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Psych 346 review


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9b1. Difference between LOP in amnesics and normal people
Amnesics don't have consolidation like normal people do so even if they deeply process, can't remember!
1.Evidence that Semantic Memory and Episodic memory are seperate
-Amnesics had difficulty learning semantic knowledge. -brain imaging, right prefrontal /left prefrontal more active at different times when semantic/episodic memory tested -John and Beth are a bit unusal because they are amnesic but they have poor episodic memory, but good semantic memory!
2.Theoretical ideas about how memory is organized (both behavioral and brain-based)
-Hierachal Model, very economical. -However, familarity seems to matter more than distance (typicality effects) -Main problem with hierachal model, bird and cnary same distance as bird and penguin but the former is much faster! Must be something else Semantic Networks may offer the solution -works by spreading activation -supported by experiment by David Meyer. Task is to determine if the probe is a word =when doctor was said, nurse had the quickest reaction time (related) -Unrelated was slightly slower (Say butter, then if nurse is a word) -Nonword slowest (Wine, Glame)
Factors that influence the success of transfer of learning for new concepts
Whorfian hypothesis: language determines perceptions and representation? -Also learning depends on different cultures. For example, the Dani people didn't remember colors as well. -Old experiences can give richer representations of new concepts, ex. sport fan vs novice, fashion designer's sense of color vs average person's, spartan concept of battle vs normal person's
4. Nitsch study on different methods of learning: speed and generalization
This study gave a definition of a new word such as CRINCH and had a consistent set of definitions,varied, and hybrid It was the easiest to learn the consistent but it is hard to apply it to novel situations. It was harder to learn varied but easier to apply to novel situations. Hybrid is the most effective. Half of it was consistent and half was varied. Easiesr to learn and can still apply to novel situations. Example: medical school, first two years is consistent text book defintions and then students learn to do things in residency that are varied.
9c. Encoding Specificity
Tip of the tongue is related to encoding specifity. Deals with cues, the more similar the cues during the time of learning as time of the retrieval, the more effective. It also depends on the conditions at which the cues were encoded. For example, head-light evokes different responses in the word light than dark-light
5. Scripts and schemas: usefulness and potential pitfalls
-Generalized conceptual knowledge used in orderstanding -meaningfully organize concepts -tell us what to expect and what we can infer -creates frames as knowledge structures -scripts: how to act in a restaurant and what to expect -when something is a big deviance from the schema, will remember it such as waiter with socks and no shoes However there are downsides as well: can overgeneralize (little albert with rats), misleading
6. Bartlett vs Ebbinghaus
Bartlett -looks for effort after meaning -assumed schemas (ex. war of the ghosts, people biased the stories based on their own culture) -examined errors -more reali life situations than Ebbinghaus Ebbinghaus =ran carefully controlled experiments in the lab -very narrow, no one really memorizes nonsense syllables in real life
7. Simple reition doesn't always work the best
ALready known words are better off with semantic memories. Simple Repition is good for learning a FOREIGN LANGUAGE though
8. Semantic Clustering
Orgnaized words such are easier to learn but may falsely remember words related. Pillow, comforter, bed, drowsy... May recall sleep even if it's not on there.
9. Imagery and Mnemonics
Mnemonics->method of loci and speeches (origin of in the first place) -Acroymns -chunking Three Characteristics of Skilled Memory: a) encode meaningfully using pre-existing knowledge b) attach retrieval cues to structure based on preexisting knowledge c) process becomes faster with practice
10. TAP
Transfer Appropiate Processing Learning something in the same context you are being tested on= better retrieval. Helps explain some things that LOP can't
8. Imagery and Mnemonics
Mnemonics->method of loci and speeches (origin of in the first place) -Acroymns -chunking Three Characteristics of Skilled Memory: a) encode meaningfully using pre-existing knowledge b) attach retrieval cues to structure based on preexisting knowledge c) process becomes faster with practice
9a. LOP and explanations through coding, forgetting, serial position curve, capacity
Type 1 Processing-maintain things, repeated processing ex penny Type 2 Processing-intentional and incidental learning Codes: STS acoustic/phonlogical, LTS: semantic 3 reasons why STS failed to reach semantic level: 1. nature of the material, might not have any inherent meaning in the first place Limited processing capacity available, not enough time to do semantic analysis task demand-people won't try to do a deep analysis for short term simple memory task More like a processing capacity than a memory capacity. Forgetting: some materials are more easily processed to a deeper level and are better remembered. Squirel picture Serial Position Curve: Primacy, assuming people strategically do meaning-based processing for intial words THus, slowing rate of presentation increases primacy effects Recency: negative recency important, if subjects come back and ask to recall words, do worse at the end because they don't think about those as much
9b. Problems for the LOP view
-Processing isn't necesarrily in sequential steps -Circular logic, what is deep really? -Deep processing may allow for more connections to be made, more relational information but is that really deep? Or just elaboative? Consolidation: Process which memories become more solid or long lasting Alchol people recalled stories better
9d. What makes a cue effective?
