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APUSH VOC: 2-15

Terms

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Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- R
Robert Fulton
designed and built America's first steamboat, The Clermont in 1807; also built the Nautilus, first practical submarine
Edmund Randolph
General Washington's aide-de-camp at dawn of Revolution; served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress and as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788; submitted the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention; served as U.S. Attorney General, and succeeded Jefferson as Secretary of State; resigned from office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington's administration against Great Britain, although the French government eventually cleared his name
Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies. The Great Awakening was not one continuous revival; rather it was several revivals in a variety of locations
tariff of 1828
a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
Temperance
The practice of moderation (chiefly describing sobriety). It was one of the five "cardinal" virtues held to be vital to society in Hellenic culture. It is one of the Four Cardinal Virtues considered central to Christian behavior by the Catholic Church and is an important tenet of the moral codes of other world religions
American System
included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank
Era of Good Feelings
name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion
Nativism
anti-foreign feeling, arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to influx of Irish and German Catholics
Battle of Saratoga
A decisive American victory that resulted in France entering the conflict on behalf of the Americans during the American Revolutionary War. The capture of a British army secured the northern American states from further attacks out of Canada and prevented New England from being isolated.
John Quincy Adams
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts and was Secretary of State under President Monroe. In the presidential election of 1824, no one candidate received a majority of electoral votes and the election was decided in his favor by Congress.
54 40 or fight
slogan of those wanting to take all of Oregon; numbers (54 40') was line of latitude where people wanted Oregon border; did not want compromise of 49th parallel, as was done by President Polk.
Erie Canal
1825 opened as toll waterway connecting New York to Great Lakes; approved in 1817 with support of New York's Governor, Dewitt Clinton; helped connect North and West
Great Migration
The large movement of people into the Massachusetts Bay area. Over the course of 12 years, nearly 18,000 colonists had come to the area.
james buchanan
Democratic nominee for election of 1856. Won by majority of popular and electoral vote. accepted the lecompton constitution of kansas, which supported slavery.
Federalist Era
Began with George Washington's unanimous victory in the Election of 1789. An entirely new government and procedures for operating it had to be established. Federalists advocated ratification of the Constitution; they were centralizing nationalists. Following up on promises made during ratification, a Bill of Rights was approved by Congress and submitted to the states. Other major events included passage of the Tariff of 1789, consideration of Alexander Hamilton's Economic Plan, the rise of partisan politics and the Whiskey Rebellion. Era ended in 1800.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressments of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry
Henry Clay
aided passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War; negotiated Treaty of Ghent; advocated American System and increased internal improvements; pushed the Missouri Compromise through the U.S. House of Representatives (1820) in an effort to reconcile free and slave states
Indentured servant
source of labor for colonies; servant would be given free passage from England to the new world in exchange for labor for a certain stated amount of time with the promise of freedom dues, which usually entailed a parcel of land for them to cultivate and a small amount of money to start off with.
copperheads
opposed the war and wanted to negotiate peace, often chastized
Writs of Assistance
In 1760, England began to enforce some of the provisions of the Navigation Acts by granting customs officers these writs as legal documents that served as a general search warrants. Any place could be searched at the whim of the holder, and searchers were not responsible for any damage they caused. This put anyone who had such a writ above the law.
Mercantilism
economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s; government exercised control over industry and trade with idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported
Boston Tea Party (1773)
Demonstration by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Native Americans) raided three British ships in Boston Harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor; organized as a protest against taxes on tea (Townshend act/tea act)
Sojourner Truth
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms
drafted by Thomas Jefferson that denounced the acts of Parliament since 1763 and declared Congress's decision to defend the colonists' traditional English liberties with arms
Eli Whitney
developed cotton gin in 1793, which made cotton a profitable crop and reinforced importance of slavery in economy of South
wilmot proviso
introduced on August 8, 1846, in the United States House of Representatives as a rider on a $2 million appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican-American War. The intent of the proviso, submitted by Democratic Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico
george fitzhugh
was a social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. He argued that "the Negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. Fitzhugh decried capitalism as spawning a "war of the rich with the poor, and the poor with one another" - rendering free blacks "far outstripped or outwitted in the chase of free competition." Slavery, he contended, ensured that blacks would be economically secure and morally civilized. basically he said that slaves in the south were better off than "freed servants" in the north.
mexican cession
a historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States and california that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican-American War. The treaty was signed on 2 February 1848, ratified by the U.S. Senate on 10 March 1848, and by the Mexican government on 19 May 1848.
samuel gridley howe
In 1832, he became the first director of the New England Institution for the Education of the Blind (now Perkins School for the Blind), the first such institution in the United States. Howe directed the school for the rest of his life
Papal line of demarcation
line drawn by the Pope dividing the land in the New World into 2 parts, with Portugal being granted the East and Spain being granted the West
Plymouth Colony
Colony founded by the Separatist Pilgrims who came over on the Mayflower. Located in New England.
Tariffs
Levied against imported and manufactured goods, once again hurting the South and the economy to raise money for the federal government and help Northern industries
John Dickinson
lashed out against Townshend Act's external duties in his Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania which was meant to arouse colonists to resist again; believed it ok for parliament to exercise mercantilism, but NOT to legislate the taxes to raise revenue on trade without colonists consent
habeas corpus
enables a person under arrest to obtain court hearing to see if she or he were being held legally. Lincoln suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus so that Anti-Unionists could be summarily arrested.
Port Bill
One of the Coercive Acts that closed the port of Boston, prohibiting trade in and out of the harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for.
New England Colonies
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts
Letter on the Condition and Equality of the Sexes
Used the individualist feminist approach of comparing slavery to marriage for the wife where women are treated as property and have little to no rights especially in economic affairs of the house hold. Written by Angelina and Sarah Grimke
crittenden compromise
It guaranteed the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states and addressed Southern demands in regard to fugitive slaves and slavery in the District of Columbia. lincoln immediately rejected it in 1861.
free soil party
Political party organized by northerners taking the approach of free soiler; slavery should not be extended into the land of the Mexican Cession. martin van buren was their presidential candidate in 1848. "free soil, free labor, free men"
confiscation acts
series of laws passed by federal government designed to liberate slaves in seceded states; authorized Union seizure of rebel property, and stated that all slaves who fought with Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters; virtually emancipation act of all slaves in Confederacy
Shay's Rebellion
Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels
harper's ferry
1860 John Brown, an abolitionist, took 21 men and attemped to seize the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, to get weapons and free the slaves. Robert E. Lee's men stopped them.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
March 1814 General Andrew Jackson commanded troops in the South, in present-day Alabama and ended the power of the Creek nation. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, part of the Creek Indian tribe, effectively ending the Creek War.
George Caleb Bingham
An American realist artist, whose paintings depicted life on the frontier.
Northwest Ordinance 1787
Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest Territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood. Set aside a plot of land in each division for public education.
two-party system
A political pattern in which two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all the elections.
Native American Removal
breaking of countless treaties to relocate Native Americans to reservations that lowered their native population; in 1832 Jackson ordered Indian Removal Ac which sent federal troops into western Illinois to forcibly remove Chief Black Hawk and the Sauk and Fox peoples; many tribes were sent into lands west of the Mississippi river via "trail of tears"
santa anna
dictator of Mexico; led attack on Alamo in 1836; defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto; participated in the Mexican War sold the "Gadsden Purchase" to U.S.; Exiled from Mexico
Creek Nation
The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Muscogee and speak a Creek language as well. The Creeks are one of the Five Civilized Tribes. Important British ally that had power in the South, specifically Georgia. The Creek was a mix of Indian tribes found east of the Mississippi River.
Quebec Act of 1774
The Quebec Act restored the former French civil tradition for private law, which had been ended in 1763 and allowed for the Roman Catholic faith to be practiced. For the first time since becoming a colony, Canadians were able to participate in the affairs of the colonial government. However, it was termed one of the Intolerable Acts by the American colonists, further contributing to the American Revolution.
george mcclellan
was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Chronically underestimated force of confederate army, leading to failure of Peninsula Campaign
Second Bank of US
chartered for many of same reasons as its predecessor; War of 1812 had left a formidable debt and inflation surged due to ever-increasing amount of notes issued by private banks; Specie was jealously hoarded; authorized by President Madison in 1816 with a charter lasting 20 years
Edmund Genet
French diplomat who spoke to crowds of pro-French Americans. Challenged Washington's Congress to a debate in 1793 about the neutrality policy, hoping to persuade it to declare war in Britain. The Citizen Genêt affair began in 1793 when he was dispatched to the United States to promote American support for France's wars with Spain and Britain. However, Genêt's goals in South Carolina were to recruit and arm American privateers that would join French expeditions against the British. His actions had endangered American neutrality in the war between France and Britain, and he was eventually stopped when both the American and French wanted him to.
