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WH vocab


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geocentric theory
earth centered universe
scientific revolution
scholars begin challenging old ideas *
heliocentric theory
sun centered universe
galileo galilei
"starry messenger" discovered that the sun has dark spots, and that jupiter has 4 moons
scientific method
new approach to science, logical procedure
isaac newton
theory of motion - law of universal gravitation
intellectual movement that stressed the power of the individual
social contract
people give their rights to an absolute monarch because its the only way to keep order
john locke
people are born free and equal inalienable rights: life liberty and property which is the foundation of democracy
a group of social thinkers in france during the enlightenment
pen name for Francois Marie Arouet writer that attacked clergy, aristocracy and goverment "i dont agree with a word you say but i will defent to death your right to say it"
committed to individual freedom "man is born free and everywhere he is in chains" direct democracy abolish titles of nobility
french writer, devoted to the study of political liberty "on the spirit of laws"-checks and balances
Mary Wollstonecraft
women's education was NOT secondary to men's encouraged woment to enter male dominated fields
social gatherings where intellectuals discussed ideas
grand ornate style 1600s - early 1700s
"new" classical barrowed from greeks and romans
Enlightened Despot
rulers who embraced the concepts of enlightenment
Catherine the great
russia 1762-1796 wanted reform but changed her mind after the uprise of surfs took the black sea from the ottomans and expanded into poland
Declaration of Independence
reasons for the split from britain based on the ideas of john locke and the enlightenment
Thomas Jefferson
political leader of the colonists and author of the declaration of indp.
federal system
government system where power is divided between a central authority and states
Philip II
SPAIN seized portugal defended catholicism spanish armada- lost against protestant england
edict on nantes
1598 declaration - french king, henry IV PROTESTANTS could live in france peacefully
Cardinal richelieu
made up for louis XIII's weakness moved against huguenots/protestants sought to weaken nobles's power
Louis XIV
most powerful ruler in french history 4 years old when he began his reign
strengthened by Louis XIV government agents who collected taxes and administered justice
Jean baptiste colbert
Louis XIV's minister believed in mercantilism wanted france to be self sufficient supported colonization
war of spanish succession
French bourbon dynasty strengthened prevent the union of the french and spanish thrones
Thirty years war
conflict over religion and territory and for power among ruling families lasting from 1618 to 1648
maria theresa
Austrian queen main enemy:prussia sought to decrease power of nobility
Fredrick the great
King of Prussia believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people
Seven years war
prussia and austria switched allies russia was involved in european affairs for first time fredrick attacked saxony(austrian ally)
Ivan the terrible
Russian king 1533 at age 3 first ruler to name himself czar "caesar"
russia's landowning nobles
Peter the great
one of russia's greatest reformers increased czars power pushed for WESTERNIZATION
adopting the ways and ideas of western civilization- europe
Charles I
always needed money because he was at war with spain and france agreed to the petition of right, then ignored it dissolved parliment
English civil war
kings loyalist= royalists/cavaliers Vs. puritan supporters of parliament/round heads
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan general brought charles to trial for treason PUBLIC EXECUTION later became a military dictator
reign of Charles II restored monarchy got rid of military dictatorship
Hapbeas corpus
"to have the body" monarchs could not put someone in jail simply for opposing the ruler prisoners could not be held without trial
Glorious revolution
overthrow of king james by mary and william Catholic to protestant
constitutional monarchy
laws limit the rulers power
group of advisers chosen by the head of a country to help make decisions

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