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Important Names in Old Testament


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12 pillars at God's altar = ?
12 tribes of Israel
Moses brother and the one who builds the golden calf.
Korah, Dathan, Abiram, and On
took 250 Israelite men to confront Moses and Aaron during the days of Israel's wondering in the wilderness.
Aaron's son. Moses takes off Aaron's clothes and gives them to Eleazar...this is when Aaron dies.
King of Moab who saw that Israel was conquering nations and summons Balaam to curse Israel
Summoned by Balak to curse Israel but instead God tells Balaam to build 7 altars ad prepare 7 bulls and rams and to bless Israel with these sacrifices.
takes over after Moses dies. God commands him to go to the land he has promoised Israel and act according to the law.
A prostitute who saves the 2 spies from Israel. Her family is saved as a result.
Broke the commandment that during Israel's conquering expeditions they were not to take devoted things.
Joshua's covenant
makes a covenant with the Israelites saying that they will serve the Lord and put away all other gods.
brother of Simeon and leads Israel after Joshua dies. Continues the conquering expeditions
fights with his brother Judah.
the first judge of Israel (minor). He takes over Kiriath-sepher and as a result Caleb gives his daughter Achsah as a wife. Also Caleb's younger brother.
means "lord" or "other gods" in hebrew
cyclical pattern of judges
God raises up judges, who delivered them out of the power of those who plundered them. When a judge died, Israel turned away from God
2nd judge (major): kills King Eglon of Moab = the fat king whose fat hardens around the spear he is killed with.
3rd Judge (minor)
4th Judge (major) Barak is her commander against King Jabin. She tells Barak to go to Mount Tabor and wait for Jabin's commander, Sisera to attack. God gives their army into the hand of Barak.
Deborah's commander
Gideon (Jerubbaal)
5th Judge (major). Delivers Israel from the Midianites. The angel of the Lord proves that he is Yahweh by consuming the meat and unleavened cakes with fire. God instructs him to destroy his father's baal and build an altar to Yahweh. God then tells him that he has to many troops and to move them down to the water. Gideon conquers the Midianites with a smaller army which shows the glory of God,
6th Judge (minor)
7th Judge (minor)
8th Judge (major). Son of Gilead and a prostitute. His brothers cast him out, but then call him back to be a commander against the Ammonites. He then makes a vow with God that he will sacrifice whoever comes out to meet him if he is victorious against the Ammonites. This becomes his only daughter.
9th Judge (minor)
10th Judge (minor)
11th Judge (minor)
12th Judge (major). Marries a Philistine woman. She gives the answer to his riddle and he leaves her. He torches her father's land because he gives her to his companion. The Philistines come into Judah and cause trouble among Israel and Israel complains to Samson and bind him and give him to the Philistines. When he reaches the Philistines he slaughters them with the jawbone of a donkey. Samson then falls in love with Delilah who makes a deal with the Philistines to capture Samson. Samson refuses to tell his secret, but finally tells her that its his hair and the Philistines capture him.
had two wives: Hannah and Peninnah. Hannah is barren, but then has Samuel.
wife of Elkanah who cries out to God because she was barren. God gives her a child but says he must be a nazarite. She gives birth to Samuel.
the priest to whom Hannah gives Samuel to learn in the ways of the Lord. His house is to be destroyed because he could not control his sons who were blaspheming God.
Hophni and Phinehas
Eli's two sons
the last judge and the first prophet as well as a priest. The people of Israel ask Samuel to give them a king after his sons Joel and Abijah are not Godly judges.
Abijah and Joel
Samuel's sons who become judges but turned after gain, taking bribes and perverting justice.
The first king of Israel. Is chosen by God and takes over the Ammonites.
Saul's son who fights in battle with Saul. Eats honey that he is not supposed to after a battle and is condemned to death by Saul, but the troops plead for him to live and they stop pursuing the Philistines.
Saul's commander of the army. Also the captain of Eshbaal's (Saul's son) army of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. He quarrels with Eshball over Saul's concubine. Abner then decides to go south and to give the Northern tribes to David. He is killed by Joab
the youngest son of Jesse who kills Goliath. Becomes the king of the Southern Kingdom of Judah. Has numerous opportunities to kill Saul but does not because it is not right in God's eyes. Brings the ark to Jerusalem and completes the conquest of the terrorites which God gives Israel in Genesis.
Eliab, Abinadab, Shammah
Jesse's 3 sons who go into battle with Saul
one of Saul's daughters who he gives to David as a wife.
the priest of Nob who gives David loaves of holy bread and the sword of Goliath.
