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Social Change/Social Movements exam 2


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What were the leading Civil Rights Movement SMO's?
NAACP, Universal Negro Improvement, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, STFU, CORE, SCLC, SNCC
What were the major events in the Civil Rights SM?
"Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" protest, 1st March on Washington, Brown v. Board of Education, Montgomery Bus Boycott, Freedom Riders, Albany Movement, Birmingham Movement
What were the major methods of SMO's in the Civil Rights Movement?
sit-ins, boycotts,
Universal Negro Improvement: who, goals, methods, outcome
who-Marcus Garvey with urban blacks in the north
goals- return to Africa for independent black nation
methods- parades through black neighborhoods
outcomes- racial pride
failure- Garvey jailed for fraud
NAACP: founded date, who, goals, methods, successes, opposition
date- organized 1909-10
who-African American middle and upper class persons in the north; highly edu'd professionals inc'g W.E.B. DuBois
goals- integration
methods-legal (lobbying) & education persuasion, aggressive militant-like in goals
successes- 1915 invalidation gf clause, 1922 won a/g all white primary
opposition- labeled "outside agitator"
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: who, goals, methods
who- A. Philip Randolph & porters from the paternalistic Pullman Company (they're a privileged segment of the working class but in a degrading job)
goals- dignity
methods- labor union, 1st March on Washington
1st March on Washington: who, methods, success, decline
who- A. Philip Randolph & his union members
methods- organize committees & public rallies nationwide, grassroots support, plan rally at Lincoln Memorial, rallies around country a month before
outcome- "magnificant bluff"; Randolph tells Roosevelt to expect 100,000
success- Roosevelt passes Order banning discrimination in defense industries, Roosevelt establishes Fair Employment Practices Committee to monitor compliance
decline- internal; elite support declines, failure to engage rank and file, civil disobedience call produces little action but drives away conservative leaders
CORE: who, issues, methods, success, failure
who- small interracial circle of Chicago U S's, members of Christian pacifist org "Fellowship of Reconciliation". leaders from org, Bayard Rustin & James Farmer
issues- deseg, employment & housing discrimination in N, public accommodations in S
methods- "nonviolent direct action"
What was CORE's model of "nonviolent direct action"?
(from Gandhi's method)
1. Convert adversary through face-to-face negotiation
2. public agitation to arouse opinion ag target
3. direct action (picket, boycott, strike, sit-ins)
4. civil disobedience (deliberate violation of the law)
Who inspired other SMOs' use of sit-ins?
What was the "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" protest (who, outcome, success)?
who- major cities' CIO, Unemployment Councils, STFU
outcome- militant leaders
success- hiring agreements from some merchants
What was the "Journey of Reconciliation"?
Bus ride to south in 1947 by the Fellowship of Reconciliation members of CORE. Through Virginia & NC with blacks refusing to sit in back.
What does NAACP stand for? When was it established?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1909
What does CORE stand for? When was it in action?
Congress of Racial Equality, 1942-1947
What was Brown v. Board of Education: when, who won, success?
victory- NAACP
success- basis through which to challenge structures of inequality
What did the Montgomery Bus Boycott model?
Baton Rouge
Montgomery Bus Boycott: when, who, methods, opposition, success
when 1955-6
who: Rosa Parks arrested December 1, 1955. E.D. Nixion planned to challenge segregated bus seating with Women's Political Council. King prez of Montgomery Improvement Association.
methods: Women's Council distributes flyers to announce 100% effective bus boycott. church carpool system.
opposition- minimum taxi fare ordinance, ticketing for minor infractions, vagrancy ordinance threats to people waiting for rides, building inspectors displace MIA office 4 times, indictment for violating anti-boycott statue, bomb under King's house
success- integration of bus in Montgomery, new mood among Souther blacks, willingness to challenge Jim Crow & suffer consequences
SNCC: founding, who, methods, downfall
founding- sitins
who- SCLC wanting more strategy & direction to sitins = SNCC. black students in South led by Ella Baker
methods- nonviolent direct action
downfall- expel whites, black seperatism, tensions with SCLC
Details on Freedom Riders
Attacked in Birmingham, no drivers take, Kennedy demands Greyhound bus & Gov Patterson protection, hwy patrol & state airplance escort disappear= Montgomery attack & blacks held hostage in church = Gov declares martial law & mobilizes 800 ntnl guardsmen = SUCCESS: Interstate Commerce Commission gives order banning segregated facilities in bus & train stations
Albany Mvm: who, methods, outcome, failure
who- SNCC members leave college and organized by adults Sherrod & Reagon
method- fed mandate: deseg. students test out. bus boycott.
outcome- bus line bankrupts v. deseg's
failure: city finds jails for all (nonbrutal v. nonviolent) = ntnl press interpret defeat AND commitment to nonviolent tactics shaken. MLK arrested, gets out, leaves.
