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us history unit 1


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the first Americans, Indians, migrated to north America from_____12000 to 40000 years ago
what is the difference between an anthropologist and an archeologest?
anthropologist study human culture and developement, archeologist study artifacts.
why are they called indians?
becuase Columbus believed he had reached the Indies
Name 5 plants that are antive to the Western Hemisphere(North, Central and Couth America):
which early Indian civilation was located in Guatemala and later Yucatan Pennisula?
The Mayos
The warrior gruop that gained control of Central Mexico was the______
The Incas inhabited the area that is now_____and _____
Ecuador and Peru
What United States National Park contains ruins form the Anasazi people?
Mesa Verda
Why was the North American Indian death rate so high after Europeans arrived?
Europeans brought new diseases such as measels and smallpox
In the 100 years preceding the age of discovery, the Renaissance began. What does the word Renaissance mean?
Important to this period of the spread of knowledge was the Gutenburg inventation of a mew printing press. Who invented it?
What was the country of the Columbus's birth?
When he reached America, he was sailing under the flag of_____?
What was the Spanish colonists attitude toward the Indians?
They used them as slaves. Some saw them as lazy and cowardly people.
The Spanish colonists needed laborers. What did they do about it?
They taught them Christianity and protected them in exchange of work.
Who sold African slaves to the spanish?
Conflict in Europe was played out in the new world. What European countries established colonies in the new world?
Spain and England
Which European nation began and dominated colonization in the North America?
New Spain
The first colony was established in 1585 at_____ off North Carolina Coast. How long did it last?
Roanoke Island

1 year
Then came Jamestownm, established in 1607 in Virginia. Did this begin sucessfull settlenment of Virginia or did the colony disapear?
The settlers went through a "starving time: and it almost failed. The Virginia Company soon brought it back up again.
The first representatives assembly in the colonies was established in Viginia in 1619, 157 years before the Declaration of independence. It was called_______.
House of Burgesses
What was the religious group called?_____ or pilgrims.
Why did they(Piligrims) want to leave england?
they were unwilling to worship in the church of England and wre mistreated
Who was their(pilgrims) leader?
John Smith
Were they(Pilgrims) free to keep all of their profits from the colony?
No, they needed to pay back the Virginia Company
What caused the Great Migration in 1630?
People thought England was going to ravage(destroy).
Did all of the Puritans go to colonies in New England? Where did the others go?

