This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.



undefined, object
copy deck
topography of egypt
lies in the north because the nile flows into the medtiertainian
old kingdom
menes to 3rd king of the 13 dynasty
mid kindom
hykosos to the end of the 17th dynasty
new kingdom
18th to the end of the pharonic era
eary 3rd centuary from the nile delta, comissioned by kign ptolemy 2nd to write history, we dont have his originals only copies etc one form gerogoies the syncelus, copies show some consistiecies and add their own alteration, one metioned europe which dint exist yet
palmero stone
list 1st dynasty end of hte old kindom carbed on bastal records nile floods based on temple achives
king snofro and palmero stone
recorded him conquring and brding home 700 prisoners, note kings are show of they round up
abydos list of sety
a list of anncestors in the name circles, the record omits kind women and king who beleived thier wa sonly one god
royal Canon of turin
written in teh 19th dynasty during the reing of ramsese 32nd, tax list on one side king list on the outher, kyrosos says reined 100+ more of a impartial source
agricultural caledendar
based on nile flods
lunar caldenar
based on moon phase 29 -30 days
civil caldenar
365, 12 months 30 days plus 5
linked to early helical rsing of sirusis on teh eastern horizon 365.25 days
egyptian dating system:
year month day seasons
wmf petire
father of eqyptian archeology,, used sequenced dates, uses diffrent pottery types to devleope relative dating
absolute chronology
use radio carobn tree rings, thurmolimence dating: heat up samples based on light ommited
maker of stone tools spearheads
multi region theory
that we all came from aferica has homo erectus and thene evolved into homsapeins in diferant parts of the world
out of aferica
we evovled into homo sapein sapeins when we were in aferica
Middle Palaeolithic
age of the neanderthal europe was too cold for man, they had a new hand tool making tecnique called levoutus
smaller flakes shaper more people invovled
late paleolithic
north afterica goes microlithic, uses very small tools for spear heads maybe no one knows
transition to sedentary lifes, higher temp, semi permient residnece
farming, domestic animals, wild forms of plant and hanmals had to be avaible for domesticatiion, around the equator some failed miserably, if a tool had a glosy edge it was from teh neolothic, cut down trees
human head, sculputre, religous segnifiacne
Chalcolthic agew
copper and gold, sites in the nile
site hk29a temple ,elephant connection, burrials x 2 next to the rulers, they were kep alive in captivity fora while perhaps the over inforn of the temple was used for riutal hunter, most post holes.
abydos cemetary uj
4th millenimum, fake dummey food, jewelry make up grinder clay hippo, vessel from u 279 picture of a man w/ tail controlling pisoners samples of early writing and royal regalia, forein pottery full of wine, contained early writings,
Maadi 1930
exovated in the 1930's underground dwellings + potery that seems foreing, tombs have very few things but many tombs shows differant beleif in the after life (buto in the western Nile Delta)
pre historic egypt upper egypt
naqauda abydos, developments in thsi time include great archeteiucre developments in crafts heiracal soceity and trade
Buto - western nile delta
capital of lower egypt in the 4th century pottery level 1-2 had wavy handles and also unique pieces differant style from elsewhere in egypt increasingly replaced by better pottery form upper egypt no evidence of conflict but evidence of trade
development of material cutlure
spreads from Naqauda as materal spreads so does religion politics develop from this leading to, material culture pre dates political unification
narmer Palette
fround in 60 cm found in hierakompolis, no king lists, Narmer is depicted smiting anouther figure, the king is the embodyment of horus the falcon god, narmer is shown as wearing a the crown of both upper and lower egypt, looking over the deaed, embodies him conquring egypt, looking over the dead.
dog pallet
seth the god of chaos depicted orchestrating chaos on the dog pallette the fundimental royal duty is to contian and prevent chaos, both depiciting destruction of chaos
royal cemetary u abydos
all kings form teh 1st dyansty buried here but only 2 from the 2nd the tombs move to the south, the tombs have name tags, called stela gate to the underworld
tomb of king den
excivated by petrie; german acheologies, currently working there, subsiduary burials up to 600 people sacrifices with the king, hyptohesis might not be pricen
old kingdom the pyramid age
many pyramids were all around the capital memphis king djoser at sqaura is the royal necropolis
Djoser funerary complex
invovles a step pyramid big courtyard enclosed w/a huge frence
Jean Laver tomb conitnued
the main researcher on a step pyramids, exparimental columbs they built a wall to support them.
