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Psych Prep Key Terms- Tx/Interventions


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counterconditioning v. extinction
counterconditioning: based on the principle of reciprocal inhibition, which is the notion that two incompatible responses cannot be experienced at the same time, but rather the stronger response will inhibit the weaker

extinction: present the conditioned stimulus while inhibiting the conditioned response such as in flooding or implosive therapy
aversive conditioning v. systematic desensitization
aversive conditioning: used to eliminate deviant bx's, the CS is paired with a new stronger stimulus that elicits a negative response that is incompatible with the old conditioned pleasure response, can be done in vivo or in imagination

systematic desensitization: begins with relaxation training followed by exposure to situations based on an anxiety hierarchy, can occur in vivo or in imagination
flooding v. implosive therapy
flooding: present the CS without the US while inhibiting the CR, can be done in vivo or in imagination, prolonged exposure is the best

implosive therapy: after the patient is exposed to the feared object in imagination, the therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes
primary, secondary, and generalized reinforcers
primary: those reinforcers that reinforce everyone at all ages and in all cultures (e.g., food)

secondary: acquire reinforcing value through training or experience (e.g., praise)

generalized: not inherently reinforcing, however, they take on reinforcing value b/c they provide access to other reinforcers (e.g., tokens)
self-control procedures: self-monitoring v. stimulus control
forms of self-reinforcement

self-monitoring: keeping a detailed record of what one does

stimulus control: narrowing the range of stimuli that elicit a particular bx and developing incompatible responses
optimizing effects of punishment
research has found that positive punishment merely suppresses bx but does not eliminate, to optimize its effects, punishment should be delivered at maximum intensity the first time, it should be certain, and there should be little delay b/w the occurrence of the undesirable bx and the punishment, alternative routes to reinforcement should be made clear
escape v. avoidance learning
escape learning: once the aversive stimulus has started, it can be stopped by emitting the desired bx

avoidance learning: by emitting the desired bx when a cue is given, the aversive stimulus is avoided
symbolic v. live v. participant modeling
symbolic modeling: involves observing a film in which a model enjoys progressively more intimate interaction with a feared object or anxiety-producing setting

live modeling: involves observing a live model engage in graduated interactions with a feared object or anxiety-producing situation

participant modeling: involves live modeling plus the model gradually guides the person in activities either involving physically interacting with the feared object or dealing with an anxiety-producing situation
Kohler v. Tolman
Beck v. Ellis
Beck (Cognitive Therapy): emphasizes empirical hypothese testing as a means of changing beliefs, Socratic questioning (continually seeking the patient's views about the presenting problem), psychological sx result from maladaptive thoughts that are automatic and often not conscious

Ellis (Rational-Emotive Therapy, RET): A is the activating event, B is the belief, C is the consequence or emotional/behavioral outcome, direct instruction, persuasion and logical disputation are major procedural components
cognitive triad of depression
According to Beck's Cogntive Therapy,

negative view of self: self is seen as defective and inadequate

negative view of world: events are interpreted with an expectation of failure and punishment

negative view of the future: expectation of continued hardship or a negative appraisal of the future
self-instructional training v. stress inoculation
self-instructional training (ADHD): combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of RET to help with problems of task completion, includes therapist modeling, therapist, verbalization, patient verbalization, patient silently talks through the task, independent task performance

stress inoculation (PTSD and anxiety): based on notion that bolstering a patient's repetoire of coping responses to minor stressors can decrease susceptibility to more severe stress, includes education and cognitive preparation, coping skills acquistion, and application of skills in imagination and in vivo
protocol analysis
a procedure that is used when a person is learning a task and is asked to describe aloud the steps being taken to solve the task, used to gain access to people's problem solving strategies
Rehm's self-control theory of depression
depression and its concomitant low rate of bx results from negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment
pleasure v. reality principle
pleasure principle (id): seeks immediate gratification w/o concern about long-term consequences

reality principle
(ego): awareness of the real world and consequences of bx
primary v. secondary process
two kinds of mental functioning delineated by Freud

primary process: characterized by an urgent attempt at tension reduction, even at the expense of reality (e.g., dreams and hallucinations)

secondary process: characterized by a focus on meeting the demands of reality and be the ability to delay gratification (e.g., thinking and speaking)
repression and other defense mechanisms
- repression: motivated forgetting
- regression: retreating to bx's of an earlier, safer dev. stage
- projection: seeing one's unconscious urges in another person's bx
- displacement: transfering emotions from origonal object to a substitute
- reaction formation: engaging in the opposite bx of the id's real urges
- intellectualization: distancing self from feelings
- rationalization: coming up w/ self-satisfying, yet incorrect, explanations for one's bx
- sublimation: finding socially acceptable ways of discharging energy from unconscious forbidden desires
transference and countertransference
transference: a phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings of one person to the therapist, considered a form of resistance that must be worked through