Common Sense
written by Thomas Paine, encouraged the colonies to seek independence; spoke out against unfair treatment of colonies by British government; instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution
Public Land Act
of 1796 authorized Federal land sales to the public in minimum 640-acre plots at $2 per acre of credit
Libel Case
The case against Zenger which called his articles a libel (defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures); his Weekly Journal printed numerous articles critical of Governor Cosby. Cosby had Zenger arrested and put in jail for ten months. Zenger was brought to trial and charged with seditious libel. The prosecution argued that the sole fact of publication was sufficient to convict and excluded the truth from the evidence. The defense admitted that Zenger published the offending stories, but denied that it was libel unless it was false. As a result Zenger was acquitted. This finding of not guilty established truth as a defense against libel and was a landmark victory for freedom of the press. It also set a precedent against judicial tyranny in libel suits.
greenbacks
The United States Dollars that were circulated durring the Civil War. Known for having a "Green Back." Much debate went on over them. Over inflation was partially responsible for the Panic of 1873.
New Jersey
formed when James II gave part of his land in New York to his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. The people of New Jersey were granted the right to elect an assembly
Absolute monarch
a monarch who rules with absolute power, is not advised by any sort of cabinet/parliament, and is not restrained by laws, a constitution, or custom.
log cabin and hard cider campaign
Presidential contest between Martin Van Buren, Democratic incumbent, and General William Henry Harrison, Whig; large meetings and its endless hurrahs; Whigs were confident of victory.
Frame of Government
established by William Penn, provided that Christians of all denominations could vote and hold office and that no taxes could be used to support a church. In the legislature, both upper and lower houses were to be elected by the enfranchised property owners. The governor was to have no veto, and there was no established church...Penn insisted that the structure of the government was less important than the men who ran it... "Let men be good, and the government can't be bad." What an optimist.
Jonathan Edwards
gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will Part of the Great Awakening
Roger Williams
: religious dissenter; minister of Puritan church in Salem who protested that spiritual matters had been unjustly blended with secular politics; was banished for his beliefs and took his followers to a spot they named Providence which they brought from the Narragansett Indians
13th amendment
made to forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude illegal; Ratified in 1865 after war ended; south had to ratify it to be readmitted to Union
credit mother
Insiders gave stock to influential members of Congress to avoid investigation of the profits they were making
Colonial Legislatures
Government and law in the colonies represented an extension of the English government. Bicameral American legislatures were made up of the Governor's Court and the General Assembly. The upper house combined judicial, administrative, and legislative functions. The General Assembly represented the people of the towns and counties of the state. Colonial legislature only dealt with local matters; major trade and military matters were determined by the English Parliament. Starting in the 1690's, the royally hand-picked governors decided when assemblies sat in session, exercised veto power over the assemblies choices of speaker, commanded their handpicked councils, and appointed justices to almost every colonial court.
thaddeus stephens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
John Dickinson
framer of the constitution; American lawyer and politician from Philadelphia. Among the wealthiest men in the British American colonies, he was best known as the Penman of the Revolution, for his Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania, where he eloquently argued the cause of American liberty.
thomas nast
A political cartoonist, considered the father of political cartooning, who's cartoons were instrumental in toppling Boss Tweed. He was also known for his Anti-Catholic, especially anti-Irish Catholic, beliefs, which were often apparent in his cartoons.
congressional reconstruction
The return of 11 ex-Confederates to high offices and the passage of the Black Codes by southern legislatures angered the Republicans in Congress so that they adopted a plan that was harsher on southern whites and more protective of freed blacks.
Proprietary colony
colony under authority of individuals who have been granted power to rule by crown; used by crown to pay off debt or shown favoritism. Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland
"Peculiar institution"
informal name for the Southern US states plantation economy based on slavery
Cotton Mather
Minister of the Old North Church in Boston. In 1689 published a best-selling book on the subject, Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions, detailing an episode of supposed witchcraft.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
successful colony founded by English Puritans who wished to create a community with a small division between rich & poor. These people were families, not personal fortune seekers; they did not separate from the Church of England (rather, they wanted to reform it from the inside out and minimize modernization. Success attributed to skillful leaders (past clergymen)
Gibbons v. Ogden
ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce; New York passed a law allowing monopoly on steamship travel to certain people, including Aaron Ogden. Yet, Thomas Gibbons who wanted to use these waterways and was given federal permission to do so, was denied in New York. Caused Marshall to use influence to determine federal government over state.
John Jay
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
Bacon's Rebellion
led by Nathaniel Bacon, a semi-wealthy frontiersman in Virginia; formed his own militia of backwoods farmers and attacked Jamestown and took over government buildings. Resulted in first legit challenge to crown and a sharp class difference (new class of colonials is rising)
antietam
Southern failure to procure victory in the North meant no foreign support for the Confederacy. bloodiest day in the whole civil war. 23,000 total casualties
horace greeley
Editor of the New York Tribune; presidential nominee for the Liberal Republicans and the Democrats for the 1872 election; lost to Grant and died a few weeks after his defeat.
aristook wars
"Battle of the maps"; fighting between British and United States rival groups along Canada-Maine border
radical republicans
An influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. They took a hard line against the Confederacy during the war and opposed Lincoln's "too easy" terms for reuniting the nation. By 1866 they supported federal civil rights for freedmen, and by 1867 set terms that allowed free slaves the right to vote in the South but not ex-Confederates.
Renaissance
a period of cultural revival, sparked Enlightened though, led to development of new technologies, which later led to the opening up of the western world through new navigational techniques
Governor Morris
declared that slavery was "a nefarious institution", one of the few Northern delegates who argued for the abolition of slavery
Virginia
colony set up by English in New World—tobacco exports, rising immigration, and more stable government provided overall stability for the colony and allowed it to become a permanent colony, however Indian threats remained a constant threat to the wellbeing of the settlers. 1634-created counties, complete with courts, churches, etc
auburn system
Prison reform in 1790, based on concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform; actually led to many mental breakdowns; Auburn system, 1816, allowed congregation of prisoners during the day
Checks and Balances
Each of the three branches of government "checks" the power of the other two, so no one branch can become too powerful; the founding fathers divided the government into the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches so that each branch could prevent the other from amassing too much influence.
King Philip's War
late 1670's in New England; series of battles in New Hampshire b/w colonists and Wampanoag, led by a chief known as King Philip; war was started when Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians; colonists won with help of Mohawks, which opened up additional Indian lands for expansion
James Monroe
in Continental Army, and practiced law in Fredericksburg, Virginia; advocate of Jeffersonian policies; elected US Senator backing of President Madison; Republican choice for the Presidency in 1816; elected and appointed cabinet of men of varied political and economic backgrounds
kansas nebraska act
Nebraska territory divided in two, where people had popular sovereignty over slavery.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established judiciary as a branch of government equal to legislative and executive; established judicial review, which allows Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
Executive Branch
One of the three branches of government, the executive enforces laws; headed by the president, who has the power to veto legislation passed by Congress
Washingtonians
Temperance movement which involved relying on each other, sharing alcoholic experiences and relying upon divine help, to help keep each other sober. Total abstinence from alcohol was their goal. The group taught sobriety and preceded Alcoholics Anonymous by 100 years.
fort sumter
Charleston, South Carolina, held by federal troops but claimed by a seceded state. It was a cut off from supplies by Southern control of the harbor. Lincoln sent provisions and on April 12, 1861 the South fired on Fort Sumter beginning the Civil War.
Henry David Thoreau
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Marshall ruled, asserting federalist rights and nationalistic powers of Congress; authority to handle funds given to Bank under necessary and proper clause decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency. The specific issues involved were Congress's power to incorporate the Second Bank of the United States and the right of a state to tax an instrument of the federal government.
Connecticut Plan (Great Compromise)
Called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied. At the Constitutional Congress, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan and smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
Hartford Convention
December 1814 convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and the War of 1812; proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated right of states to nullify federal laws; discussed idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored; turned public sentiment against Federalists, which led to the demise of the party
American Temperance Society
Was established in 1826. Within five years there were 2,220 local chapters in the U.S. with 170,000 members who had taken a pledge to abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages
Old Northwest
Ohio River valley settlements; produced for regions outside their immediate local markets and had a thriving economy, which attracted many settlers to this region in the early 1800's
alexander hamilton stephens
(February 11, 1812 - March 4, 1883) an American politician from Georgia. He was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also served as a U.S. Representative from Georgia (both before the Civil War and after Reconstruction) and as Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.
corrupt bargain
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Stamp Act
British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures, which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies had to be written on special, stamped British paper. most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies was burned by angry mobs. London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
Salutary Neglect
Salutary (benign) neglect was an undocumented, though long-standing, British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that "if no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish"
Separatists
a subgroup of Protestant Puritans who fled Scooby, England in 1609
scott vs sanford
1857 dredd Scott was a slave who was taken to Wisconson to live freely for two years. He argued that the two years he lived on free soil made him a freedmen. Sued for his freedom. SC decided that he was a slave.