Doeg the Edonmite
he is the head of Saul's servants and Saul orders him to kill the preists at Nob
Ahimelech's sons who escapes from Doeg and goes to help David. God tells him and David to attack the Philistines and save Keilah. Becomes the priest of the Northern tribes during David's kingship.
What are the 10 plagues?
1. Blood in the nile, 2. Frogs, 3. Gnats, 4. Flies, 5. Death of Cattle, 6. Boils, 7. Hail, 8. Locusts, 9. Darkness, 10. Death of the first born. Some of these "miracles" could have occured naturally, but there is no way 7-10 were natural. There is red bacteria in the nile that could have caused it to turn red which causes displacement of frogs and gnats to come out, etc.
Case Law
If...(description of crime) then...(penalty for the crime)
Apodictic Law
You shall not...
Yahwistic Law
has a motive clause. God calls on the Israelites to be kind to strangers, widows, and the poor because the Lord was kind to them.
Les talionis (law of retaliation)
Ex. an eye for an eye
Burnt Offerings
were for everyone and for forgiveness.
Sin Offering
was for forgiveness of a specific sin.
Guilt Offering
was for forgiveness of a specific sin and was to make restitution.
Cereal Offering
offered grains and the 1st fruits. usually had to be connected with a blood sacrifice and was not sufficient alone for atonement.
Peace Offering
Could be done to thank God for something he did or could be done to take a vow.
Suzerain/Vassal Treaty
Deuteronomy is in the same format as this Hittite treaty system. 1. Preamble or an introduction. 2. Historical Prologue. 3. Stipulations or commandments. 4. Deposit and public reading (ark of the covenant) 5. Blessings and Cursings.
J source
is Yahwist. it is typically with the Southern Tradition of Judah. Thought to be connected with David and Solomon and shows God as anthropomorphic (more human like)
E Source
is framentary. is connected with the Northern Tradition of Ephraim. tends to use Angels as the medium for God's revelation. Dreams and visions are important.
R Source
is the redaction (the editing of a text to turn it into a form suitable for publication) of J and E.
D Source
Deuteronmist, hence mainly Deuteronomy. Not mixed into Genesis and Exodus and has a preachy tone.
P Source
it is a priestly redaction and is thought to not be a complete source. Divides things into sections and shows that God is transcendent.
The City of Hazor
It is unique because its archeology contributes to biblical evidence. The biblical account says that it was burned with fire and archeologically there is a thick charcoal later and destruction layers.
The City of Jericho
Has problems between biblical account and archeology. There are no ruins from a wall falling at Jericho.
The City of Ai
there is a problem because their are ruins but from a different date then the bible suggests. One theory is that Bethel is nearby which contains a destruction layer. Therefore, Bethel may have been attached to the territory of Ai.
King Agag
The king who Saul keeps alive and thus breaks God's commandments.
Eshbaal (Ishbosheth)
The king of the Northern Tribe in Israel. His capitain is Abner. He is assassinated and David has the men who did it executed.
the priest of the South from Aaron's House during David's kingship.
a priest who tells David he is not allowed to build a house for Yahweh but instead his son will be allowed to. Also rebukes David for his sin with Bathsheba the wife of Uriah who dies in battle because of David.
What are the 3 meanings of the word house?
1. Palace = where David lives. 2. Temple = what David wants to build for Yahweh. 3. Dynasty = what Yahweh will build for David.
wife of Uriah who dies in battle and marries David. Their 1st child dies. The 2nd child is born and named Solomon.
rebukes David for the Census because it means that David would tax the people which = an oppressive monarchy.
David's son who starts a revolt and takes over. Joab is sent to take the city back but was not to kill Absalom but Absalom's long hair gets stuck in a tree and Joab kills him. This angers David and he deposes Joab. David then returns as king.
A benjaminite who revolts claiming David was not the right king because he was not a benjaminite in line with Saul who was the ruling tribe. He is chased and killed by Joab.
a captain who is appointed by David to go after Sheba. But Amasa takes a long time and as a result David recalls Joab who kills Amasa.
David's eldest son who is killed by Absalom
David's son who we dont hear anything more of him other than he was born.
became king after David because he was next in line. His capain was Joab and his priest was Abiathar.
becomes king after Adonijah because he kills Adonijah. He also killed Joab to silence his opposition and had a repressive kingship. His captain is Behaiah, his priest Zadok and his prophet was Nathan. He exiled Abiathar.

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