Birmingham Mvm: who, methods, opposition, success, next steps
who- King, school children, etc.
methods- nonviolent sitins, march, take adv of POS: old & newly elected government in office at same time = no unified opposition to MLK & mvm. Framing: morality issues of seeing children sent to jail. Media: worldwide coverage of firehosing & dogs. Jails fill.
opposition- violent attack by Bull Connor "Public Safety Commissioner", KKK bombs MLK's hotel room, beatings
success- Kennedy Admin threatens military intervention, business deseg & hire black wkrs, Kennedy appears on TV urging Civil Rights bill prohibiting racial discrim in pub accommodations
next- new March on Washington
What does Morris suggest about SM's like the Civil Rights Mvm that is not the typical belief?
They are highly organized
Define indigenous perspective
Morris' method for studing social movements like the Civil Rights Mvm; mass protest arises from the organizing efforts of activists functioning through a well-developed indigenous base (it's local: black church, SCLC, music, culture, oratory, sermons)
Define the tripartite system of domination
Economic, political, and personal controls.
What are some economic controls for domination?
jobs, money
What are some political controls for racial domination?
Poll tax, white primaries, intimidation and violence at polls, "grandfather clause", white juries
What are the personal controls for racial domination?
Segregation treating blacks as inferior race, forcing blacks to address whites with respect
How did bloc recruitment play into the Civil Rights Mvm?
The church! Charismatic leaders preach to those discrimated against who feel powerless and prejudiced against. The church is also one of the few autonomous black structures.
New March on Washington: who, what
who- Randolph & Rustin
what- organized signs, sandwiches, security, transportation. 200,000 blacks & whites march to Lincoln memorial. Prez SNCC to speech a/g new bill as too little, too late; Randolph asks not to & is rewritten there that day.
What womens' organizations & other initiatives played a large role in the Civil Rights Movement?
"Club from Nowhere" raising money (Georgia Gilmore)
teach black adults litreracy to vote thanks to 1965 Voting Rights Act (Septima Clark).
What are "movement halfway houses"?
Official organizations, in society but only partially integrated. Absence of a mass base, so usually unable to make widespread change, but lotsa resources for emerging mass mvm's.
What is "biographical availability"?
Who participates in activism in coorespondance with their biography.
What is a "Citizenship School"?
Highlander Folk School project. Black non-teachers teach adults literacy with adult texts (Constitution, etc.)
Myles Horton
Social gospel ideas, studied Danish folk schools, wanted them to deal with people's problems.
Highlander Folk Center: founding, methods, issues, problems
founding- Myles Horton
methods- Study problems, find out opressed's answers, education through actual experiences. Sharing workshops (everyone speaks up), for beauticians, for college students
problems- too small, not enough resources, blacks not attracted
When did the Crisis of Victory come for the Civil Rights Mvm?
1965 with Voting Rights Act
1968 with MLK Jr.'s death
What was the last of the civil rights coalition events?
"March Against Fear" in Mississippi
What did Community Protest as a new protest form arise from?
Urban life's concentration of poor in urban slums & enlargement of municipal responsibility encouragemened collective responses to economic distress.
Back of the Yards: who, method
who- Stockyard district/slums; Alinsky starts People's Organization, Back of the Yards Neighborhood Council vying for union. Pursuades church leaders (w ideas $) to be involved.
method- organization of organizations; gets community desires met
Industrial Areas Foundation
Formed by Alinsky after BotY successes.
Saul Alinsky
Him- "Father of Modern Organizing". Trying to put self out of job in poor people's communities.
Alinsky's model:
1. hear about problem
2. secure invitation
3. get community members together and listen
4. identify key issues
5. nurture local leadership to come up with winnable victory through organizing
6. secure victory
7. leave!
