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Psychology Vocabulary (Exam 4)


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A newborn infant up to 1 month old.
Inborn, unlearned, automatic responses (such as blinking, sucking, and grasping) to certain environment stimuli
Each infant's own genetically determined, biological pattern of development
An apparatus used to measure infants' ability to perceive depth
"can descriminated depth as soon as they can crawl"
Visual Cliff
A decrease in response or attention to a stimulus as an infant becomes accustomed to it.
(triangle and circle)
Reflexes Present at Birth
~Swallowing, sucking, coughing, and blinking.
~Move arm or leg, or other body part away from a painful stimuls and will try to remove a blanket or cloth placed over face
Stroke a baby on the cheek, and you will trigger this. The baby opens its mouth and searches for nipple etc.
Rooting Reflex
Evidence of learning in infants
Harlow's experiments of attachment in infant monkeys
⬢The monkeys attached to the comforted cloth monkey mother for nourishment. Contact comfort
The early, close relationship formed between infant and caregiver.
Father-child relationship
(without a father)
Neg: child exhibits antisocial behavior, such as deceitfulness and aggression, are more likely to demonstrate such behavior themselves.
Father-child relationship
(with a father)
Children with fathers experience higher IQs and do better in social situations and at coping w/ frustration.
The mental process of modifying existing schemes and creating new ones in order to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, and information
~changing structure. Balls bounce but oranges don’t even though they are both round etc.
The mental process by which new objects, events, experiences, and information are incorporated into existing schemes.
~child has a little toy hammer and parent buys him a new wrench. Instead of using it as a wrench the child still uses it like a ham
Piaget's term for a mental process that uses specific experiences to make inferences that can be generalized to new experiences
A plan of action based on previous experiences, to be used in similar circumstances
The mental process that motivates humans to keep schemes in balance with the real environment
Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
1) Sensorimotor stage (ages birth to 2 yrs)
2) Preoperational Stage (ages 2-6 yrs)
3)Concrete Operations Stage (ages 6 to 11 yrs)
4) Formal Operations Stage (Ages 11 or 12 yrs and beyond)
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, in which infants gain an understanding of their world through their senses and their motor activites; culminates with the development of object permanence and the beginning of representational thought.
Sensorimotor stage
The realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
Object permanence
Paiget's second stage of cognitive development, which is characterized by the development and refinement of schemes for symbolic representation.
Preoperational Stage
A preoperational child's tendency to focus on only one dimension of a stimulus
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, during which a child acquires the concepts of reversibility and conservation and is able to attend to two or more dimensions of a stimulus at the same time.
Concrete Operations Stage
The fact that when only the appearance of a substance has been changed, it can be returned to its original state
(concrete op. stage)
Understanding that a given quantity of matter remains the same if it is rearranged or changed in its appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away.
(concrete op. stage)
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cog. development, which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.
Formal operations stage
Ainsworth’s four patterns of attachment
1)Secure (seek mother)
2)avoidant (ignore mother)
3)resident (insecure, upset)
4)disorganized. (disoriented)
Most common: secure
Parents who set high but realistic and resonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence
Authoritative Parents
Parents who make few rules or demands and usually do not enforce those that are made; they allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior
Permissive Parents
Parents who are permissive and are not involved in their children's lives
Neglecting Parents
The process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values
Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
Authoritarian Parents
Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Theory
1) Trust/attachment
2) Shame or doubt may result
3)Pretend play
4) Elementary school years
4)identity when an adolescent (identity versus role and confusion)
5) Adolescents must integrate
6) Primary adult goal: get & give care
7) Middle Age~productive work
8) Old age involves looking back on life
The emotional turmoil a teen experiences when trying to establish a sense of personal identity
(erikson's 8 stages)
Identity Crisis
The development stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood
Those physical characteristics that are not directly involved in reproduction but distinguish the mature male from the mature female
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The ablilty to thnk about and control one's momory processes
Kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning, in which moral reasoning is governed by the standards of others rather than the person's own internalized standards of right and wrong; acts are judged as good or as bad based on their physical consequences
preconventional level
Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, in which the individual has internalized the standards of others and judges right and wrong in terms of those standards
Conventional level
Kohlberg's highest level of moral reasoning, in which moral reasoning involves weighing moral alternatives and realizing that laws may conflict with basic human rights
Postconventional level
a type of intelligence comprising verbal ability and accumulated knowledge, which tend to increase over the lifespan
Crystallized Intelligence
A type of intelligence comprising abstract reasoing and mental flexibility, which peak in the early 20s and decline slowly as people age.
