic clothing.
Isaac Singer, 1851?
Patented the first sewing machine. Also installment plan.
Installment Plan?
Invented by Isaac Singer for his sewing machine. When he wanted to sell more, he would offer a monthly payment plan that would include interest.
Jean Ingres?
An artist famous for painting Odalisque in 1840.
Painted by Jean Ingre in 1840. It contains smooth surfaces and a sharp edge. Odalisque in French means Harem Girl which is somewhat of a concubine. She is Turkish because her fan is made of peacock feathers and there is an opium pipe.
Eugene Delacroix?
He is the laternative to Neo-classicism. He painted The Death of Sardanapalus in 1827 and Liberty Leading the People in 1830.
Somewhat of a reactionary movement started largly by Delacroix. Used fuzzy lines and emphasized more on color.
Classicism vs. Romanticism?
More like Ingres versus Delacroix. The political cartoon describes Ingres and Delacroix having a joust. Delacroix has a paint brush and says something along the lines of supporting color and Ingres holds a pencdil saying something like "Long Live The Line".
Linear vs. Painterly?
Linear emphasized more on lines than anything else. Painterly relied more on color.
Joseph Turner?
Painted the Burning Houses of the English Parliament in 1835. The event actually happened in 1834 and Turner won the English Exhibition the year he finished his painting. It reflects the "Earth Wind Fire Water" presumed elements.
Baron Georges Cuvier?
Wrote the Discourse on the Revolution on the Surface of the Globe
Discourse on the Revolutions of the Surface of the Globe, 1825?
Written by Baron Cuvier. Need more information.
The theory that the earth/nature changes through periodic catastrophes.
John Constable?
English romantic painter. Known for Hay Wayne (Wagon). He was known as the "Quiet" or meditative romantics.
Philosophy that connecting to God has to be past the surface. Hanging out with nature and what-not is a plus.
Frederick Law Olmsted?
Landscape architect who teamed up with Calvert Vaux.
Calvert Vaux?
Landscape architect who teamed up with Frederick Law Olmsted. Famouse for Central Park and the Iowa State campus.
The paths used that were winding and curvy.
Wanted nature right in New York...I guess?
Andrew Jackson Downing?
Wrote a book titled "The Artchitecture of Country Housing in 1815.
The craft of carpentry that specializes in joints.
Balloon Frame?
Made with 2x4s and some nails as well in conjunction with joinery.
Riverside, Illinois?
A suburb in Chicago that was 10 miles away in 1869. They were bought in plots to sell for profit and where a railroad had thrived.
Queen Anne Style?
Style of houses that include towers, several eaves, a porch, round pointed roofs, and not symmetrical. Resembled a castle.
John Henry Belter?
Originally named Johan Heinrich due to his German nature, he was a furniture craftsman who opened a store in the 1800s in New York. He used a lot of nails, the upholstery was mass produced, lamination was invented and heavily used, the cushioned was springed.
The process of bluing two pieces of wood together. One thick cheap wood with thin expensive woods.
Napoleon III (Louis Bonaparte)?
Launched the City Beautiful Movement in the 1850s.
The secret (well, not really that secret) name of Bonapart III given by Honore Daumier in his political cartoons.
Baron Georges Haussmann?
The architect appointed by Bonaparte III. He created the Urban Removal System.
A type of person who strolls the boulevards. Likes to watch people and observe life. For women, they also were more often outside.
Charles Garnier?
Designed the Operahouse of Paris around 1861. Used arches and paired columns to remind everyone of the King Louis's. Escalier de Honeur.
A method for printing on a smooth surface by using stones and oils and acids.
Reflected partially on positivism. Where things only exist if it happened in reality.
Gustave Courbet?
Coined the term "Realism" and was a heavy supported of positivism. The bourgeosie hated him for the most part, one of the reasons was he came from a farming family and was built like one. He was famous for "The Stone Breakers" in 1849 and "The Real Allegory" in 1854.
Auguste Comte?
