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Western Civilization (BU Mid-Term)


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Edict of Nantes
Issued by the French, providing religious tolerance Huguenots. Really the first law passed in Western Europe providing religious tolerance to the Protestants in a Catholic country.
Council of Trent
Council held in the city Trent, as a response to the teachings of Martin Luther. Allowed the church to officially identify their system of hierarchy, and means of worship.
John Calvin
One of the main religious leaders of the Reformation. Mainly known for preaching about predestination and his belief that the bible was the ultimate source of religious teaching.
The first minister of the young French King Louis XII. He strengthened the French monarchy by centralizing the majority of the power to himself and the later to the king, and continually tried to weaken the Hapsburgs.
Oliver Cromwell
At first, he was a member of the English Parliament, but when Charles I begins to rule without consulting Parliament, Cromwell becomes the leader of the ensuing uprising. Cromwell becomes the leader of England, rising from a common man to a world leader.
Nicholas Copernicus
A pioneer of the Scientific Revolution, who discovered that the Earth was round, and that it was not the center of the universe. Ultimately, Copernicus' teachings contradicted those of the church, and led a lot of people to question the teachings of the church later on.
Martin Luther
Luther was the first successful "heretic" of the Catholic Church, and was able to create a new sect of the church. Luther's teachings and success in splitting from the church ultimately led to the Reformation, and the creation of a myriad of new sects of the Catholic Church.
The Encyclopaedia
This book was the first pure written source, that all people could read if they were able to. The book was uncensored, so the majority of the information included in it's texts allowed people to really see what had happened all throughout history, and even current events at the time.
Stephenson's Rocket
The locomotive was created by George Robert Stephenson. This was the first steam-powered locomotive ever known to be created.
Thomas Malthus
Malthus was an English demographer, and a political economist. He believed that human population growth would eventually outrun it's food supply because he believed that the population growth was growing geometrically, while the food supply was only growing arithmetically.
The Chartists
The Chartists pushed for social and political reform in the England. Although the group was unsuccessful during their time period, they set a precedent for their offspring, to push for reform and justice for all.
The Triangular Trade
This was the system of trade setup between Europe, Africa, and the American colonies. The colonies would send raw materials to Europe, then the Europeans would send processed supplies to Africa, and then the Africans would send slaves to the colonies.
Mary Wollstonecroft
Wollstonecroft was an early advocated for education for women, really, she was an early feminist, and author. All of Wollstonecroft's books sent a message to women, urging them and their male counterparts to give them more rights, and a chance to get a proper education. She was a predecessor to the feminist movement that was to follow later on.
Waterloo is a town in modern day Belgium, and it is the site where Napoleon lost his final battle, and was forced to surrender. After Napoleon's surrender, the old regime of Europe proved to be successful over the new liberal regime in France, and all was restored to 1789, for the time being.
The Wealth of Nations
This book was written by Adam Smith, and really was the foundation of modern capitalims and economics. Smith created the blueprints for running an industrial country properly, and the limited control that government should have over business and the economy.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
This revolution led to the overthrow of the oppressive King James II. After the revolution William and Mary of Orange were crowned king and queen, and the stage was set for the creation of an English monarchy where the monarch had to rule alongside the English Parliament.
Diet of Worms
This was a meeting in the Holy Roman Empire, to discuss the effects that Protestantinism would have on the Empire. The meeting was famous because it was the first time that Luther was able to criticize a church official in a major arena, and also allowed Luther to display his support of his writings and beliefs even though he had been excommunicated for them.
James Watt
Watt was Scottish engineer and inventor who improved the primitive steam engine. Watt's upgrades to the steam engine ultimately allowed for the Industrial Revolution to occur because he was able to create a motor that was strong enough to supply all the necessary power to do work.
Metternich was a principal negotiator at the Congress of Vienna. Metternich ultimately helped the old regime of Europe regain their power after Napoleon was defeated, and put the liberal government of the French down, and helped to reinstate the monarchy and the nobility.
Robespierre became the leader of France after the revolution. While Robespierre was in power, he organized the execution of about 30,000 "counter-revolutionaries", and had the King of France himself beheaded.
The Putting-Out System
In this system, an employer provides a worker with raw materials, the worker converts the materials into whatever the employer wants, and then the employer pays the worker for his labor and sells the product for a profit elsewhere. This system was basically the foundation of the Industrial Revolution, and an early means for merchants and tradesmen to make money.
The Bastille
The Bastille was a fort built in the Middle Ages, and at the eve of the French Revolution, it was a prison. A large group of angry commoner approaced the Bastille and ordered that all of the prisoners should be released, and when they weren't, the guards shot into the crowd, killing a number of the commmoners. The commoners siege the fort, and eventually the guards surrender and the prisoners are released, and the guards and leaders are killed. This was a unifying force for the revolution and showed the amount of power that common people really had, it also provided munitions for the rebels.
The Luddites were a group who led a social movement against the new technology being produced during the Industrial Revolution because they felt that it would cause them to lose their jobs. The Luddites commonly sabotaged the new machines, and set a precedent for labor unions later on, pushing for more rights and better living conditions for workers.
The Tennis Court Oath
This oath was taken by members of the Third Estate, vowing that they would now disperse until King Louis XVI allowed them to congregate as they were supposed to with the First and Second Estates. This oath ultimately helped to lead up to the French Revolution because it was the first sign of common people standing up against the will of the king, and this group eventually transformed into the National Convention.
Principia Mathematica
This book was written by Isaac Newton, and was basically the first mathematical book that was able to identify and describe a variety of natural events that had always been viewed as the works of God. This book allowed people to become rational thinkers, and was a major step in both the scientific world, and the Enlightenment.
Johannes Kepler
Kepler was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution. Kepler questioned the theory of planetary motion setup by Copernicus, so he developed his own Laws of Planetary Motion. Kepler's work was another fundemental step in understanding the universe, and questioning the teachings of the church.
Written by Karl Marx as a theory on political economy, and is also a criticism of capitalism. This is one of Marx's major works, and allowed him to pass on his ideas of communism to those who wanted to follow the path of government that he created.
Things that were thought of during the year, but were only allowed to be said during times of carnival. This was important because it allowed the common people to display their discontent with the policies of their local lords, and even of their condition. It basically allowed the commoners to criticize the nobility publicly.
The Romantics
The Romantics were authors who disliked how nature had been rationalized during the Enlightenment, becasue they placed a lot of value on nature. These authors wrote a variety of books that were published in Europe, and allowed common people to place value on their surroundings and the environment which they lived in.
The Potato Blight
The Potato Blight resulted in an enormous famine that travelled through sections of Europe, mainly Ireland, and forced citizens of the effectd countries to migrate to other countries such as the U.S. This famine encouraged the immigration from European countries to the U.S. and helped the U.S. to grow although the people who were effected by the famine were usually devestated.
John Stuart Mill
Mill was an advocate of utilitarianism, and basically felt that it was necessary for the maximum amount of the population to experience pleasure, rather than just a small amount if a country was to be successful.
St. Bartholomew's Day
On this day in 1572, there was a massive movement of Catholics against the Huguenots, that led to a enormous amount of deaths. This was the turning point in the French Wars of Religion and eventually led to Catholicism becoming the official religion of France.
The Poor Laws
The Poor Laws were designed to help ease the conditions of the poor in England. These laws were extremely influential and controversial because it was unprecedented for the government to help aid the poor with their own money.

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