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APUSH study ch.20-26


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Fort Sumter
1861 Sumter was 2 of 2 forts in South still under Union control-lincoln tried to send supplies-confederate army bombarded
Bull Run
a creek-Union failed to besiege Richmond&fled back 2 washington - confederacy victory-bothsides not ready
Monitor v. Merrimac
Monitor - Union. Merrimac - Confederacy //First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels-draw
anti-war Northern Democrats
Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens
Davis chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in states that had seceded, after Northern victory at Battle of Antietam
Election of 1864
Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won
John Wilkes Booth
actor who assassinated Lincoln in a theater
Grant corners Robert E Lee & confederates here & Lee surrenders ending the war-1865
Anaconda Plan
by Union Winfield Scott-planned naval blockade to shut out supplies fr Euro & to take Mississippi River
Wade-Davis Bill
by radical repubs-confederate would have to swear an "ironclad oath" of loyalty-Lincoln vetoed
Black codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments
Andrew Johnson
V.P. of Lincoln - became president. opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting to freedom. It furnished food and clothing
13th amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
14th amendment
1868full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants
15th amendment
1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Confederate states would be readmitted to Union if 10% of citizens took loyalty oath & state agreed to ratify 13th Amendment
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by 6 former Conferedate officers after the Civil War-attackedblacks
Ulysses S. Grant
1873 repub. after Andrew Johnson led a corrupt adminis., consisting of friends and relatives
Compromise of 1877
prez Hayes promised to end reconstruction in return for southern acceptance of his victory in election
Election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican (won) Samuel J. Tilden - Democ- fraud was suspected.
Pendleton Act
Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties
Panic of 1873
Unrestrained speculation on rr let to disaster - inflation&strikes by rr workers-3million jobless
Credit Mobilier
co. hired to construct rr-charged fed gov twice as much of cost&bribed congress to stop investigation
Horizontal integration
monopoly where company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process
Vertical integration
company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product
Black Friday
Jay Gould&Jim Fiske schemed to corner the gold market-price of gold was bid up furisouly
Salary Grab Act
1873-cong voted a 100% pay raise for prez&50% increase for itself& made both retroactive in 2 yrs
Whisky Ring
treasury officials tried to defraud gov. of $ from exise tax on whiskey-grant's sec. involved
Belknap bribery
secofwar Belknap accepted bribes fr corrupt agents involving departm. of Indian affairs-resigned
Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons-nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike
Homestead Strike
workers at Carnegie steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down
Haymarket Square bombing
workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many
Great Railroad Strike
1877 # of rr workers went on strike bc of wage cuts. After a month Prez Hayes sent troops
Knights of Labor
Terence Powderly-first union of ALL workers (included everyone)
National Labor Union
1866 - concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Samuel Gompers 1886- by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions
Wabash case
1886-individual state laws unconstitutional bc only Cong had right to control interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
established commission to oversee fair railway rates, prohibit rebates, end discriminatory practices,etc.
Plessy V. Ferguson
seperate facilities is equal
"New Imigration"
second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910 mostly fr S & E Europe
Munn v. Illinois
states have the power to regulate business for the good of the community
Dumbbell tenement
poor & overcrowded Urban apartment buildings served as housing for poor factory workers.
Chinese Exclusion act
Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese
Joseph Glidden
invented barbed wire
Dawes severalty act
to survey Indian tribal land and divide the arable area into allotments for the individual Indian.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
1876 Gen Custer & men wiped out by a coalition of Sioux & Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse
Battle of Wounded Knee
1890 Sioux convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, SD

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