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What was the French Revolution?
the french war was for democracy that began in 1789and ended with the overthrow of the monarchy
What was the Chartist movement?
a 19th century British movement in which members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections including suffrage for all men
Which was the first industry to be effected by the industrial revolution?
the textile industry in britain
Who/When/Why declared unions legal?
after 1825, the British government unhappily tolerated unions since nobody listened to the laws repealing them
What was the sepoy mutiny? Why did it happen? (India)
-an 1875 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India (failed) -Caused by a rumor that the British had sealed the soldiers rifles with beef and prok fat, which were sacred animals to them
why were the Vietnamese mad at the French?
the peasants' consumption of rice decreased because rice was shipped out of the region
What was the Berlin conference of '84-'85
a meeting at which representatives of european nations agreed upon reles for the european colonization of Africa
Who kept the colonizers out of Ethiopia? How?
its emperor, Menelike II (1889), successfully kept out the colonizers -He did this by playing the Italians, French, and British against each other
Luther posted his 95 thesis when?
Why was India called the British "Jewel Crown"
it was very important to the British empire as a supplies of raw materials, and as a market for British trade goods (had railroad)
Where was the Medici family from?
-Florence -Had control over city by 1434 because they controlled all of the banking and trading
What did Donatello and Brutalesqui feel that they were?
they felt that they were inheriting classical traditions from the Greeks and Romans (from the ruins)
Which Italians city was considered? why?
-venice -located near bodies of water which was good for trade
What was the classical age?
the style of music of the late 1700s neoclassical era
Who were the doge, and the council of ten? (Italy)
-1423 Francesco Fosan was the Doge -doge ruled for life under a system of consitutional monarchy -power limited by the council of ten -Venice
Neoclassical refers to what?
-the style of the late 1700s "new classical" -a simple and elagan style that borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome
Who was plato?
-believed hat the wisest should govern -wrote "politics" -people naturally evil
Who was Locke? (enlightenment)
-men and women all have ability to reason -people were neither good nor bad -divine right was wrong -supported monarchy -govt should protect LIFE, FREEDOM, and PROPERTY "natural rights"
Who was Hobbes?
-people cant make own decisions -evil, greedy and selfish
Who was Aristotle?
-uneducated people could not rule themselves -middle class should rule (educated and not arragont)
Who was Mary Wolstonecraft?
-womens rights = equality -human nature determined by enviornment -democracy and equal rights
Who was Louis XIV?
-people were incapable of ruling -divine right -absolute power
Who was Queen Elizabeth?
-saw the people as her children -people are good; but cant make decisions -divine rights -final say over parliment
Why was Rousseau different from other Renaissance thinkers?
-he argured that civilization corrupted peoples natural goodness -democracy
Who were Luthers supporters
-prince frederick sheltered luther in one of his castles in saxony -started a new sector of catholicism based on his ideas called "lutheran/protestant"
What was the reformaition?
-a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of christian churches that rejected the popes authority -started by luther on oct.31, 111 when he posted his thesis on the church door
who made the Sistine Chapel?
-michelangelo -painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel from 1508-1512
Who was Machivelli?
-wrote "the prince" in 1513 -thought the world wicked and people were selfish, fickles, and corrupt -not conerned with what was morally right, but with what was politically effective
what was the main idea held by renaissance thinkers?
-most philosophers believed that reason, science, and art would improve life for all people -belief in progress, a more secular outlook on life, and the importance of the indicidual
what caused the italian renaissance to happen?
thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class and the lore for the classical heritage of Greece and Rome
Who was nicolas II?
he was the weak ruler that ruled over Russia around the time of the revolution
Who was Lenin?
he was the leader of the bolsheviks
who was kerensky?
he took over Russia after the czar stepped down for a while
who was trotsky?
he was the leader of the bolshevik red army
Who was Rasputin?
-close family friend to the czar since he stopped the bleeding of his hemophillac son -he influenced the czarina alexandra in govt while czar nicolas II was out at war in WWI -nobles killed him because they were scared he would take over the govt
who introduced capitalism and what was their goal? (in russia)
-the bolsheviks and lenin -the goal was to revive the economy and restructure the govt
what resulted from the bolshevik revolution? (oct/nov revolution)
-the civil war between the reds and the whites (old regime) from 1918-1920
what happened during the feb/march rev of 1917
-locals protested (200,000 people) and found the czar (Nicolas II) to abdicate -women protested over loss of bread and fuel
what happened when there were food shortages?
-the feb/march revolution happened?
What was model parliament?
-the first parliament ever made -the gathering of lords,knights and burgesses first called by king edward I in 1295 that voted on taxes and reforms
What was enlightened monarchy?
-monarchy in which the ruler respected the peoples rights
what was the magna carta?
-also known as the "great charter" -a document guarenteering basic political rights in england for individual rights and liberties -drawn up by nobles and approved by king john in a.d.1215
what was the english bill of rights?
-the first ten amendments to the U.S. constitution, which protect citizens basic rights and freedoms -protected freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion -based on ideas of voltaire (free speech + religious toleration) Rousseau (direct domocracy) Locke (people rule)from the enlightenment; (also montesque [separation of powers] and Becoria [accused have rights and cnt be tortured])
Declaration of Independence?
-it was issued in july 1776 by the second continental congress -it was firmly based on the ideas of Locke (natural rights) and the enlightenment -it broke the ties between the colonies and Britain
Who wrote the declaration of independence?
-Thomasas Jefferson
What were the first and second constitutions of the united states?
-1st = the articles of confederation -2nd = the constitution of 1875
Thomas moore wrote what?
What was the constitution of 1857
-a mexican constitution with many of the same ideals as americas
copernicus believed what?
Who were the middle class libers? (france)
the bourgeoisie -consisted of wealthy merchangs and artisans
Who was the sun king?
King Louis XIB (14th)
Who stormed the Bastille? why?
-July 14, 1789 -caused by a rumor that foreign troops were coming to massacure the french citizens -all citizens stormed the bastille to get weapons to fight against the foreign troops

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