West Indies
In the Massechusetts Bay Colony, was there a close relationship between the church and the colonial government.
Did women and Indians have any voting rights in choosing colonial government?
Why did the Puritans believe everyone should be taught to read?
The bible was the sorce of truth, so everyone shoudl be able to read it.
A well-educated ministry was needed to terach the Bible. Thus ______ College was founded in 1636.
Did this Puritan culteur spread to other areas or remain only in Massachusetts?
some settled in Conneticut
in the Puritan Massechusetts colony was there a religious freedom or the ability to dissent from the majority religon
the ability of dissent wasnt allowed
why did Roger Williams found a colony in Rhode Island?
Massechusetts wouldnt allow him, so h ewent there to establish a Baptist religion for him and his followers
Another dissenter, banished from Massechusetts and a founder of aother colony in Rhode Island was ________
Anna Hutchinson
Were the Puritans hospitable to the Quakers?
How many generations did the Puritan commenwealth last before the king of England forced a new charter on Massachusetts and required religious tolerence?
3 generations
How was Maryland Founded?
for a refuge for Catholics escaping harrasment in England
why was Maryland founded?
fora refuge for Cathlics escaping harrament in England
In Virginia and Maryland, English ships brought manufactured goods and returned to England with ______
Why was there less religious and societal control in the Chesapeake area?
There were no towns and they were all spread out and werent requiered to go to church.
When the texts says the "17th Century," what years are being dicussed?
1600 to 1699
what were indentured servents
people who worked without wages for a certain number of years in exchange for transportatoin to the American colonies
The Dutch colony of New Netherland (1625), in whar is now the New York area, allowed many differnt groups to settle. There gruops:
Blacks, Scandinauians Jews and English Puritans.
Why did New Amsterdam become New York? (1664)
becuase the Duke of York was the owner
Pennsylvania was settled at first by the religious gruop.
William Penn then went to Germany and encouraged immigration from Germany. They were called "Pennsylvania Dutch" but were really German
Exactly who were the Scots-Irish that came to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania?
They were Scottish Protestants, generally small farmers and weavers
Was the Carolina colony controlled by England, Spain or France?
The prosperity of the Carolinas was aided by _____ labor.
When James Oglethorpe founded the Georgia colony, was slavery allowed?
Was colonial life calm and peaceful 100 years before Independence in Virginia?
Who was NAthaniel Bacon?
A new immigrant to Virginia and a tabaco planter.
Did Americans have any self-government beofre the American Revolution?
What English document issued in 1215 laid the foundation for "rights of Englishmen"?
Magna Carta
The basis for the United States system is commen law? What is it?
the system of laws developed England, based on court decisions and custems rather then written laws
Were the American colonists free to sell their goods to any country?
No they couldnt sell to dutch.
Did the evenets in England in the 1680s have any affect on the colonies?
Did the English Parliment allow the colonies to have the same rights as residents of England?
When did the slave trade begen to increase?
Did slaves have the same legal rights as the colonists?
no, they had no legal status, no recognition of any rights as people.
By 1720, were the majority of American colonists church members?
after the Great Awakening, were there many church demonitions or one?
there were many demonitions
In England, what was a "bigwig"?
a large wig that came down to your shoulders, judges wore them
What nation supported Indian raids on England settlements?
What was Benjamin Franklins plan to solve the defense problems of the colonies?
Albany plan on Union
Did the French and Indian War (1756-1763) have any relationship to the events occuring in Europe?
What treaty ended French control of canada?
Treaty of Paris
Who said "there are no gains without pains?"
Benjamin Franklin
what were writs of assistance?
blank search warrents that allowed officails to search for and confinscate smuggled goods at any time and place
what was the stamp act, passed by the Paliament in 1765?
required that each sheet of evert legal documant had to carry a stamp showing that a tax had been paid
next came the Declaratory Act and tehn the Townshend Acts. The came the Quartering Act. What was the Quartering Act?
any colony could be forced to quarter-house and feed British troops.
if you violated jury could you have trail by a jury?
What does the Third Amendmant say about the quatering of troops in privite homes?
no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quarterd in any house without the consent of the owner
How many people were killed in the Boston Massacre in 1770?
Who was Crispus Attucks?
a runaway slave
what were the Committees of Correspondence?
commity to maintian comunication amoung Massechusetts towns
Why was there a Boston Tea Party in 1773?
it was a delibrate effort by radicals such as Sam Adams to provoke Parliment
In 1774, what did the delegates to the First Continental Congress vote to do?
Voted to establish another boycott of British goods unless the intolerable Acts were repealed.
who were the minute men?
New Englands militias
The Revonlutionary War begins at Lexington in 1775.
if you wish to the visit the site where "the shot heard round the world" was fired, Lexington Massechusetts, what major city would you have to fly into?
The colonial population was divieded into 3 gruops:
1. those who were uncomitted
2. patriots..
3. those whoe supported British policy and were loyal to the Crown weere called tories and Loyalties
The British used british soldiers and mercenaries. what are mercenaries?
hired soliers to fight in america
Where did the mecenaries come from?>
who wrote the pamphlet, COMMEN SENSE, influencing the populations to oppose the British?
Thomas Paine
why do we celebratet the 4th of july as a national holiday?
that was the day the congress adopted the Declaration of Independence
The american revolution was our first civil war. what fraction of the americans were active patriots?
2/5 acitive patriots
1/5 active loyalists (tories)
neutral the rest of them
how many blacks faught in the continental army?
on december 25th, 1776 did General Goerfe Washington able to capture 1000 hessicans?
Did France support the Patriots or Loyalists?
How many troops did they send?