What is the biggest power held by poor people?
The power to disrupt and the numbers to do so.
Define social movement spillover and give an example
Energy or strategies go from movement to movement. EX: from civil rights to women's, intn'l (3rd world liberation), community organizing (TWO & Welfare Rights) & black seperatism
What was the Bandung Conference?
1955 liberation spillover from civil rights mvm; Asian & African (no whites) discuss whites
What events/SMOs are connected to Alinsky?
Back of the Yards, Industrial Areas Federation, The Woodlawn Organization
What does TWO stand for?
The Woodlawn Organization
The Woodlawn Organization: who, x4- method, issues, success, failure
who- Alinsky
1. method- start with what can be won. march, scales & adding machine in local church, community arbitration board
issue- fair business
success- dishonest business declined
2. issue- housing
method- Alinsky's "pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, polarize it". Picket & strike bad landlords.
3. issue- ag U of Chicago's urban renewal plan (mostly was reMOVal) planned for them by others
method- sitin at mayor
success- majority seats project committee w veto pwr, "Woodlawn Gardens" low-income housing managed by TWO
4. issue- War on Poverty (support)
method- fed grants to community edu & youth employ pgm
failure- City Hall political pwr = closed fed funds
method- other projects (market, day care, housing dvm)

"From Protest to Program"
What does NWRO stand for?
National Welfare Rights Organization
National Welfare Rights Organization: why, who, methods, successes, failure
why- response to "War on Poverty": higher income, not programs!
who- all below poverty line, others = "Friends of Welfare Rights" (couldn't vote in org)
method- inform poor of right & how to get welfare, "Walk for Adequate Welfare", "basic needs" campaigning for what has immediate benefit to protestors (easier recruitment), "More $ Now" kits
victories- growing membership, perception of reality of poverty, politicized income distribution, ex of powerful org led by poor black women
failure- lack of local organizers, didn't get guaranteed adequate income
How did NWRO interact with Nixon's Family Assistance Plan?
At first support (looked good in contrast to local failures), then grew too restrictive and protested "Zap FAP!"
What does ACORN stand for?
Arkansas Community Organizations for Reform Now
ACORN: who, issues, methods, success, other facts
issues- basic needs, care in hospitals, school, housing, "Save the City", energy crisis
methods- storm welfare office, campaigns, run ppl for school board, door-to-door recruitment, organize Vietnam vets & unemployed, organize protests
successes- liberal Governor est agency to distribute furniture, appliances, clothes; improved emerg. care in hospitals; plant size of AR Pwr & Light Co. cut in half; rate hike cut; spread outside state
FACT1- Dem's rejected most of their proposals = split
FACT2- ACORN 80 helped define radical, militant style
What tensions did TMD point out in SMs?
1. Between pursuit of immediate benefits for consituents V. comittment to fundamental reforms.
2. Between local change V. broad movement which = more change in culture.
When did the "crisis of victory" come for the Civil Rights movement?
What does TMD say is required for an enduring culture of protest?
An ideology
What are some of the major methods for resistance to social movements?
redbaiting, court injunctures, violence, slander, sabatoge
What are the three ways culture ties in to Social Movements? Who is this according to?
Doug McAdam says:
1. SMs has roots in culture
2. Movement cultures emerge & develop (ideal community, visions of future, music/drama/art).
3. There are cultural consequences of social movements (change in language, diffusion of frames, bringing 2 diff parties together).
How does Gary Marx relate to Smelser?
Last step of value-added model:
6. failure of social control by authorities
What does Gary Marx say about social movements and social control?
Authorities and countermovements can use their control to destroy a movement.
In what ways does Marx list that movements can be destroyed?
1. creation of unfavorable public image
2. info gathering (even just having them under surveillance)
3. inhibiting supply of resources & facilities (inc censorship)
4. derecruitment
5. destroying leaders
6. fostering internal conflict
7. encouraging external conflict
8. sabatoguing particular action
9. cooptation
Define "cooptation"
The offering of something positive to undermine a social movement
What are the 4 types of frames according to Snow et. al?
frame bridging- between different groups' frames
" amplification- make values so you'll want to work on them
" extension
" transformation- new values
Define "master frame"
Frames generically applied broadly to multiple movements and
Explain what happens with cycles of protest.
When a cycle of protest emerges, a master frame is developed.

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