Administration of Justice Act (Murdering act)
the act abolished the local administration of justice, providing that the Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony could direct that any inquisition, indictment or appeal be tried in Great Britain or in another British Colony.
klu klux klan
A secret society organized in the South to reassert white supremecy by means of terrorism. Created in fear of black overthrow and issurection. Wore long white flowing sheets and believed that they possesed the spirits of the confederate dead.
stephen kearny
one of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army, and is remembered for his significant role in the Mexican-American War, especially the conquest of California. The Kearny code, which sought to govern government behavior towards Californios, was named after him.
john c fremont
Presidential nominee for Republicans in election of 1856, founded and explored california in preceding decades.
Urbanization
quality or state of being urbanized or the process of becoming urbanized
Frederick Douglass
escaped slavery; powerful abortionist orator; captured audiences w/descriptions of slave life; Published The North Star, in early 1830s; made influential speeches encouraged slaves to escape and Northerners to oppose slavery
greenbacks
the U.S. treasury issued over $430 million dollars in paper currency in replacement of separate state currencies
Robert Owen-New Harmony
A Welsh socialist and social reformer. He is considered the father of the cooperative movement. He experimented through the New Harmony community, a utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
Thomas Jefferson
delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress; wrote Declaration of Independence; early advocate of total separation of church and state
Pilgrims
Separatists who embarked on the Mayflower in an effort to escape religious persecution or pursue personal ambitions in the New World
Sir William Berkely
governor in VA, kin with Bacon, wanted Indian/European hostilities to cease—angered frontiersmen by taking strict measures in granting land and trading in order to minimize Indian and European quarrelling
Paul Revere & William Dawes
rode at Lexington and Concord warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the battles of Lexington and Concord. Thanks to the advance warnings, the militias were able to take the British troops by surprise
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 17, 1775; British Major General William Howe led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill before he finally seized it with third assault; British suffered heavy losses and lost hope for quick victory against the colonies.
New York
colony the English peaceably took back from the Dutch, then given to James II, duke of York and Albany (not yet king), who held almost unlimited power of the colony. Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York
Monroe Doctrine (1823
Declared Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the US; also declared New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe; Only England supported the Monroe Doctrine; had no major impact until later 1800s
William Still
African American abolitionist and author; 18th son of ex-slaves; wrote The Underground Railroad which chronicles how he helped 649 slaves escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad
Committees of Correspondence
Body of local colonial governments for the purpose of coordinating written communication outside of the colony. It disseminated the colonial interpretation of British actions between the colonies and to foreign governments; rallied opposition on common causes and established plans for collective action, beginning of formal union among colonies
Whigs
One of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. It is more accurate to describe the original two ideas as loose groupings, or more precisely, tendencies. While the Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule, both might be termed conservative by modern parameters.
Factory System
manufacturing method for standardized product in which fixed capital, raw material, and labor operations are centralized and sophisticated machinery often used
Lewis and Clark
commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast
Townshend Acts (1767)
These laws placed a tax on common products, such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. In contrast to the Stamp Act of 1765, the laws were not a direct tax, but a tax on imports. The Acts led to outrage among the colonists and helped spark the "Liberty" seizure and riots of 1768. Opposition in the 13 colonies was demonstrated with the slogan, "No taxation without representation," originally spoken by James Otis
penitentiaries
public institution in which offenders against the law are confined for detention or punishment; specifically: a state or federal prison in the U.S
bleeding kansas
reaction to the Nebraska-Kansas Act. Antislavery groups would come into settlements allowing slavery, and they would open fire. much violence between abolitionists and slaveholders.
winfeld scott
a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.
Horace mann
Secretary of newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education; created public school system in Mass that became model for nation; Started first American public schools using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models
amnesty act 1872
The Amnesty Act of 1872 removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most whites who rebelled in the United States Civil War, except for very high positions.
common man
A term used used to emphasize the similarities or distinctions between a member of a social, political or cultural elite, and the average citizen.
Phillis Wheatley
First African American female writer to be published in the United States. Her book Poems on Various Subjects was published in 1773, pioneered African-American literature. One of the most well- known poets in America during her day; first African American to get a volume of poetry published.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal; John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake before her husband died in 1828; cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton; Jackson sided with Eatons; affair helped dissolve cabinet.
Loyalists
colonists loyal to crown
Joseph Galloway
Pennsylvania moderate who proposed idea of Grand Council that combined colonial and imperial authority for governing/taxing throughout empire
elias howe
July 9, 1819 - October 3, 1867 ;an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer, born in Spencer, Massachusetts.
new england emigrant aid company
a transportation company set up to transport emigrants to Kansas Territory to shift the balance of power so that Free-Staters rather than slave holders would decide whether Kansas would enter the Union in regards to the slavery question.
Halfway Covenant
created to keep more "liberal" children of original Puritans in church, a profession of limited religious commitment that allowed them to take part in Church activity, weakened the strict Puritanism that had been common in New England
Jay Treaty (1794)
A treaty between the United States and Great Britain. The treaty angered the friends of France, which was at war with Britain, and became a central issue in the politics of the First Party System. The treaty avoided a threatened war and resolved most (but not all) of the grievances between the two nations (Britain and the US) and opened a decade of peace and commercial prosperity.
Panic of 1837
First Depression in American history; Banks lost money, people lost faith in banks, and country lost faith in President Martin van Buren; lasted four years; due to large state debts, expansion of credit by numerous, unfavorable balance of crop failures, and frenzy that was caused by the avalanche of land speculation.
Amelia Bloomer
An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.
Secretarian
Member of a sect or adherent of a special school, denomination, or religious or philosophical party; one of a party in religion which has separated itself from established church
John Dickenson (1732 - 1808)
An officer in the Continental Army, President of Pennsylvania and Delaware, and a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. Dickinson was the leader of a faction in Pennsylvania politics known as the Half and Half Whigs, the first opponents in Pennsylvania of the new British taxation policies.
Bill Of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights. George Mason's opposition of the Constitution led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
webster ashburton treaty
Established Maine's northern border and boundaries of Great Lake states
Specialization
making or becoming specialized in a particular trade/craft; skilled artisan class; went with industrialization movement; a method of production where a business or area focuses on the production of a limited scope of products or services in order to gain greater degrees of productive efficiency within the entire system of businesses or areas
Kentucky and Virginia Resolution
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Walden
Book written by Thoreau in which he wrote about his experiences while living alone on Walden Pond
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
bear flag republic
aka the California republic; the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14, 1846, in the town of Sonoma against the authorities of the Mexican province of California; the Republic lasted less than a month. The republic eventually became the present-day state of California.
Federalists
One of the first two political parties. Some of the leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. Federalist programs included the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry. The Federalists believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Also, the Federalists supported Britain
trent affair
incident during American Civil War involving doctrine of freedom of seas that nearly precipitated war b/w Great Britain and US; Captain Charles Wilkes, commanding Union frigate San Jacinto, seized neutral British ship Trent two Confederate commissioners, James Murray Mason and John Slidell, who were seeking support of England and France for cause of Confederacy
Town Meeting
A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town's voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.
wade davis bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
thomas gallaudet
pioneered education of deaf people in US
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
Poor Richard's Almanac
First published in 1732. Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
border states
Delaware, Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky remained in the Union when the other Southern States seceded. If these states seceded the Confederacy population would have increased by 50% in size and increase its supply. Lincoln had to declare he was not fighting the war to end slavery but to save the Union so that the Border States would remain in the Union.
Washington Farewell Address
Washington's final statement presented in the form of a newspaper essay, appearing first in the American Daily Advertiser in Philadelphia in September 1796; it was not a speech and was not delivered orally. The address warned first against the growth of political parties, especially if geographically based. In foreign affairs Washington acknowledged the need for temporary alliances, but warned against "permanent alliances." (The term "entangling alliances" is not found in the address.) Finally the departing president urged the country to continue to honor the payment of all financial obligations.
Revolution of Burr
bloodless" revolution in which Alex Hamilton convinced the House to transfer power peacefully from Aaron Burr, nicknamed "embryo Caesar", to Thomas Jefferson (both Dem.-Republicans), who was believed to be more trustworthy.
Washington Irving
Author, diplomat, wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer
Aaron Burr
An American politician and adventurer. He was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York and a strong supporter of Governor George Clinton. He is remembered not so much for his tenure as the third Vice President, under Thomas Jefferson, as for his duel with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. He is also known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason. Jefferson's vice-president for his first term; not voted into a second term because of radical ideas and ventures that threatened to break up the Union and resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton.
John Peter Zenger
Apprentice to William Bradford. Published The New York Weekly Journal, the New York Weekly Gazette. Won the colonist freedom of speech.
Lexington
The town is famous for being the site of the opening shots ("the shot heard 'round the world") of the Battle of Lexington, the first engagement of the American Revolution.
Unicameral Legislation
The practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber
War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
Wampanoags
Indians in NE who were forced to surrender to Plymouth's English law
John Copley
American painter during the colonial period. His portraits were innovative in that they tended to portray their subjects with artifacts that were indicative of their lives, and he was famous for his rendering of emotional immediacy; known chiefly for his portraits of prominent Americans such as Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and Paul Revere, although he lived in England after 1774.