in the south did guerilla bands follow honarable rules of the war?
what is the date of the surrender of the British?
in the treaty of Paris in the year of 1783 the british officaily recognized the independence on the US.
oct. 17 1781
how many years passed between the Boston Massacre and the treaty of paris(1783)?
The war was over. The congress adopted a plan for a new national governtment, it was a weak national government, giving the states most of the power. waht was the plan called?
articles of confederation
could the new national goevernment levy taxes or enforce laws?
what was the nw terriotory?
land nw of the ohio river
state after state stopped supporting churches with____
goventment collected taxes
was slavery allowed to be in the new states that were to be carved out of the NW terriotory?
no it was outlawed
problems w/ the articales on Confedration surfaced...
-the national governtment had no mney to pay back loans that had been borrowed form france, holland, spain and europe.
-Money was printed by congress and the states
-no way to settle disputes between the states
-each state had its own trade policy and levied duties against products of other states
-there was little respect, internationly from britian and spain.
what was the Shays Rebellion?
the attempt by massechusetss farmers in 1786 to stop locel courts from imprisoning debtors
why was the constitutional convention held?
"for the sole and express purpose of revising the articles of confederation"
Did James Madison who said "if men were angles, no government would be necessary", ever become president?
What were the three branches?
what was the purpose of having 3?
the legislative, executive and judiciary.

seperation of powers
a series of essays written by madison hamilton and jay in support to the constituion.
how did the bill of rigths become part of our constitution?
they were ratified. needed to know what rights belong to what people.
who was the first president of the us?
george washington
why did lewis and clark explre the area from st. louise to the pacific caost?
to see what was beyond the mississippi river
who fought in the war of 1812?
was there any real winner or loser?
americans and britains
after the war of 1812, americans had a spirit of antionalism. what is nationalism?
the fear of out late enemy the respect of the world and the confidence we have acquired in oursleves
what was the monroe doctrine?(1823)
warning against New European colonization in the americas
the erie cnala connected _______ with _______?
hudson river with like erie
the industrail revolution began in (country)?
eli whitneys cotten gin (1793) changed the econoy of what region of the nation?
who was nat turner?
the run away slave
what father and son both served as president?
john and quincey admas
the indian removel act of 1830 forced indians from south and other ares, to move to __________ and now the stae of________.

this journy to the west was known as the_______?
land beyond missippi now oklahoma

trail of tears
who was dorthea dix?
led a movement that acheived more humane treatment for both prisoners and the insane
what was an abolitionsit?
person who worked in the movement to do away with slavery
hte "Oregon country" included what is now the 3 states of _____, _____ and ______
new mexico, tewas and california
how many moths did it take for steelers to travel the oregon trail, from Independce Missouri to the Wallamette vally?
6 months
hows did the us obtain californias, new mexico and arizona?
they payed mexico 10 million dollars
waht religious sect settled salt lake city, utah?
when was gold discoverd in california, beginning the gold rush?
in 1854 was slavery allowed in much of the us?
who said "a house diveided against itself cannot stand?''
abraham lincoln
why did john brown attack the aresnal in harpars ferry?
he was consumed by the idea of starting a slave rebillion
what states seceded and set up a new nation? (during the civel war era (1850-1865)
mississippi, flordia alambama gorgia louisiana and texas
what % of families in the confederate states of american own slaves?
the civil war stared in the year ___ and ended ___?
1861 started
1865 ended
who was clare barton?
founder of the American red cross
what was the emanicipation proclamination?
the anouncement made by president lincoln, that slaves in condfederate terriotorry will be free.
why didnt pres. lincoln finsih his term in office?
he was killed by a confederate sympathizer
how many men died in the civil war, north and souuth?
(wwII=291000 killed, vietnam wat=57000)
(long term causes)- conflict over slavery in territories, economic differneces between north and south, failure to compromise in congress.
(immediate causes)-election of lincoln as president, secession of southern states,
what does suffrage mean?
the right to vote
which political party had a majority in the congress and wokred for Reconstruction in the south with the support for black rights?
the radical republicans
what was the difference between and scalawag an a carpetbagger?
a scalawag supported radical recontruction and a carpetbagger is one who left north during recontruction.
what did the 15th amemdment provide?
it declared that the right to vote should not be denied on the account of color, race or previous condition of servitude.
what was the Ku Klux Klan?
secret organization formed after the war, their plan was to destroy the Republican party in the south and control elections
how many balcks served in the reconstruction legislature?
what is a poll tax?
states made balcks pay a poll tax, to make it harder for them to vote.
what are the natural resources that aided the development of the us?
timber, coal, iron ore and oil
why were there enough workers to "build" the us economy?
high birth rate and immigration

