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Albert Bandura & Walter Mischel


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name given to Bandura and Mischel\'s theory because of its emphasis on the social and cognitive origins of human behavior
Social-cognitive theory
Mischel\'s quantification of the amount of consistency found in human behavior (usually ~ .30) suggested human behavior was not nearly as consistent as it had been widely assumed to be
personality coefficient
According to Mischel, the persistent belief that human behavior is more consistent than what is indicated by experimental evidence
consistency paradox
Mischel criticized traditional personality theories because they emphasize Person Variables and deemphasize Situation Variables
Person variable- variables contained within the person that determine how he/she responds to a situation Situation variable- variables in the envi that provide the setting in which person variables manifest themselves
idea that person variables, situation variables and behavior continuously interact w/ one another. This is the position taken by a social-cognitive theorist
reciprocal determinism
those variables thought by Mischel to determine how a person selects , perceives, interprets and uses the stimuli confronting him/her
cognitive social person variables (5 total)
cognitive social person variable that determines which aspects of the envi are selected for attention and how those aspects are interpreted by the individual
encoding strategies (how we see things)
cognitive social person variable that determines how individuals anticipate events in their lives
expectancies (what we think will happen) *behavior-outcome *stimulus-outcome *self-efficacy expectancy *perceived self-efficacy
cognitive social person variable that determines under what circumstances a person will translate what has been learned into behavior
Subjective values (what is worth having/doing and what is not?)
cognitive social person variable that determines the circumstances under which a person experiences self-reinforcement & self-punishment. Determines the setting of future goals and the formulation of plans
self-regulatory systems and plans (how do we attain our goals?) *intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement
cognitive social person variable that describes what a person knows and what he/she is capable of doing
competencies (what are we capable of doing?)
anything that conveys info to an observer
model Bandura and the Bobo doll experiment
reinforcement that comes from observing the positive consequences of another person\'s behavior
vicarious reinforcement
punishment that comes from observing the negative consequences of another person\'s behavior
vicarious punishment
ability to attend to whatever you learn depends on aspects of the envi as well as aspects of yourself
attentional processes (ability to use one\'s senses)
if you can\'t remember what you\'ve learned, it will never translate into behavior
retentional processes
need to possess certain physical capabilities to produce different behaviors
motor reproduction processes
need to have the motivation to learn for it to be turned into a behvior
motivational processes
what a person is actually capable of doing
what a person believes he/she is capable of doing
perceived self-efficacy
behavior that is in accordance w/ internalized moral principle
moral conduct (Bandura)
cognitive mechanisms a person can employ to escape the self-contempt that ordinarily results when a person acts contrary to an internalized moral principle
self-exonerating mechanisms (Bandura) (8 total)
committing a crime to provide food for your family
1-Moral Justification
calling a reprehensible act something other than what it is (stole something-->say you borrowed it)
2-Euphemistic labeling
comparing your deplorable acts w/ even more heinous acts (he robbed a bank, I only stole $20)
3-Advantageous comparison
argue that you were just following orders from a higher figure (Nazis)
4-Displacement of Responsibility
decisions made by a group are easier to live w/ than those made alone
5-Diffusion of Responsibility
people ignore/distort the harm that their actions have caused (getting bullied--> \"it happens to everyone\")
6-Disregard/Distortion of Consequences
we reduce a group of human beings to less than human (the holocaust)
blaming the victim for the individual\'s behavior (parent abuses child -->parent blames the child for provoking them)
8-Attribution of Blame
the ability to delay a reward until later. It is necessary for civilization itself.
Mischel\'s delay of gratification *we must understand the self-control necessary to delay gratification b/c humans are just as impulsive as non-human animals
ability to tolerate a delay in gratification
social-cognitive theory says that psychological problems result from dysfunctional expectancies
dysfunctional expectancies: (Bandura) expectancies that do not result in effective interactions w/ the environment (result from inaccurate modeling, over generalization, & distorted perceived self-efficacy)

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