Industrialization
shift from agrarian-based economy to factory and manufacturing; England was one of first western European countries to join this movement
franklin pierce
Democratic candidate for election of 1852. president who greatly favored southern policies and nearly accepted a deal to take in cuba as a slave state. essentially the wrong president at the wrong time. furthered conflict building up to the civil war.
Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures, which can lead to conflict
Holy Experiment
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all
Samuel Slater
built first factory in America
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
emancipation proclamation
January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that stated all slaves in rebelling states would be free.
freeport doctrine
was articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the United States Supreme Court case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from the territories. Instead of making a direct choice, Douglas' response stated that despite the court's ruling, slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery. Likewise, if the people of the territory supported slavery, legislation would provide for its continued existence. it destroyed any chance he had of becoming president
Henry Clay
A leading American statesman and orator who served in both the House of Representatives and Senate. Founder and leader of the Whig Party and a leading advocate of programs for modernizing the economy (such as canals, railroads and banks).
gadsden purchase
provides for purchase of territory through stage lines ran, where U.S. hoped to eventually build southern continental railroad; territory makes up southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico
Treaty of Paris (1783
collection of treaties concluding Revolutionary War signed by representatives of Great Britain on one side and the United States, France, and Spain on the other; treaty that ended the Revolutionary War in 1783 and secured American independence.
James Fennimore Cooper
Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
John C. Calhoun
the "cast-iron man" - a farmer from South Carolina who became the 7th Vice President under John Quincy Adams and then Andrew Jackson. Spoke out for states rights and slavery. Wrote legislation which made South Carolina the 1st state to adopt white manhood suffrage.
roger taney
supreme court judge in the mid 1800s who presided over Dred Scott decision. ruled that scott was a slave.
Gaspee Incident
The burning of the British naval cutter, the Gaspée by the citizens of Providence, Rhode Island on March 22, 1772; example of colonial opposition to the enforcement of the Trade and Navigation Acts.
Headright system
system in which each head of household would receive 50 acres of land for himself and 50 more acres of land for each subsequent immediate family member he brought with him to the colony (this method was introduced in order to stimulate migration/prosperity to the colony, however, unforeseen problems developed, leading to an increasing amount of people selling their land to brokers, defeating the purpose of the arrangement)
Thomas Cole
Founder of the Hudson River school, famous for his landscape paintings
Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania
In 1767, the passage of the Townshend Acts, which priced high taxes in important imports to the colonies, moved Dickinson to write his series of Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. These played a central role in American resistance of the new British taxation.
civil rights act 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Andrew Jackson
Seventh president of the United States, military leader of Florida, commander of the American forces at the battle of New Orleans, and a founder of the Democratic Party. He was polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 30s. Was called "old hickory" due to his toughness and his association with the frontier, and based his career in Tennessee.
millard fillmore
was the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office. He was the second Vice President to assume the Presidency upon the death of a sitting President, succeeding Zachary Taylor
Antinomianism
asserting that inner grace was sufficient to achieve salvation and that church ministers were unnecessary for that goal
Second Continental Congress
drafted Declaration of Independence; justified Revolutionary War, declared colonies should be independent of Britain. The SCC met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781. The Congress created the Continental Army commanded by George Washington, signed the Declaration of Independence, and on November 17, 1777, Congress passed the Articles of Confederation, uniting the colonies in a formal alliance.
Samuel Adams
Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies
Chesapeake colonies
: mid-Atlantic colonies that grew slowly due to disease and a shortage of labor until the 1660's; adopted headright system in which 50 acres of land was given to anybody who could pay for the passage from England
anaconda plan
the Union used the Navy blockade the Southern ports which would cut off all essential supplies from reaching the South.
freedmen's bureau
Acted as a kind of early welfare agency, providing food, shelter, and medical aid for those made destitute by the war-both blacks (mainly freed slaves) and homeless whites; success in education-General Oliver O. Howard-taught an estimated 200,000 African Americans to read; funding stopped in 1870.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Alien Enemy Act, and the Sedition Act. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition.
gettysburg
General Lee lead the Confederate troops into Pennsylvania. He surprised the units in Gettysburg and the battle was the most crucial and bloodiest of the war. General George Pickett led a charge that broke the Confederate attack. The victory at Gettysburg belonged to Lincoln and the Union.
james k. polk
President from 1795-1849; left to deal with reactions of Mexico to Taylor's policies. ran under the platform "54 40 or fight" referring to the boundary at which americans wanted the oregon territory.
Edward Braddock(1695? - July 13, 1755)
was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754-1763).
Charter of Liberties
also called the Coronation Charter, was a written proclamation by Henry I of England, issued upon his ascension to the throne in 1100. It bound the king to certain laws regarding the treatment of church officials and nobles.
Corporations
A body that is granted a charter recognizing it as a separate legal entity having its own rights, privileges, and liabilities distinct from those of its members.
Frederick Church
Central figure in the Hudson River School, pupil of Thomas Cole, known for his landscapes and for painting colossal views of exotic places
trail of tears
Refers to the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. Resulted from the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota, an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act.
Mayflower Compact
The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony
manifest destiny
america's belief that it was their fate to expand all the way to the pacific; justification for unjust expansion and land stealing. word coined by john osullivan
Tecumseh/Prophet
Tecumtha or Tekamthi, was a famous Native American leader of the Shawnee. He spent much of his life attempting to rally various Native American tribes in a mutual defense of their lands, which eventually led to his death in the War of 1812. The Prophet was a Native American religious and political leader known as the Shawnee Prophet. He was the brother of Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee.
McGuffey Readers
One of the first known textbooks, it is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, sell about 30,000 copies a year. McGuffey's Readers are still in use today in some school systems, and by parents for home schooling purposes.
Missouri Compromise
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state; declared all territory north of the 36°30" latitude would become free states, and all south would become slave states
Treaty of 1818
Chickasaws; meant to settle all territorial controversies, and remove all ground of complaint/dissatisfaction
Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures, which can lead to conflict; the loyalty of interests of your own country, or region, while ignoring the overall benefit to the country as a whole; was the precursor to separatism. It became a major problem in the US when Missouri applied for statehood.
Right of Deposit
privilege accorded U.S. merchants of depositing goods duty-free at New Orleans pending transshipment
Brook Farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
zachary taylor
Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (mexican-american war). won the 1848 election. surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. he died during his term and his vice president was millard fillmore.
Benjamin West
An Anglo-American self-taught painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American Revolution, West also painted the royal family of King George III and co-founded the Royal Academy of Arts
dorothea dix
New England teacher and author; spoke against inhumane treatment of insane prisoners
Treaty of Tordesillas
in 1494 a treaty negotiated by Spain and Portugal in which Portugal was granted the East and Spain was granted the West—this treaty proved that Portugal's past imperial position would henceforth be challenged, and that Spain's imperial authorities would be determined to conquer whatever Caribbean lands that lay beyond them.
Quakers
dissenting Protestants in Society of Friends, radical sect w/in protestant fold, NOT CALVINISTS, founded by George Fox and Margaret Fell, taught that salvation available to all believers bc each person carried an inner light; pacifists who refused to fight in army
popular sovereignty
Settlers in the territories of the Mexican Cession would vote to decide if slavery would be banned in the new territories. was used in the new mexico territories and kansas and nebraska
Fletcher v. Peck
case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1810, involving the Yazoo land fraud; court ruled that act of Georgia legislature rescinding a land grant was unconstitutional because it revoked rights previously granted by contract; first to declare a state legislative act unconstitutional
Specie Circular
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
A battle on August 20, 1794, between U.S. forces lead by Gen. Anthony Wayne and Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, south of present day Toledo, Ohio. Wayne routed the Native Americans in a matter of hours. The victory speeded the end of native resistance in the northwest frontier and it underlined the power of the new Federal government. It also permanently ended the power of the British on American soil, when British forces at a nearby fort refused sanctuary to the defeated Shawnee, fearing war with the United States.
secession
south carolinas breaking off from the union, the incipience of the civil war. Meeting in Charleston on December 20, that convention passed unanimously the first ordinance of secession, which stated, "We, the people of the State of South Carolina in convention assembled, do declare and ordain... that the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of 'the United States of America,' is hereby dissolved," making South Carolina a free and independent country.
Women's Christian Temperance Movement (WTCU)
Worked for legislation to moderate the use of intoxicating drink despite their inability to vote. Linked drinking to poverty, adultery, social crime and domestic violence.
Alexander Hamilton
helped write The Federalist Papers, which explained the importance of a strong central government and was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. The first Secretary of the Treasury and founder of the Federalist Party. He was an influential delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787
Nonsecretarian
One that doesn't belong to a sect or adherent of a special school, denomination, or religious or philosophical party; one of a party in religion which has separated itself from established church.
Charles Fourier-Fourier Phalanxes
French utopian socialist and began some form of feminism. Fourier declared that concern and cooperation were the secrets of social success. He believed workers would be recompensed for their labors according to their contribution. Fourier saw such cooperation occurring in communities he called "phalanxes". Phalanxes were based around structures called "grand hotels". These buildings were four level apartment complexes where the richest had the uppermost apartments and the poorest enjoyed a ground floor residence.