Fluid Intelligence
A group of neuraological disorders in which problems with memory and thinking affect an individual's emotional, social, and physical deterioration of the brain.
A progressive and incurable disorder that involves widespread degeneration and disruption of brain cells, resulting in dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
The pair of chromosomes that determines the biological sex of a person (XX females and XY males)
Sex chromosomes
Physiological status as male or female
Biological sex
The sex glands, the ovaries in females and the testes in males
male sex hormones
the internal and external reproductive organs; the genitals
primary sex characteristics
the physical characteristics that appear at puberty and are associated with sexual maturity but not directly involved in reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
the psychological and sociocultural definition of masculinity or feminity, based on the expected behaviors for males and females
Cultural expectations about the behaviors appropriate to each gender
Gender roles
The process by which individuals acquire the traits, behaviors, attitudes, preferences, and interests that the culture considers appropriate for their biological sex.
Gender typing
The understanding that activities and clothes dont affect geneder stability; acquired between ages 6 and 8
gender constancy
The awareness that gender is a permanent characteristic; acquired between ages 4 and 5
Gender stability
The sense of being male or female; acquired between ages 2 and 3
Gender identity
A theory suggesting that young children are motivated to attend to and behave in ways consistent with gender-based standards and stereotypes of their culture
gender schema theory
A combination of desirable masculine ad feminine characteristics in one person
according to Masters and Johnson, the typical pattern of the human sexual response in both males and females, consisting of four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Sexual Response Cycle
The first stage of the sexual response cycle, characterized by an erection in males and a swelling of the clitoris and vaginal lubrication in females
Excitement Phase
The second stage of the sexual response cycle, during which muscle tension and blood flow to the genitals increase in preperation for orgasm.
Plateau Phase
The third stage of the sexual response cycle, marked by a sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension and involuntary muscle contractions
the final stage of the sexual response cycle, during which the body returns to an unaroused state.
Resolution phase
A female sex hormone that promotes the secondary sex characteristics in females and controls the menstraul cycle
A female sex hormone that plays a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and prepares the lining of the uterus for pregnancy
The most important androgen, which influences the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics and sexual motivation and, in small amounts, maintains sexual interest and responsivenss in females
The direction of one's sexual preference, erotic feelings, and sexual activity- toward members of the opposite sex (heterosexuals), toward one's own sex (homosexuals), or toward both sexuals (bisexuals)
Sexual Orientation
A persistent or recurrent problem that causes marked distress and interpersonal difficulty and that may involve some combination of the following: sexual desire, sexual arousal or the pleasure associated with sex, or orgasm.
Sexual Dysfunction
A sexual dysfunction marked by low or nonexistent sexual desire or interest in sexual activity.
Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.
A sexual dysfunction characterized by an aversion to and active avoidance of genitals contact with a sexual partner
Sexual Aversion Disorder
A sexual dysfunction in which a woman may not feel sexually aroused in response to sexual stimulation or may be unable to achieve or sustain an adequate lubrication-swelling response to sexual excitement
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
A sexual dysfunction in which a man experiences the repeated inability to have or sustain an erection firm enought for coitus
Male erectile disorder
A sexual dysfunction in which a woman is persistently unable to reach orgasm or delays in reaching orgasm, despite adequate sexual stimulation
Female orgasmic disorder
Infections that are spread primarily through intimate sexual contact
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS)

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