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Ch 28, Suburban Era


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Worldwide Boom
increase in birth rates in US (Baby Boom) & other industrialized nations in years right after the war
"New Look" in Foreign Policy
"Bigger Bang for the Buck" emphasis in tech, reduction of standing army
US backs Ngo Dinh Diem
Diem US installed leader of S. Vietnam, does not provide free elections (even though it was required by Geneva) supported by Dulles b/c communist Viet Minh would win if an election was held democratically
Mossadeq Overthrown
CIA overthrows nationalist Iranian Govt- Mohammed Mossadeq, Operation Ajax ('51)
Bay of Pigs Invasion
US invasion of Cuba, Humiliating disaster for JFK
Big Steel Showdown
Steel hikes prices agains Kennedy's will, JFK boycotts big steel, prices go down, JFK & business relations soured
Working Women
More women work outside home '40s - '60's & more go to college although less work professional jobs
Consensus of the '50's
general agreement in American culture based on values of the broad middle class "the American way" & mindless conformity
Taiwan & Chiang Kai-Shek
Dulles threatened to "unleash" Chiang on China from his post in Taiwan, China threatened to invade, Eisenhower sent 7th fleet to protect the island
Catholic Issue
JFK, 1st Catholic president, embraced it
Nuclear Test Ban treaty
Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war
Eisenhower Doctrine
President can preempt congress's power to declare war in times of crisis
Cuban Naval Blockade
result of soviet nuclear offensive site built on Cuba (90 mi from US coast), blockade keeps additional supplies from reaching the island
Robert McNamara
JFK Secretary of Defense, a "whiz kid" intelligent, comfortable w/ power, not afraid to use it
Farm Policy
response to surplus of agricultural goods; lower support payments system to discourage farmers from overproducing basic commodities (corn, cotton, wheat) soil bank program that paid farmers to take land out of production
Fled from cities, Minorities excluded, religious fervor & divisions btwn faiths upheld ('54 addition of "under god" to pledge of alliegence)
Cuban Revolution & Castro
US supported Batista overthrown in favor of Communist Castro
Dien Bien Phu
French Military base in Vietnam, Viet Minh overtook result; US steps in, Geneva, Ho Chi Minh withdraws troops N of 17th parallel
Berlin Wall
Wall erected through Berlin to prevent people from East Berlin (Soviet, economic trouble) moving to West Berlin (US, thriving)
Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps
Alliance w/ L. America based on economic progress, Program that provided support for developing nations
Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin's successor, eased iron fist of old regime amid bouts of nationalism in Soviet controlled Eastern Europe
The Lonely Crowd, David Riesman
'50 Reisman sociologist, condemned stifling conformity in book (mostly in the workplace)
Missile Gap
response to Sputnik, first Russian space satellite, possibility that Soviets have more missiles than US
Media Portrayal of Women
Madonna (Doris Day, housewife, mother etc) v. ***** (Marilyn Monroe, sexy, independent etc), no in-between
Rock N Roll
merger of 3 styles, pop, country & R&B, "Earth Angel"(crossover) - "Shake, Rattle, and Roll"(1st rock song #1 on pop charts), Elvis Presley
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
U-2 incident
Soviets shot down US spy plane, pilot found alive, Eisenhower had to admit he had authorized the spying
Levittown, USA
William Levitt applies mass production techniques to housing (Cape Codder houses), identical communities pop up all over the nation (called Levittowns)
Guatemala's democracy crushed
Guatemalan leader pissed off US business, branded a communist, CIA overthrows uncooperative Democracy in favor of a US cooperative Military Dictatorship
The Organization Man, William Whyte
'56 book that took Riesman critique from workplace to the home
Space Program
developed in competition w/ Russians, 1969 US lunar landing Apollo 11
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower's Sec. of State, teamed up to develop new foreign policy
Beat Generation
Beatniks, self consciously rejected "excessive spiritual bankruptcy of middle class culture" jazz, philosophy, sex & drugs, Jack Kerouac "On the Road" ('57 novel)
Juvenille Delinquency
On the rise, centered in high schools "mini melting pots" middle class kids exposed to/adopt habits of lower classes (cigarette smoking/t-shirt wearing etc)
Kinsey Report
"Sexual Behavior in the Human Male ('48) & Female ('53)" scientific study by Alfred Kinsey, turned traditional presumptions about sex & marriage on its head

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