-Has to have lots of relations and a distinctiveness to help get the right one -the related information must be attended at encoding Several effects affecting cues: Context Cues: exam rooms vs different rooms State Effects: recall affected only, some alcholics only remember where they hid money while drunk. Emotional Influences: Mood dependent effects, MUST be matching in moods to recall Mood congruence effects-easier to recall memories when match current tone, ex. hard to think about birthday parties at funerals
9e. ROC curves (receive operating caharacteristics)
familarity-quantitative, the strength of a memory Familarity leads to curved symmetrical lines. recollection-qualitative, specific details about event. Recollection leads to less symmetrical straight lines F____ counterstrike (Familiarity, curved, symmetric) RSL (Russian Second Language) (Recollection, straight less symmetrical)
9f. Jacoby's Process Dissociation Procedure
Tasks can involve multiple processes or systems resulting in contamination! Task: Determine if names are famous or not? InclusionL Say if the names you read before are famous Exclusion: Say names that aren't famous. Inclusion puts together recollect and familarity Exclusion puts it in opposition
9g. Know/remember procedure
Remember-specific details know-recognize as being studied but without detail COMPLEX INSTRUCTIONS
9H. Tip of the Tongue
Accessiblity-can retrieve from memory However, availiblity-in memory but might not be able to retrieve OTL
9i. Brain region activations
Familarity Effects-rhinial cortex (FRC) Recollection- posterior hippocampus (RPH)
9j. Ways of dividing between explicit/implicit
Some brain areas activate more for explicit memory Tested unaware conditioning. Aware group told about square/diamond difference, unaware group was not told -aware group showed skin response conditioning However certain brain regions acted more strongly in unaware group, showing a difference in implicit/explicit memory Subliminal messaging, while people did not have better explicit recall, implicitly liked some seen before more (familarity effect) Classical conditioning, can be learned by amnesics, though it takes longer, implicit memory seems to help OVERALL , implicit at encoding includes subliminal perception and conditioning without awareness
9k. Schacter's Dissocaations to support priming and explicit recall/recognition
LOP:variations in level or type of study processing have differntial effects on priming and explicit recall Shown that implicit is better at shallow and explicit is A LOT more effective in deep processing. Con: Others found that conceptually based tests showed effects of LOP Modality: some words are read, other are heard "modality effects on priming but not explicit memory" CON??? Retention Interval: Explcit memory usually declines, word stem completion decays quickly but word fragment completion can stay for over a year due to high constraint and implicit memory Interference: the word fragment completion in this is flawed, A-L_ _ GY has a lot of constraint, doesn't closely resemble any words on other list. Professor does an evil version of the test where other list matches :) Statistical Independence: Performance on one word fragment test does not correlate with performance on another word fragment test even for the same materials!
9l. Priming and the Brain
usually associated with reduction in activity in regions with recued processing demands
9m. Examples of attention infuencing memory and vice versa
Attention Influencing memory -a fashionista would likely remember clothes in a concert while a musican would remember the music played better. Also, same rule applies to a novice vs fan of football. Memory influencing attention -typical exam questions, student would pay more attention to the materials that profesor liked to ask in the past Visual search task-people would likely look in similar places if seen the picture to identify the key already. Memory orienting is more powerful than visual cues Another example is in change blindness, people tend to overlook change but once they do find the change, they can't help put focus on it later on.
9n. attentional effects on explicit and implicit memory
Arousal- worst performance at high or low arousal, explicit memory impaired. However, during offpeak, implicit memory is better since it does not get disrupted by explicit memory. SHOWN IN PRIMING! Encoding specifity influences both implicit and explicit memory Turke-Brown: Presented images that people have seen or hadn't studied before. There was more activation of relevant regions at initial exposure associated with better recognition (explicit) and greater priming-related reductions in activity and RT
9o. Parietal Lobe and Atom theory
Parietal lobe generally associated with attention ATOM splits the function of parietal lobe into top-down and bottom-up processing 3 key parts-prefontal (PFC) for goal oriented executive processing MTL-for episodic memory Lateral temporal for semantic Top down goes from DPC to MTL, retrieval orientation effects with low confidence Bottom Up-MTL to VPC episodic->semantic, high confidence

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