countertransference: a condition where the therapist, as a result of the therapy sessions, begins to transfer the therapist's own repressed feelings to the patient, the entire body of feelings that the therapist has toward the patient
psychodynamic interventions: ego psychology v. object relations v. neo-Freudian v. self psychology
ego psychology: focuses on the ego's capacity for integration and adaption, (Heinz Hartmann, Anna Freud)

object relations: deals w/ the capacity to have mutually satisfying relationships(Klein, Winnicott, Mahler)

neo-Freudian: focuses on the impact of social & cultural factors in determining personality (Sullivan, Horney, Fromm)

self psychology: focuses on libidinal dev. as the key to understanding infant dev., healthy narcissism, therapist is empathically attuned (Kohut)
defensive v. adaptive functions of the ego
defensive: when the unacceptable urges of the id become too strong to be controlled by the ego, the ego is unable to control the anxiety by rational methods and resorts to defenses which work through self-deception and distortion of reality to ignore id impulses

adaptive: able to defer immediate gratification in order to obtain greater long-term gratification, able to suspend the id impulses using means that are rational, socially acceptable, and reasonably safe
object permanence v. object constancy
object permanence: the awareness that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible, Piaget proposed that object permanence is typically achieved at 8-9 months during the sensorimotor stage

object constancy (Mahler): the capacity to recognize and tolerate loving and hostile feelings toward the same object, internalization of image of mother as reliable and stable, 24-36 months
focused on social and cultural factors in determining personality, they believed that psychological disturbance results from faulty learning and involves a characterologically maladaptive style of interacting with the environment
teleological v. deterministic
teleological: bx is seen as determined by the future rather than the past, neurosis represents struggle to progress toward personality integration (e.g., Jung)

deterministic: bx is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, biological and instinctual drives, and psychosexual events during the first 6 years of life (e.g., Freud)
motivated by social/aggressive (not sexual) urges, struggle for superiority or personal competence and to master life, the more one's lifestyle involves struggles for power at the expense of social interest, the more likely the person is to engage in maladaptive bx. STEP is parent training that advocates a democratic approach that values the child's contribution, natural and logical consequences.
archetypes: primordial images and ideas that have been inherited and that are common to all members of the race from the beginning of life (e.g., persona, shadow, anima, animus)

personal and collective unconcious: both part of the structure of the psyche, collective unconscious is transpersonal or impersonal
Jung v. Freud
Jung emphasized an exchange of ideas at the level of a real relationship rather than utilizing transference and focused on adult development, while Freud focused on infantile development
phenomenological perspective
an aspect of the humanism, existentialism approach,the therapist enters the patient's subjective world, trusts in the patient's capacity to make positive and constructive conscious choices with an emphasis on freedom, choice, autonomy, purpose, and meaning and a focus on the present
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
empathy, unconditioned positive regard, congruence
3 characteristics of Rogers' client/person-centered therapy

empathy: accurate empathic understanding

unconditioned positive regard: valuing the patient as an individual, refraining from judgment, maintaining a consistently friendly attitude, conveying a strong sense of caring and commitment

congruence: genuineness, being truthful and authentic
introjection, projection, retroflection deflection, and confluence
concepts of Gestalt therapy, boundary disturbances

introjection: taking information in whole-> overcompliant & gullible

projection: projecting own feelings onto others-> paranoid

retroflection: turning back onto self what one wants to do to others-> self-destructive bx's

deflection: distancing self from own feelings through distraction, humor, generalization, & questions rather than statements

confluence: lacking an awareness of a differentiation b/w self & others in an attempt to avoid conflicts
reality therapy
focus is on responsibility, tx focuses on clarifying patients' values and helping patients evaluate their current bx and plan in relation to these values, the end goal is to accept responsibility
an altered state of consciousness which leads to subjective experiential change, used for treating chronic pain, asthma, conversion sx, and substance use, a deep trance can induce deep anesthesia, not good for paranoid or obsessive-comulsive patients, hypnotised persons often report more false memories than true ones
involves operant conditioning of normally involuntary autonomic nervous system functions, involves decreased sympathetic arousal