stone box w/2 eyes holes which used to contain a statue of the king looking to the north at circumpolar stars. egyptians beleived the stars is where the gods lived
stone bench at djoser
the step pyramid started as a stone bench then it was enlarged on either side, then the other steps were added until it was a pyramid
why did they built pyramids slowly (djoser)
was seen as a stairway to heaven, they built it up slowly b/c the king lived a long time so they had time to improve it
architect, reached divine level
snofru endures
it is the first rue pyramid, it was built from the inside out his second pyramid at dahsur south is bent, the third red pyramid at dursh north were he was burried
Giza the hree great pyramids
pyramid complex includes a valley temple, cuasway, pyramid temple, satelltie temple
giza and food
kings needed eternal provision so every day food was brought for centires, this made it necessary to ahve more plantations organization etc pyramids were the engine of the egyptian economey
inside the pyramids
pyramids were always differ, it includes a queens chamber but falsly named,
is it a rendition of somone,
3 great pyramids cont
they are differant sizes, one is smaller the casing blocks all were stolen by robbers
pyramid texts
they are not the same in all pyramids, what are they funary texts or description of the underowrld , monotnenous
4 key elements of a pyrmaid
burial chamber of a pyramid small corridor antichamber ascending passageway
5th dynasty
sancturies for the sun god re built with an oblek stucutre they built pyramids w/man power some volunteers theory an inner ramp allowed supplies to move up the pyramid
mastaba Bench tomb
contains a chapel w/ a false door burial chamber with sarcophagus k3-nj nswt at giza a nobles tomb contains a cult chamber has later additiosn for other perhaps not even realted, as mastabs evlvole more open space is encorporated toa llow other to enter for praying and offerings to the dead; they develop into cult chapels. all things idealsizes tatue look somtimes same and indiuvdaliy comes only with adding a name statues were stndardized
first intermeidate period (generalized
the period after the collapse of centarlized rule of old kingdom nomarchs gained power, several dynasties ruled at teh same time poltical chaos were many individuals were rising adn falling form power
First intermediate: antichifi of moalla
the hero without peer, tomb was flawed he had a biography witten in the tomb "i am the beginnign adn the end of the people
pattern of nomarch texts
crisis- decision- salvation
nomarchs poltical vacume
everyone boastws the monarch filed the vacume left by the absence of central rule and hwo htey rose to action.
material from the qau region
petrie followed the texts of tombs stephan siedmaer made a period classifications of tombs he found men were burried clsoer to the capital but their toms wer made equal the kind of ojbects varired
tomb evdience in intermeidate period
the are smaller pottery vessels more gold, more pottery found in tombs, bigger shafts.. ther god richness. concl - nomarch spoke of crisis but it was it was to legitiamte themselves rural egypt became reacher wealth spread conspocus if modest wealth.
Mentuhotep 2nd Deir el Bahri
a monarch who managed to rienute a fractured egyptain state
why did the old kindom fall
perhaps long reign of a single king, economey failure, claimate change (flood change) military attacks loss of control of power becomes decentralized to provinces and goveners
hatsheput temple, her best preserved monument
valley timple causeway, many headless statues, why perhapts illacite aritifact trade (mentuhotep 2nd)
hatsheput : the gate of horse
opened intoa under granoudn passageway leading to a statue of mentuhotep, shown black, (reprsenting osirus, thje god shown black representing osirus, the god of the underworld wearing the crown of a lower egypt
foundation pits at hatsheput
offerings bricks containg labels of kinds names inside made of different materials
chapells in hatseput
chapels in the tomb containing queens + princess one of hte esouthern features, , minature models of serviance
tomb of chancellor meket re (mentuhotep 2nd
around the corner from mentuhotep, to be close to the king, contains a model chamber wooden to the south
middle kigdom cemetries: beni hasan
tombs of nomarchs mayors look down form the ridge, the tombs get larger and larger an incrase in wealth
Tomb bh17 Kheti (middle kindgom)
overlord of the orynx nom, wrestlers sieges of fortresses, the tomb owner is the largest image, depiction fo yellow people w/ differant haridos and clothing, asatics are shown yellow
Hequa keshat
ruler of forein
more middle kindom tombs
tombs start having orignal decorations instead of allt he sme
tomb of serenput 2 (middle)
his statue is depecited as white = importance again as him become osirus empty spaces ont he walls perhapos teh plaster just decayed anf ell of but emply space wasnt uncommon in ther era, they also ahd grid on teh walls for prototion so they can get the thigns idenitical, most tombs found unfiished becuase if you were finnished your tomb u than havve to die.
