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study for ap world test


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3-4 million years ago in southeastern and eastern africa - human like creatures called primates -3 major differences from earlier primates: bipedalism (walk upright); sizable brain (enables abstract thought adn finer motor control); and a larynx (complete speech)
Homo Sapiens
- earliest variant , the neanderthan appeared 100,000 to 250,000 years ago - more advanced was Cro - Magnon, appeared 60,000 - 100,00 years ago - both used advanced tools, wore clothing, created semipermanent or permanent dwellings, and organized into social groups - spread from europe to africa adn asia - homo sapiens, modern humans, emerger 100,000 to 200,000 years ago
Paleolithic Era Economy
old stone arege (10,000 - 2.5 million years ago) - greatest concerns: steadt and plentiful food supply and clothing stone and bone tools included spears, bows, arrows, fishhooks, harpoons, and clay pots - nomadic hunters and gatherers - predates agricultural societies
paleolithic era - society
social groups: extended families grew into clans, clans mixed with neighboring groups to form tribes with sophisticated organizations, including chiefs, leaders, and religious figures - organized warfare with weapons: rocks, clubs, knives, spears, axes and bows and arrows -worship of deities; religious rituals included sacrifices to gods, goddesses and spirits - expression through art and music - division of labor by gender; men hunted and women gathered
Neolithic era - origins
earliest evidence of sedentary agriculture dates between 10,000 and 8000 BCE called new stone age 8000 - 5000 BCE - domestication of animals and cultivation of crops -people setteled down adn developed complex societies
neolithic era - culture
- agriculture allowed for food surplus, which led to an increase in population - permanent villages appeared as people turned to farming and away from hunting and gathering - Jericho in modern day israel is an example of one of the world's first villages - early industries began in pottery, metallurgy, and textiles
Bantu Migrations
movement of africans across the continent of africa (3000 - 500) - possession of iron metallurgy; tools were used to clear land for agriculture and herding - set up government rule through families and kinship - increased conflict aong bantu led to the formation of organized militaries and formal government
Bronze age
metallurgy originated with the use of copper - in the neolithic era copper was combined with tin to create bronze - first used in mesopotamia 4000 - 3000 BCE by 1500 - 1000 BCE craftsmen in mesopotamia developed iron tools and weapons; this technology diffused throughout southwestern asia over time
located between the tigris and euphrates rivers in modern iraq - knowledge of irrigation led to an increase in food supply ad in population, and by ca 500 BCE sumer was established - first cities include Ur and Babylon - sumerian achievemets included the development of ziggurats, pyramid like temples - large public works projects such as canals and bridges, were undertaken to meet teh needs of society
nile river civilization
agricultural settlements emerged as early as 5500 BCE but egyptian history begins when king menes unites upper and lower egypt - society was ruled by a pharaoh considered an incarnation of the sun god, who controlled access to the nile - women were responsible for handling household finances, and the education of the children - a woman had teh right to divorce, receive alimony, own property, manage a business and become a priestess Hatshepsut = first female pharoah of egypt - worshipping the dead led to mummification and the building of pyramids - acheivements: written language (hierpglyphics), aper making, field irrigation, bronze tools and weapons, 365 day calendar, architecture
hammurabi's code
established high standards of behavior and stern punishments for violators 1792 - 1750 BCE in the city state of babylon - death penalty for murder, theft, fraud,false accusations, sheltering of runaway slaves, failure to obey royal order, adultery and incest - concept of a consistent set of rules governing society, rather than arbitrary rulers, impacted later civilization
Assyrian empire
- government: a combination of administrative techniques and a powerful and intimidating military machine - appointed officers in charge f standardized units on the basis of merit, skill, and bravery, rather than noble birth and connections - horse drawn chariots to conquer standing armies
iron metallurgy
experimentation began as early as the fourth millennium BCE - mesopotamians manufactured effective iron and bronze weapons by 1000 BCE craftsmen added carbon to iron to increase strength and produce harder and sharper edges - iron metallurgy spread from mesopotamia to anatolia, egypt, north africa, and other regions - assyrians used iron tools to conquer mesopotamia
patriarchial society
basis of mesopotamian and eyptian societies; men made the decisions - men dominated public life: ruled as kings and pharaohs; made decisions about public policy - evidence in hammurabi's code women were punished for adultery by drowning; men could engage in consensual sexual relations outside of marriage without penalty - a man could sell his wife and children into slavery to pay off debt
origins of writing
cuneiform, the earliest known writing, originated in mesopotamia record keeping for trade purposes became necessary as society became increasingly more complex - sumerians developed a writing system based on pictures in which symbols were made on wet clay then baked - egyptians developed hieroglyphs - symbols tht represented sounds and idead
nomads who originially settled between mesopotamia and egypt - developed between mesopotamia and egypt - about 1300 BCE led by moses, went to palestine, where they established a kingdom, under david and solomon, extending from syria to the sinai peninsula - ten commandmants; teachings that also serve as an ethical code of behavior
- lived between eastern mediterranean sea and lebanon, earned a reputation as seafaring traders in the first milennium BCE - established city-states throughout the mediterranean allowed them to dominate trade in teh mediterranean basin - developed writing system of 22 symbols - latin alphabet emerged out of the phoenetic dialect

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