Virginia House of Burgesses
A regular assembly of elected representatives that developed in the Virginia colony in the 1630's. The House of Burgesses was split into two chambers in 1650, creating the House of Burgesses and the Governors Council. The House was a bicameral legislature that was a model for our congress.
redeemers
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Patriots
One who loves, supports, and defends one's country
William Penn
: received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Quartering Act
Instated in March 1765, and provided that Great Britain would house its soldiers in America first in barracks and public houses, but if its soldiers outnumbered the housing available, would quarter them anywhere where there is space; requiring any inhabitants to provide them with food and alcohol, and providing for fire, candles, vinegar, salt, bedding, and utensils for the soldiers without paying. This act was finally repealed in 1770. It was reinstated in June 1774.
Tobacco
-in Caribbean, VA, & MD, most lucrative source of economic income due to European tobacco fad, introduced in 1614 -young/poor/indentured typically worked the fields -tobacco prices fell and stayed low after 1630 -Caribbean settlers switched to sugar as a new staple exportrise of SLAVERY -Chesapeake continued to grow tobacco as primary exportalso led to rise of SLAVERY
alamo
Spanish mission converted into fort, besieged by Mexican troops in 1836; Texas garrison held out for 13 days; in final battle, larger Mexican force led by Santa Anna killed all Texans
walker expedition
Indian footpath; facilitated commerce between Miwok Indians and Mono Indians; Miwoks traded acorns, berries, beads, arrows and baskets for Monos' pine nuts, salt, obsidian, and robes made from rabbit and buffalo hides
Anne Hutchinson
intellectual/social leader in Boston-threatened Puritan Clergymen with her ideas on faith, found guilty of antinomianism, moved to RI, then NY, where she was killed by Indian
spoils system
Refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of merit independent of political activity
king caucus
Beginning in 1796, caucuses of the parties' congressional delegations met informally to nominate their presidential and vice presidential candidates, leaving the general public with no direct input. This early nomination system evoked widespread resentment. By 1824 it had fallen into such disrepute that only one-fourth of the Democratic-Republican congressional delegation took part in the caucus that nominated Secretary of the Treasury William Crawford instead of more popular figures such as John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
sumner brookes incident
In May 1856, ardent abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a two-day speech entitled The Crime Against Kansas. He described excesses that occurred there and the South's complicity in them. Only some of what he said was true. A specific target of his invective was Sen. Andrew P. Butler of South Carolina, who was not present during the speech.
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
fugitive slave law
1850 all states had an agreement to return runaway slaves to the owners. part of the compromise of 1850
proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction
1863 Lincoln issued this proclamation which provided a means of repatriating "those who resume their allegiance" even though the war was still in progress. To those who took an oath of loyalty, he was prepared to issue a full pardon, with some notable exceptions. Those exceptions he specifically listed in the proclamation so there would be no misunderstanding. He also provided guidelines for the systematic reestablishment of loyal state governments.
popular election of the president
Jackson, wider franchise expanding areas of public political activity, consolidation party loyalty, development and openly allied with parties all connected with it.
Proclamation of Neutrality
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
rio grande
United States argued its southern border Rio Grande; Spain believed border along Nueces River; disputed land in Texas area
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Secret society for the purpose of intimidating tax agents
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814; ended the War of 1812 and restored status quo; territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner; set up commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border
Nationalism
The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals. Aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination. Devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
June 22, 1807, the British fourth-rate warship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American frigate USS Chesapeake killing 21 men and capturing four British deserters. The American public was outraged with the incident. The President closed U.S. territorial waters to British warships, demanded payment for damages, and requested an end to British efforts to search United States ships for "deserters," acts to impress American sailors into British service. Escalated tensions between the two countries and can be seen as one of the events leading up to the War of 1812.
Roger Taney
(1777-1864) United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens.
Suffolk Resolves
declared colonial resistance to Coercive acts and announced preparations for a military defense against British tyranny. Most famous of many meetings vigorously protesting the Intolerable Acts enacted by the British Parliament the same year. Decided they would boycott British goods, ignore punitive measures, support colonial government, and urge colonies to raise militias.
Lord Baltimore I and II
aka George Calvert; given control of Maryland by Charles I after it was subdivided from original VA colony; designated as a haven for Catholics and as a profit for England; original Lord dies, passes it on to his son Cecil Calvert who gets the Maryland Act of Toleration which stated that CHRISTIANS wouldn't be discriminated against, but after much bloodshed, it was revoked
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Marshall declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune from impairment by states' legislative action; freed corporations from states that created them
Political parties
organization whose aim is to gain control of the government apparatus, usually through the election of its candidates to public office. Each party has a distinct set of policies and beliefs. 2 of the first parties were federalists and democratic republicans.
Company unions
People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours
pet banks
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Great Plains
major physiographic province of North America. The Great Plains lie between the Rio Grande in the south and the delta of the Mackenzie River at the Arctic Ocean in the north and between the Interior Lowland and the Canadian Shield on the east and the Rock
David Walker
Sponsored first African- American newspaper, Freedom's Journal, to arouse northerners to help slave resistance; "Wrote appeal to the colored citizens" that warned that slaves would rise up against southern masters with or without northern support
Utopian Communities
Idealistic and impractical communities. Who, Rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world to work their miracles in microcosm, hoping to imitate the elect state of affairs that existed among the Apostles.
Henry Knox
A Revolutionary War hero. Served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington's cabinet
republican party
Founded as a direct response to the Kansas- Nebraska Act. Northern and Western moderates who were united in their opposition to slavery. the final form of the whig and federalist parties. john c fremont was their first presidential nominee.
Concord
Governor Gage of Boston led British troops to seize a rumored cache of weapons in Concord. The colonists were warned by Paul Revere and William Dawes and tried to block the troops at Lexington, but they continued on to Concord, where they fought a battle with the minutemen. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
house divided speech
Lincoln said that the government cannot be divided; one half proslavery, and the other half free would destroy the country.
"Quid"
An abbreviation of the Latin "tertium quid", meaning "third party" and used to denote an anti-Madison part of the Democratic-Republican Party of the United States between 1805 and 1811 who attracted Federalist support with varying success. Quids were most commonly so called in Pennsylvania and New York, although the term was occasionally used in other states. "Quid" was generally applied reproachfully by political opponents and was rarely used in self-designation. No national Quid party ever developed, and most Quids continued to regard themselves as Jeffersonian Republicans.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
john wilkes booth
a southern sympathizer, who shot and killed President Lincoln
Webster-Hayne debate
January 19-27, 1830: famous debate between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina regarding protectionist tariffs.
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
carpetbaggers
Northerners (Yankees) who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. They formed a coalition with Freedmen (freed slaves), and Scalawags (Southern whites) in the Republican Party, which in turn controlled ex-Confederate states for varying periods, 1867-1877.
harriet tubman
escaped slave. Mad at least 19 trips into southern states to free slaves via the UR. a major conductor of the underground railroad. abolitionist. humanitarian. union spy.
harriet beecher stowe
wrote uncle toms cabin. daughter of preacher& 2nd great awakening major figure lyman beecher. see "uncle toms cabin" daughter of lyman beecher.
compromise of 1850
California admitted as a free state. Divide the remainder of the Mexican Cession into two territories and allow poplar sovereignty. Give New Mexico new territories in the MC, and assume Texas' debt. Ban slave trade in DC but permit whites to hold slaves. Adopt a new Fugitive Slave Law and enforce it well. written in part by henry clay. supported by stephen a douglas.
John Davenport
founded New Haven, CT in 1637, combined with Hooker's Hartford and formed Connecticut
jay gould
Stock manipulator and brother-in-law of President Grant; made money selling gold
Lowell System
1) first fully mechanized mill and 2) recruit young farm girls from the surrounding countryside to work
bank wars
Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States during the early years of his presidency. In 1832 Andrew Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Second Bank of the United State's charter because he viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly: it was a private institution managed by a board of directors.
Southern Colonies
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Rush-Bagot Agreement
signed 1818; opened Oregon Territory to mutual administration for ten years; demilitarized Great Lakes; eventually became permanent policy. Adams signed it with England securing the boundary between Louisiana and British Canada
Declaratory Act (1766)
): One of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies. American rebels had organized a boycott in response to the Stamp Act which called into question the right of a distant power to tax them. The Declaratory Act asserted Britain's exclusive right to legislate for and tax its colonies. The taxes were mainly used to finance war debt, which had been accumulated during a recent series of wars, part of which were fought in the colonies.
barnburners
Free-Soilers who's defection threatened to destroy the Democratic party.
peninsula campaign
a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat.
benjamin wade
Along with Zachariah Chandler acted as vanguards in defending the Charters of Freedom, The U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence from corruption by the slavery power, without compromising.
