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history 8.1-8.2

Terms

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stupas
large stone mound or temple built over the bones of a holy Buddhist
nirvana
state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth (buddhism)
siddhartha gautama
Buddha's original name
jains
hindu sect which refused to farm for fear of harming any living being; they became wealthy through commerce
ahimsa
practice of non-violence toward all living things
karma
law governing reincarnation; the belief that how a person lives this life will determine what form he or she will take in the next life
moksha
state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth (hindu)
upanishads
religious writings which tell of the universal spirit present within all life
vishnu
preserver of the world
siva
destroyer of the world
brahma
creator of the world
reincarnation
rebirth of the soul into a new body
ramayana
epic poem describing the struggle between good and evil
mahabharata
epic poem which illustrates the importance of Dharma in Indian life
dharma
religious duty
jati
social groups formed according to occupations; smaller divisions within the varnas
pariahs
slaves and outcasts; all non-Hindus
sudras
unskilled laborers and servants
vaisyas
common people; merchants; artisans; farmers
kshatriyas
warriors and princes
brahmans
priests and scholars
varnas
four major social classes of India
epics
long poem celebrating heroic deeds
rajah
tribal chief; ruler

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