He was a scientist and a writer. He was somewhat the father of socialogy. Like positivism.
The philosophy that only things that exist are things that happen in real life.
Realist Manifesto?
This was handed out during the Realism Exhibition in from of the other Exhibition in France. Perhaps it had the three ideas Courbet had in his painting in "The Real Allegory": 1. Devotion of the nake truth, 2. The innocent eye, 3. Animal instincts.
Pavilion of Realism?
The alternative for rejected Salon participants. Courbet held this and was threaned to be sent to jail. Fortunately his intellectual friends help him out.
Windsor Style?
Furniture in the style of an English farm house. It was secure and comfortable, miade of spindles fitted into holes, , and had styles like "comb back" and "bow back" and "shell back" and "fan back". King George loved it when he was resting in a small village. It eventually became popular with New England settlers.
Shaker Style?
Simple and rounded furniture. Did not have sharped edges due to children playing around. Very light due to the need to move them during services. Also popularized the rocking chair.
Michael Thonet?
Austrian/Italian funiture maker. He mass produced Bentwood furniture, which sold all over Europe and America. The bentwood rocker had an option to be self assembled. The most famious is the Chair #14. It was bascially as Veinna cafe chair with many imitations. It is perreniel. It looks are based on functionalism, abstract rococo, and realism.
Lewis Cubitt?
He was commissioned in London to build a railroad station. He came up with King's Cross in 1851.
Decimus Burton?
Designed the Kew Gardens in 1844. It was what the modern greenhouse is. Plate glass and iron based. It was used in a Botanical garden.
Prince Albert?
He suported science and technology to compete against France. He wanted a building for the World's Fair.
Joseph Paxton?
Designed the Crystal Palace in 1851. The design is basically a green house that Prince Albert loved. It was practically a large greenhouse.
Modular Construction?
Constructed in fitted peices that were alike and were to be able to deconstruct easily. They could also substitue for the missing pieces.
Henry Eyles?
He developed the Prince Henry marchair.
Elisha Otis?
Patented the elevator in 1884. It featured a racheted system to prevent deaths due to malfunctions.
Sir Henry Bessemer?
Invented the Bessemer conversion. It was a big egg shpaed container to purify pig iron. This word by filling the container with the iron while it was tilted upright. The steam engine would blast hot air from the bottom. The air mixed from the impurities would come out to the top. This was developed due to a demand for a better canon weapon.
It was a big egg shpaed container to purify pig iron. This word by filling the container with the iron while it was tilted upright. The steam engine would blast hot air from the bottom. The air mixed from the impurities would come out to the top.
Great Chicago Fire, 1871
Due to the close proximity of the buildings made with hazardous material. A small fire in a small room caught on and spread quickly throughout the city. By the 1880s, the city was back up due to the country's need for a midwestern city that connects to the rest of the country.
William LeBaron Jenney?
Built the first skyscraper, The Fair Store in 1890. It was a department store with an elevator with Iron framework coated with concrete for fireproofing. Had a "curtain wall".
Curtain Wall?
It was a wall being held by the iron frame as opposed by being held by the wall itself.
Louis Sullivan?
Said that the US needed to be artistic independently. He was patriotic. At first he was a math and science major from MIT. He latter left for Paris at the Ecole de Beauxart. Made the Wain Wright.
The sections of a building split into three. First hte lower edge was the ground floor mostly for shops and others that needed large windows. The second was the mezzanine. Had business offices. The third was the Cap or Cornice lid.
Form follows function.
The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered, 1896?
Followed Sullivan's three principals:
1. Strong verticals.
2. Steel frame grid.
3. Decoration/motifs.
World's Columbian Exposition, 1893?
Showed Chigcago's renewal after the fire. It celebrated America and named after Christopher Columbus. It featured Beaxart Classicism. It also featured George Ferris's Ferris wheel.
Richard Hunt?
Hired to design the administration building in 1893.
Daniel Burnham?
Designed the Fine Art building in 1893.

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