Industrial Revolution
process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture
John Marshall
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
morrill land grant act
encouraged states to use the sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges
hinton helper
was a Southern US critic of slavery during the 1850s. In 1857, he published a book which he dedicated to the "nonslaveholding whites" of the South. The Impending Crisis of the South, written partly in North Carolina but published when the author was in the North, argued that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South.
public school movement
American movement to create adequate public institutions for widespread education, see horace mann
Religious Toleration
Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Infant Industries
New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply waterpower, plus a better system of roads and canals; first major industry in New England was textiles
James Madison
His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitutional; responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
underground railroad
"conductors and stations" which helped escape slaves reach freedom in the North or Canada. see harriet tubman
Marbury v. Madison
case arose out of Jefferson's refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams' Midnight Appointments. One of the appointees, Marbury, sued Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created the new judgeships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall presided
Battle of Tippecanoe 1811
between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and forces of Tecumseh's growing American Indian confederation. The battle took place outside Prophetstown, near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana, and was part of what is sometimes known as Tecumseh's War, which continued into the War of 1812. The battle was an important political and symbolic victory for the American forces
Neutrality
state of not offering favoritism to any countries or forming international alliances; encouraged by Washington in his farewell speech
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.
Seneca Falls Convention 1848
First women's rights convention in American History. Issued "Declaration of Sentiments"-declared "all men and women are created equal" and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts
Lord Fredick North
British statesman who was widely criticized for letting the Declaration of Independence be written
Act of Toleration
passed in 1649 in Maryland, allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland
Shakers
A mid-eighteenth century offshoot of the Quakers founded in England by Mother Ann Lee
Denmark Vesey
mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before revolt started
First Continental Congress
convened in Philly, 55 elected delegates from 12 colonies, met to discuss Coercive Acts. Results: each colony has one vote, prepared Declaration of Rights, and third economic boycott against British goods. The Congress drafted the Articles of Association on October 20, 1774. The Articles formed a compact among the colonies to boycott British goods, and to cease exports to Britain as well if the "Intolerable Acts" were not repealed.
Interchangeable parts
components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type. This streamlines the manufacturing process, since all pieces are guaranteed to fit with all others, and it similarly creates the opportunity for replacement parts.
Harriet Tubman
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Supreme Court
The highest federal court in the United States, consisting of nine justices and having jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation. First met on February 2 1790. Began because of the Judiciary Act of 1789. That Act provided for the highest court in the land to have six justices, of which one would be the Chief Justice
Puritans
settlers who denounced vestiges of Catholicism in the Church of England and rejected all modernization as corruption—e.g. cities, armies, technology, etc., --believed in a strict adherence to social/economic law
john c fremont
captain and explorer; CA with several dozen well-armed men when the Mexican War erupted. Helped overthrow Mexican rule in 1846 by collaborating with Americans who'd tried to raise banner of CA Bear Republic; helped take CA from inside
John Locke
British philosopher who thrived after the glorious revolution. He developed the ideas that all people have rights of life, liberty, and property and that government exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government. These ideas deeply influenced both the US Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. He was most noted for his works, Two Treatises of Government and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. He was also noted for his belief of the "tabula rasa", clean slate.
thomas "stonewall" jackson
a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and probably the most revered Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes such famous exploits as the audacious Valley Campaign of 1862 and as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which the general survived, albeit with the loss of an arm to amputation. However, he died of complications of pneumonia eight days later.
Established Church
A church supported by the government as a national institution. The Church of England is an established church in England.
Patrick Henry
Radical young southern patriot who wrote Virginia Stamp Act Resolution, urged Committees of Correspondence to report to all colonies whatever happened, in essence, keep in contact; voice of emerging new American identity; said "Give me liberty or give me death".
william (boss) tweed, tweed ring
New York politician and cronies, respectively, who, through fraudulent billing and embezzlement, defrauded the city of New York out of between 25 and 200 million dollars.
Panic of 1819
first major financial crisis in the " United States; featured widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and agricultural slump; end of the economic expansion following the War of 1812; primary cause was likely the credit tightening instituted by directors of Second Bank; loans made to land speculators and similar high-risk debtors defaulted, bankrupted their lenders
abraham lincoln
Republican candidate for election of 1860. Not an ablolitionist. Moderate, who was against expansion of slavery but was not an abolitionist. emancipation proclamation, gettysburg address, etc. enemies and allies alike agreed that he was honorable and wanted to uphold the consitution.
American Antislavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
rotation in office
Beginning in 1829, Jackson invoked this wholesale practice as his guiding principle, saying plainly that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
Rice
-in Carolinas, became new staple crop, instead of tobacco -brought to Americas by African slaves/traders -within first generation of settlement, rice planters' profits far exceeded those of their VA neighbors -RICE BELT-stretched from Cape Fear-Spanish dominion of Savannah River (NC to GA)
robert e lee
A top graduate of West Point, Lee distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for thirty-two years. He is best known for fighting on behalf of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War.
vicksburg
battle for control of mississippi river. Union's goal to split Confederacy and restore free commerce to NW An attempt to take Vicksburg, Miss by water and from N. failed. Grant decided to take it from South and opened siege; Confederate forces unable to unite, and after about six weeks Vicksburg's defenders surrendered on July 4, 1863
Electoral College
the system by which the president and vice president of the United States are chosen. It was devised by the framers of the United States Constitution to provide a method of election that was feasible, desirable, and consistent with a republican form of government
National Bank
Part of Hamilton's Plan, it would save the government's surplus money until it was needed.
lecompton constitution
the second of four proposed constitutions for the state of Kansas (it was preceded by the Topeka Constitution and followed by the Leavenworth and Wyandotte).[1] The document was written in response to the anti-slavery position of the 1855 Topeka Constitution.
King George III
King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom, formed by the union of Great Britain and Ireland, until his death. King during American Revolutionary War
civil rights act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
Judicial Branch
One of the three branches of government, the judiciary interprets laws. The highest authority in the judiciary is the Supreme Court, which determines the constitutionality of laws.
Florida Purchase
Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain ceded Florida to US; US relinquished its claim on Texas back to Spain
Royal colony
colony under direct authority of governor appointed by king. Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Strict interpretation of Constitution
Strict and doctrinal interpretation of the Constitution and its justification. Thomas Jefferson favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution, which he interpreted as forbidding everything it did not expressly permit. In contrast, Hamilton favored a loose interpretation.
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
charles sumner
American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. An academic lawyer but a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and the Radical Republicans in the U.S. Senate during the American Civil War and Reconstruction
conscience whigs
whigs, usually in the north, who opposed slavery
National Debt
included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries, which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war; Hamilton's program paid off these debts
Stamp Act Congress
began with James Otis; a meeting in October 1765 of delegates from the American Colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act.
James Otis
Advocate general, refused to give in and help get officers get search warrants of smuggled goods, prominent in the resistance to the revenue acts. The phrase "Taxation without Representation is Tyranny" is usually attributed to him.
Continentals
Paper bills issued by the Continental Congress to finance the revolution; supposed to be exchanged for silver but the overprinting of bills made them basically worthless.
margaret fuller
transcendentalist, wrote on great social and intellect potential of women if released of conventional norms; lived at brook farm for awhile
Albany Plan of Union
The Albany Congress, also known as the Albany Conference, was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island). Representatives met daily at Albany, New York from June 19 to July 11 to discuss better relations with the Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French.
Barbary pirates
several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute
compromise of 1877
Compromise made necessary by the disputed Election of 1876. While an Electoral Commission awarded the election to Rutherford B. Hayes, Southern Democrats planned to block the Commission's report via filibuster. The compromise resolved the constitutional crisis through a series of secret negotiations involving Republican and Democratic politicians, and various interest groups, most notably the railroad companies.
blanche k bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
Glorious Revolution
after King James II converted to Catholicism in 1676, Parliament feared an irreversible trend towards Catholic favor was starting, and thus decided to replace James with his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband William of Orange...in 1688, a small army with widespread support overthrew James and gave William and Mary the crown
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Liberty Party
A political party that started during the two party systems in the 1840's.The party's main platform was bringing an end to slavery by political and legal means. The party was originally part of the American Anti-slavery however; they split because they believed there was a more practical way to end slavery than Garrison's moral crusade.
National Road
first highway built by the federal government; during 1825-1850; stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois; major overland shipping route and important connection between North and West
House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state's population.
morrill tariff act
protective, raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect American manufactures
Battle of New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army's battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism
James Oglethorpe
one of the enlightened founding fathers of Georgia, later became a general who raised Georgia troops to raid St. Augustine on behalf of the British
Sam houston
Former Gov. of Tennessee; adopted member of Cherokee tribe; Commander of TX army, victory at San Jacinto; President of Republic of Texas; advocated TX joining Union in 1845
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Geneva-born enlightenment thinker. His ideas influenced the French Revolution through his political views, most widely represented through the Social Contract, which outlined the ideas for a legitimate political order. Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men and Émile was Rousseau's other major work that heavily influenced people of the time. He is often regarded as a major figure of the Enlightenment.
3/5ths Compromise
Slaves deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the House.