middle kindom settlements kahun
planned city, many record allow us to trace entire generations
organic, a very organic village in contrast to kahun whish sii more planned and layed out, ie strees are not all zig zaggy
sancutary of heqaib (middlde kindom
contains little chappels, basins for libtions and offerings, run by subseuqnet genrations
serenput 2 statue
hist posture is like the old kindgom, big ears are common with royasl and noblity to show they are good listners,
mentuhotep 2nd
a monarch u managed to reinte the egyptian state,
hatshepsut temple
mentuhoteps best reserved tempple,: vlley temple and causway
tomb of chancellor meket re (mentuhotp 2
around the corner from mentuhotep meant to be close to the king contains a model wooden chamber , models offering bearers boats workshops one of the priarmy sources of the time also models of daily scenes why the shift form paintings to models this
what is signifcant about the models found at mentuhotep
showed that everyone will become osirus in the afterlife thats why these models were often hidden
middle kingdom intro
new language evolved but heiroglyphs were the same, the famous fairly tales myths origate form this time,
royal building program of the 12th dynasty
pyramids fortresses temples , pyramids in the middle kingdom were nto well preserved built with mud bricks so when the casing was stoel the instide decayed. they economiszed so more temple building was possible
fortresses of the middle kingdom
similar looking to european fortresses, concentration in the south near cateracts , plane types built rarther form the river close one were smalle and more irregular reason for placement of fortreses is they city fo kerma a city of warrieriors to the south
city of kerma
warrior city to the south of egypt, reason for fortreses
middle kingdom cemetaries beni hasan
tombs of nomarchs and myarops look down form the ridge, when the tombs were restored in teh 1990s it was poorly done rsuling a in a mutaltic of the picture, tombs get larger and larger , an increase in wealth
tomb bh17 of kehti (MK)
kheti: overlord of onyx the nom, dipicts wrestlers sieges of fortresses the tomb owner is the largest image depeictions of yellow people w/ differant haridos and clothing. these were the asiatics
middle kindom tombs
land, tombs show life ideally insteae of realisiticly tombs start having orogianl decorations instead of all the same in the middle kindomg
tomb of sErenput 2nd
his statue depcited as white = emportance is again him become osirus emply tspaces on teh walls perhaps the palkster decayed but empty space wasnt uncommon in this era, meaning people dint always finnish thier tombs , also have grids on thier walls to get the right prortion.
Mk Kahan
planned, many records allow us to trace the ntire generations
elphantine mk
5000 yeras of stratogrophy a very organic village in contrast with kahan which was more planneda and layed out
the sancutary of heqaib (MK)
contains little chapels basising for libation and offerings , run by following genrations
serenput 2nd statue
hid podyutr id likr yhr olf kinhom nih rstd str vommon on toysld snf nonbility show that they are good listeners.
the second intermediate period
the prevous kingdom ended in the 13th dyansty there was a retreat to to theves and a bandoning of fortresses perhaps there was a conflict over the succesion the last ruler was a womean and also the hyksos arrived.
the hyksos - menetho
he says that invader took up the palce in captial of mepmhis and set up on avaris but the thevens last ruler revolted and drove out the forengers
hyksos; outher egyptian sources
story of apophis and seqenre, authobiography of ahmos son of ibana hatsheptus at sppeaos armtimdas roayal cannon of turen
king Sequnre
his mummy was found looks like he died in battle with a duck bill axe in his head a weapon of foreiners (hyksos prob)
ahmos sone of ibana
found in the tomb of elkab, instricptions speak about ancient avris showing he took part in the battle there, driving ou tthe hyksos before moving on and attacking the kysoso city of sharuhen also showed the small numbers could make big differances in battle
excavating avaris (tell El daba )
asiatics live ther lfie sized statues found in tombs which have the distinct hair doos and also found foreing weapons in thier tombs, warrior people, they had worked fo rhte gyptain crown a long time tradition
early 13th dynasty
proofs that asciatics st in places and had tmeple ie tomb of amu deputy treature . tell el yahudya ware, foreing pottery becoems bery popular large trade in perfume, canaanite amphora larger vessels contain wine. switch from asitaics to kyksos material culture was all the same
citadel 15th dynasty
contains many murrels of bul jumping a minoan connection? nope dating was a change also grphinis represening wwomen so perhaps.
story hyksos
only had power in the north. in the south the kush had power and htey pushed up form the south. egyptains were squashed in the middle in thebes kuushites pushed up into egypt but get pushed back then tebans drive out the kysos and a unified egypt is restablished.
inciptions at avaris sip
indicate the swithc in name for asiatics to hyksos
what happned to the hyksos
no evidence of a great movment of people, so probably just assimilated
mew vs old vs middle
in the old kingom local built temples all goods grew out of local worship, in the middle kidom king start ot undertake some timples but wihtout unification. in the new kingdom bring a standard lay out
mew kingdom temples
hypostyle: a roof suported by colombs inner sancutary: also roofed but it is getting lower. also as you more inward the floor rises. as you move in it also get darker and only elites are allowed in to comunicate with divine sphere kings gaurtneed riatuals and control the chaos, the temple is the sphere of the cosmos.
Thebes Karnak temple
vatican of ancient egypt, the most selected of palces it is an obligation of the kings ot build for hte gods so often more courtyard adn pylons were added = the outer most one is the youngest one constructed
started karnak,
damnaio hatsheputs
she was erased from the temple
festival hall of tuthmosis 3rd
was built in the rear of the mteple instead of the fron. (exception) to the rule
the akhmenu of thutmosis 3rd (karnak)
uses strage columbs perhaps becuase he was always travelling, looks like a tent pole or it stand for a heiryglph. was always a warrior might have liked living in a tent, some of the columbs defaced by christian followers later, continued use of temple
botenical garden (karnak)
releifs of plants and animals fro his campains an offering to the god
contra temple
where commoners could go it was on the outside.
the great hypostile hall:
ramses 2nd and the peace treaty raised relif vs sunken, rameses 2 sunken releif to economize so he could make more temples close relationship between god amun adn ramssess
great hypostile /hall stone ears
the way the people would talk to the god / temples often included office workshops ad dwellings

Deck Info