EMG: surface muscle tension, for tension headaches, TMJ, back pain

EEG: brain waves, for hyperactivity, seizure disorder

EDR: skin conductivity or sweat, for generalized anxiety

thermal: skin temperature, for migraine headaches, Reynaud's disease
feminist therapy
promote independence and autonomy, do not bond with patients so as not to foster dependence, focus on socio-political climate- view sexism as an underlying cause of problems, don't focus on pathology, egalitarian relationship- role-models
negative v. positive feedback loop
negative feedback loop: tends to decrease deviation in a system with the end result of maintaining the status quo

positive feedback loop: increases deviation or change
object relational family therapy
branch of psychodynamic therapy, focuses on transferences and projections b/w couples or family members, problems are caused by family members unconsciously projecting unwanted elements of themselves onto others
boundaries and hierarchy
concepts of structural family therapy (Minuchin), in a healthy family there is a hierarchy with a strong parental coalition on the top and boundaries are clear and firm yet there is flexibility in the system that allows for autonomy, interdependence, and individual growth
coalition v. triangulation v. detouring v. joining
concepts of structural family therapy (Minuchin)

stable coalition: one parent unites with the child against the other parent in a rigid, cross-generational coalition

triangulation: a child is caught in the middle of the parents' conflict with each parent demanding that the chid side with him or her

detouring: parents express their distress through one chid who becomes the identified patient

joining: the therapist attempts to understand the family's dynamics by adopting its style of interaction
disengaged v. enmeshed
concepts of structural family therapy (Minuchin)

disengaged: emotionally distant relationship due to rigid boundaries

enmeshed: relationships with highly diffuse boundaries
double bind v. paradox
concepts of communications famly therapy (MRI, Satir)

double bind: a maladaptive communication that typcially involves at least 3 injunctions- a statement telling a person that if he does or doesn't do something he will be punished, a conflicting nonverbal message, a prohibition from escape

paradoxical intervention: e.g., prescribing the sx
multigenerational transmission process and undifferentiated family ego mass
concepts of family systems therapy (Bowen)

multigenerational transmission process: pathology in the family is repeated throughout generations

undifferentiated family ego mass: characterized by family members' inability to be thier true self in the face of familial or other pressures that threaten loss of love or social position
behavioral family therapy
in troubled families, maladaptive bx is reinforced by family attention, there are insufficient rewards and communication deficits, tx focuses on concrete, observable behavioral goals, interventions include changing contingencies of social reinforcement and improving communication (social learning family therapy)
most effective components of groups
cohesiveness: the attractiveness of the group to its members, leads to acceptance, intimacy and understanding, also permits greater expression of hostility and conflict

catharsis: a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings that results in the renewal, restoration and revitalization for living

self-understanding: development of greater understanding of the self
crisis-intervention v. brief therapy
crisis-intervention: rapid tx with the goal of resolving the crisis and avoiding the development of chronic sx, restoration of functioning to pre-crisis level

brief therapy: focused on helping the patient attain a higher level of functioning by addressing conflicts, interpersonal problems, and other long-standing issues in brief time period
client-centered case consultation, consultee-centered case consultation, consultee-centered administrative consultation, program-centered administrative consultation
client-centered case: helping a consultee with one particular client

consultee-centered case: helping a consultee with a group of clients

consultee-centered admin: helping a consultee with difficulties that limit effectiveness in instituting program change

program-centered admin: developing, expanding, or modifying a program
primary v. secondary v. tertiary prevention
primary prevention: prevents the problem or disorder from occuring altogether

secondary prevention: early identification of and aggressive tx for a disorder or problem that already exists

tertiary prevention: targeted at minimizing the long-term consequences of a chronic condition
summative v. formative evaluation
elements of program evaluation involving the systematic collection of information in order to assess the effectiveness of programs

summative evaluation: implemented at the end of the program

formative evaluation: implemented during the course of the program
effects of divorce
typically 3-6 y/o feel responsible, 7-12 y/o show decreases in school performance, adolescents feel they could have prevented the divorce but are also critical of their parents, recovery generally takes 3-5 years, up to 1/3 experience lasting trauma, as adults tend to have higher levels of depression and marital problems and lower levels of SES and health
effects of working mothers
meta-analysis and effect size
applies the methods and priciples of empirical research to the process of reviewing literature

effect size (Smith and Glass): a measure of standard deviation units of difference b/w treated and untreated subjects
minorities in treatment
African-Americans tend to terminate earlier than European-Americans but may relate to social class variables, overall social class affects duration of tx but appears to have no effect on outcome
best option for violent husband
the best long-term results seem to follow arrest

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