Impressments
The act of conscripting foreign people to serve as sailors. It was used by the Royal Navy during the 18th century and early 19th century in time of war as a means of crewing warships. People liable to impressments were eligible men of seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 55 years, though very rarely non-seamen were impressed as well. British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British
Democratic-Republic Party
Had earlier been members of the Anti-Federalists. Its leading members were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. The Democratic-Republicans differed from Federalists in that they favored state banks and little industry. Also, they believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution. The Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the United States' most important ally.
Olive Branch Petition
final offer of peace to Britain; agreed to be loyal to British government if it addressed their grievances; rejected by Parliament, which passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies
clayton bulwer treaty
between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama; Abrogated by U.S. in 1881
Virginia Plan
resolutions proposed by James Madison concerning aspects of the system of government. It proposed a bicameral legislature, in which the house's members would be elected in proportion to state populations. The smaller states opposed the proposal, fearing they would lose influence to the larger states. The plan also supported the Separation of Powers.
ostend manifesto
recommendation that U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba; not carried through because North feared Cuba woukd become another slave state. franklin pierce never passed it after the public found out, major criticism from them prevented it.
Federal Courts
six- justice Supreme Court created as one of Washington's first actions as president
nat turner
Led uprising of 60 slaves who believed him a divine instrument sent to free his people; killed almost 60 whites in South Hampton, Virginia; result: slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in support of fugitive slave laws
reconstruction acts 1867
Four statutes known as Reconstruction Acts following the Civil War. They created five military districts in the seceded states; each district was headed by a military official empowered to appoint state officials; voters (whites and freed blacks) were to be registered; states were to draft new constitutions providing for black male suffrage; states were required to ratify the 14th Amendment.
George Rogers Clark
frontier military leader in Revolutionary War; successes factored into the award of the Old Northwest to the United States in the Treaty of Paris; American military leader and frontiersman who led numerous raids on British troops and Native Americans in the Northwest Territory during the Revolutionary War.
Commercial Compromise
allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce yet prohibited any tariffs on exported goods. This agreement incorporated the needs of both the Anti-Federalists and the Federalists to some degree
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams; during Revolutionary War, wrote letters to husband describing life on the home front, urged husband to remember America's women in new government he was creating
Crispus Attacks
American patriot, probably a fugitive slave, killed in the Boston Massacre.
david ruggles
African-American printer in N.Y.C. in 1830s; prototype for black activist journalists; in 20-yr career, operated first Afro-American press; published first periodical magazine, Mirror of Liberty, by
Asylum Movement
Efforts to propose government legislation to improve treatment of the insane with larger institutions and proper environmental and educational conditions.
Articles of Confederation
delegated most of the powers to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money; weakness: gave the federal government little power and it couldn't keep the country united; strength: settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance; Articles abandoned for Constitution
Anti-Federalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it didn't ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Anti-Federalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Anti-Federalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party
Declaration of Independence
: signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4; dissolved colonies' ties with Britain and listed grievances against King George III; declared colonies an independent nation
Virginia Company
Joint-stock company made up of the Virginia Company of Plymouth and the Virginia Company of London that founded the colony of Virginia in order to try and make profit
Limited Democracy
the basic requirements for any kind of political involvement were being a free
states rights
All rights not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution nor denied by it to the states.
Horace Greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
franklin pierce
President 1852-56; policy of foreign expansionism; envoy to Japan open door policy and supported creation of new markets in China; Ostend Manifesto; wanted to free Cuba from Spanish control; promoted Kansas-Nebraska Act; reopened slavery issue in new territory
Rhode Island
known as most liberal of all colonies; seemingly most tolerant
presidential reconstruction
In December 1863 Lincoln introduced the first Reconstruction scheme, the Ten Percent Plan, thus beginning the period known as Presidential Reconstruction. The plan decreed that when one-tenth of a state's prewar voters had taken an oath of loyalty to the U.S. Constitution, its citizens could elect a new state government and apply for readmission to the Union. In addition, Lincoln promised to pardon all but a few high-ranking Confederates if they would take this oath and accept abolition. The plan also required that states amend their constitutions to abolish slavery. Conspicuous in this plan was the stipulation that only whites could vote or hold office.
Sylvester Graham
American clergyman whose advocacy of health regimen emphasizing temperance and vegetarianism found lasting expression in graham cracker
henry clay
Proposed compromise to the settling of the territories of the Mexican Cession. and helped write the compromise of 1850. had moderate views on slavery and similar political views to lincoln.
Subsistence farming
A mode of agriculture in which a plot of land produces only enough food to feed the family working it. Because surpluses are rare, the farming family is left almost entirely without implements or goods that it cannot produce by itself.
Enlightenment
Refers to the historical intellectual movement The Enlightenment, which advocated Reason as a means to establishing an authoritative system of aesthetics, ethics, and logic, and claimed that this system could allow human beings to obtain objective truth about the universe.
American Colonization Society
A society which established the colony of Liberia, to which freed blacks were sent from the United States. The colony later declared its independance.
Delaware
originally Swedish/Dutch settlement, given to William Penn in 1682; at first perceived as merely an appendage to Pennsylvania, but later its value was realized because of its shore line and river leading from the coast to Philadelphia. 1701, Delaware was granted its own representative assembly, although they continued to share Pennsylvania's governor. 1704 saw the creation of an entirely separate government for Delaware
jefferson davis
president of the Confederate Army, tried to increase his executive power during the war
New Jersey Plan
Called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation
George Edwards
An English naturalist and ornithologist, known as the "father of British ornithology". He wrote History of Birds and Gleanings of Natural History which contained engravings and descriptions of more than 600 subjects in natural history not before described or delineated.
tenure of office act 1867
Denied the president the power to remove from office anyone appointed by the Senate. President Andrew Johnson attempted to remove Edwin Stanton but the Senate did not ratify the act. Johnson attempted to appoint a new Secretary of War anyway, leading to his impeachment (the first presidential impeachment ever). He avoided removal from office by a single vote.
oregon territory
territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818
John Adams
colonial lawyer; radical member of First Continental Congress who asserted that shared rule was no longer acceptable; argued against Stamp Act; helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence; later second president of USA
Two-Term Tradition
The practice of limiting a president's tenure to two terms, as established by George Washington.
French Revolution
political rebellion against the French monarchy and aristocratic privileges;(1789-1799) seen as a major turning point in the history of Western democracy—from the age of absolutism and aristocracy, to the age of the citizenry as the dominant political force. American debt to the French during the American Revolution played a part in the French Revolution.
stephen a douglas
politician from illinois who supported popular sovereignty and basically destroyed his political career with the freeport doctrine. strongly supported the compromise of 1850. engineered different coalitions to pass each part of the compromise separately.
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Written by Samuel Adams in response to the Townshend Acts that invited the people of Massachusetts to "maintain the liberties of America"
New Hampshire
originally a part of Massachusetts Bay, royal colony as of 1679, although it had the freedom to appoint its own governor (rather than king doing it)
john tyler
took over for harrison when he died, President favored states rights; critical of American system and economic nationalism; vetoed creation of third national bank; supported cheap land purchasing in west and western expansionist goals; wanted Texas in union
George Washington
led troops during French-Indian War; surrendered Fort Necessity to French; commander-in-chief of Continental Army; Left the army in 1758. Also the first President of the United States. Took office (Apr.30, 1789) in New York City
nullification crisis
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
American Peace Society
A pacifist society founded on the principles of William Ladd. Merged societies from New Hampshire, New York, Maine, and Massachusetts.
The Federalists Papers
collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution
ex parte milligan
the Supreme Court ruled the government acted improperly in Indiana where civilians were subject to a military trial. The court ruled procedures could only be used when regular civilian courts were unavailable.
King Cotton
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before Civil War to indicate economic dominance of Southern cotton industry, and that North needed South's cotton. Coined by James Hammond
uncle toms cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
patronage
The practice by holders of political office of appointing their followers or fellow party members to positions. Very important during the Gilded Age, (Post Civil War Era) due to bipartisan agreement on national issues and political decadence, it resulted in Congress passing the Pendleton Act in 1883, which set up the Civil Service Commission. Henceforth, applicants for most federal government jobs would have to pass an examination.
Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700's. Becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
Tallmadge Amendment
bill that would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but forbid introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at age 25; never actually put into effect
Massachusetts Government Act
The act did away with elections for the councilors and assistants in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, making the positions appointive, the appointments to be made by the crown.
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
general zachary taylor
Commander of Army of Occupation on Texas border; built fort on north bank of Rio Grande River; Taylor's forces engaged in series of engagements that led to Mexican War; victories in war and defeat of Santa Ana made him national hero
monitor vs merrimack
to fight the blockade by the Union the Confederates reconstructed the Merrimack and destroyed Union ships in the Chesapeake Bay. The Union sent in the Monitor to fight back neither side could claim a victory.
Valley Forge
in Revolutionary War, Pennsylvania encampment grounds of the Continental Army under Gen. George Washington; period that marked triumph of morale and military discipline over severe hardship; on the west bank of the Schuylkill River, considered a defensible site, strategically located on trade routes and near farm supplies
Hereditary Aristocracy
A form of government in which rule is in the hands of an "upper class" or aristocratic family. This inevitably means those with the power to hold wealth, and to define who shall remain in poverty and slavery.
City Upon A Hill
: name for Mass. Bay Colony coined by Winthrop to describe how their colony should serve as a model of excellence for future generations
Lancaster Turnpike
first fully planned, broken-stone or gravel surfaced; connected Philadelphia to "bread basket" region surrounding Lancaster; created major connection between the two regions allowing trade of agricultural goods for industrial/imported goods from city
Pinckney Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
Providence
town founded by Roger Williams and his followers in Rhode Island
Stephen Decatur
most important naval officer in the history of the United States
Fundamental Orders of CT 1639
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield); first constitution written in America
Tea Act (1773)
Allowed the British East India Company to sell tea to the British colonies in North America without the usual colonial tax, thereby allowing them to undercut the prices of the colonial merchants and smugglers
Judiciary Act 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges
Cabinet
A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of the cabinet included the Secretary of State, of the Treasury and of War. The cabinet is extremely important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation
rutherford b hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
alabama
Confederate commerce raiders used the Alabama to capture more than 60 Union ships. It was eventually sunk and Great Britain agreed to pay the U.S. $15.5 million for damages.
Thomas Amendment
bill that would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region; never activated
Joseph Humphrey Noyes-Oneida Community
Noyes founded the group and founded the beliefs of the society. A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
Thomas Hooker
left colony of Massachusetts Bay b/c of overpopulation for Hartford, CT and accepted a charter that gave most male property-owners right to vote
Restoration Colonies
colonies formed during the restoration period of the Stuart Monarchy in England, in which Charles decided he needed to take firmer control of the expanding colonies
stephen austin
son of moses austin. known as the "Father of Texas", led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by settlers from the United States.
Middle Colonies
Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania
Union
confederation of independent individuals for some common purpose, at this time, to demand better wages, working conditions, and hours
Intolerable Acts or Coercive Acts (1774) or Punitive Acts
Four acts that were directed mainly at punishing the people of Boston and Massachusetts and bringing the dissidents under control in 1774.
Excise Tax
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program
scalawags
Democrats nickname for a group of white southerners who resented the planter elite and believed that Republican policies would favor them over the wealthy landowners.
William S. Mount
Contemporary of the Hudson River school; began as a history painter but moved to depicting scenes form everyday life
Martin Van Buren
a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. Also became the leader of the Albany Regency, a clique of wealthy landowners who controlled New York politics.
Dominion of New England
British government combined colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros); ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Senate
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators
Constitutional Convention
Beginning on May 25, 1787, recommended by Annapolis Convention; held in Philadelphia. All states except RI sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. Convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, drafted largely by James Madison.
Protective tariff
A duty imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition
Social Mobility
The movement of individuals, families or groups up the social/economic ladder.
William Lloyd Garrison; The Liberator
An abolitionist who became editor of the Boston publication the Liberator in 1831. Under his leadership the Liberator gained great fame. He attacked everything from slave holding, to moderate abolitionists. He supported northern secession
Susan B. Anthony
Led the campaign for equal voting, legal, and property rights for women. Campaigned with Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Boston Massacre
A riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
Navigation Act
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British
Triangular Trade
Atlantic trade route in which African slaves were brought to the Caribbean, rum to the Americas, rum to Europe which then bought slaves Middle Passage: the forced transportation of Africans to the new world, the middle portion of the Triangular Trade
know nothing party
Formed because of hostilities towards German and Irish catholic immigrants. millard fillmore headed the party in the 1856 presidential race and lost to buchanan.
Colonial Governor-power
An official appointed to govern a colony or territory. The Governor held power directly derived from the Queen to manage the affairs of the colony.
Henry Hudson
Hired by the East India Company to find a route to the East Indies. Instead, he found the abundant river valley that was named for him, the Hudson River.
Patrick Henry
radical young southern patriot who wrote Virginia Stamp Act Resolution, urged Committees of Correspondence to report to all colonies whatever happened, in essence, keep in contact; voice of emerging new American identity
John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights
Battle of Yorktown
joint Franco-American land/sea campaign that entrapped a major British army on a peninsula at Yorktown, VA, and forced its surrender; virtually ended military operations in Revolutionary War
Carolinas
restoration colonies settled by proprietors appointed by King Charles II in 1663. Originally, they wished to establish nearly feudal hierarchies in the Carolinas, however, these were nearly impossible to implement in the New World
American Party
nativists; refused to divulge information about themselves to the public; political program included ending poor relief to non-citizens and instituting literacy tests for voting; demanded no foreigners hold offices and called for laws to extend the period before naturalization into citizenship from five to twenty one years; teamed up w/female missionaries and educational reformers to proselytize in immigrant communities about American democracy and virtues of "women's sphere"
mexican american war
Tension with Mexico increased after United States annexed Texas and brought slaves there even though mexico had outlawed slaver and even though america promised the spanish rights in the southwest in the adams onis treaty in 1819; sparked by eleven Americans killed "on American soil,"; Polk sent war message to Congress; Most of war fought in Mexico; most of battles won by United States.
Daniel Webster
great American orator; gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman; major representative of North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, often opposing John C. Calhoun who represented the South
Francis Scott Key
saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack and wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience of seeing the U.S. flag still flying above the fort in the morning, and the poem was later set to the tune of an old English bar song
panic of 1857
sudden downturn in US economy occurring in 1857, caused by a loss of confidence in an Ohio bank, but spread as railroads failed, and trust in the government waned. Thousands of American businesses failed with a year, and unemployment rose greatly....full impact didn't dissipate until the American Civil War
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity, and inventions such as the bifocals, lightning rod, and a stove.
Whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
treaty of guadelupe
the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States[1][2] to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico, that ended the Mexican-American War
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Abolitionists and suffragettes. The sisters came from South Carolina in a aristocratic family, with an Episcopalian judge who owned slaves father. Both sisters became abolitionists, and after converting to the Quaker faith, they joined Society of Friends. In 1835, Angela wrote an anti-slavery letter to Abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison, who published it in, The Liberator. They spoke at abolitionist meetings. In 1837, Angelina was invited to be the first woman to speak at the Massachusetts State Legislature. Sarah and Angelina Grimke wrote Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837) - objecting to male opposition to their anti-slavery activities.
John Winthrop
He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders.
Minutemen
members of local militia that was prepared to "rise up in a minute's alarm" to defend the colonies; seventy of them defeated the British at Lexington/Concord via unorthodox, non-European fighting tactics
Land Ordinance 1785
Under the Articles of Confederation, it forbade congress from raising revenue by direct taxation of US citizens. The immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original colonies.
universal male suffrage
The extension of the right to vote to all males regardless of social standing or race, whose movement had begun in the early-mid 1800's
shermans march
General Sherman lead a force from Chattanooga, Tennessee to South Carolina destroying everything the Confederates could use to survive. He set fire to South Carolina's capital, Columbia.
Corporate colony
colony subsidized by a private corporation; crown does none of the dirty work yet still gets a piece of the profits. Rhode Island and Connecticut
Embargo Act 1807
The Embargo Act was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson that forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S., was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade; difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade, hurt the national economy, so the Non-Intercourse Act replaced it. It was designed to force Britain to rescind its restrictions on American trade, but failed, and was repealed in early 1809.
Legislative Branch
One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate
winfield scott
was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.
XYZ Affair
Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates in France that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
lewis cass
Democratic nominee in the 1848 election, an American military officer and politician. During his long political career, Cass served as a governor of the Michigan Territory, an American ambassador, and a U.S. Senator representing Michigan. proposed the idea of popular sovereignty.
samuel j tilden
Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century.
New England Confederation
federation of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth established in May 1643 by delegates from those four Puritan colonies; influenced by solution of trade, boundary, and religious disputes, but the principal impetus was concern over defense against attacks by the French, Dutch, or Indians, because of their divergence from accepted Puritan precepts, settlements in what later became Rhode Island and Maine were refused admission to the confederation.
Pennsylvania
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers
Asiento system
means agreement in Spanish) the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834.
matthew perry
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854 by franklin pierces demands. Possible relative of Katy Perry, and may have kissed a boy (and liked it).
Colonial families
a body of persons who live in one house, or under one head, including parents, children and servants. The colonial family was modeled after the model of the family in European society, where each member had a set job.
Prohibitory Act
passed by Parliament, forbade trade with colonies
Nat Turner's Insurrection
Nat Turner's Insurrection
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff; provided the federal government with money to loan to industrialists. It also increased the cost of European goods in the United States. Tariffs helped American industry by raising prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S; imposed higher duties on clothes, sweets, iron, fur, paper, and leather
samuel morse
an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code.
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Implied powers
unspecified powers of Congress denoted by the necessary and proper clause; Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers."; sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert
Toussaint l'Overture
Led a slave rebellion, which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S
first battle of bull run
Southern victory ended Northern illusion of a short Civil War
homestead act
promoted the settlement of the Great Plains offering free land to whoever could farm the land for at least five years

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