where did the increased supply of capital(money) come from?
factories, transportaion and stores

how did the Bessemer process change production of steel?
it was then cheap enough to mass- produce

the 1st transcontinentl railroad (1869) was built by immigrants from mainly 2 countries_____ and ______
europe and asia

the nations disdribution sustem for goods relied on_____.
railroads, national market place
who invented the elctric light bulb and phonograph and patented 1000 other inventions?
thomas alva edison
during the civil was, the most sophisticated method of comminication was the telegraph. who invented it?
samual F.B morse
a scottish immigrant names ________ invented the telephone in 1876.
alexander grahm bell
the oil company developed by john d rokefeller had a monopoly on the nations oil industry by 1900. the company name was?
standard oil company
what scottish immigrant was responsible for a major steel company and donated his wealth to charity?
andrew carnegie

in this period of the nations growth, there was no corperate or individual incomee tax, how did the federa government get moeny to operate the government?

what act created a stable national banking system and is the basis for our system today?
national banking

what private industry benfited the most from federal govenment help?
american work force

waht did the congress do that resulted in the establishment of such universities as michigan state university?
each state had federal land to use for public institutions

the federal goventment forced the sioux to move from minnesota to _______?

what valuble ore caused propectors to flood into the indian lands, in colorado and the dakotas?

who won the battle of little bighorn 1(1876)?
the sioux

who was chief joseph and where was he from?
Nez Perce of oregon

"Indian Territory" was a speific place designated by the governtment for the indians located in oklahoma. how many settlers rushed in to stake their claims? was the land given to them good l

indeains were not given US citizenship intil 1924.
indeains were not given US citizenship intil 1924

what did the gov. give the settlers in the homested act of 1862?
100 acres of land free

why was the discovery of barb wire so important? why couldnt they build fences with wood?
wood was scarce, and barbed wire stretched

why was the develpment of the 1st Refrigerator railroad car importnas (1880)?
it made it possible to sell porduce across the nation.
by the 1800s the northwestenr lumber industry was in full swing. ships carried lumber to...
california, hawaiian islands, south america, and the east caost
who was the frederik weyerhaeuser?
began operations on the missiissippi and later purchased large areas of the timberland.
another big gold rush began in alaska in 1896. where was it?
klondikem, a region of canada
according to the Turner thesis, as long as the West remained unsettled, americans could always .....
began new life in new land
was Buffalo Bill an experienced frontiersman or a phony?
by the 1900's what % of the nations opriganal rain forest acreage had been cut down?
who was john muir?
scottish immigrent, founder of siera club

where was the nations first subway system biult and when?
Boston, in 1897

outbreaks of disease in the cities were dereased when SANITATION systems and ______ treatments were built in 1880s.
outbreaks of disease in the cities were dereased when sanitation systems and WATER treatments were built in 1880s.

are the suburbs a recent idea?
no, from the 1800's

1)a second wave of immigrants came after the 1880's. what contries did the immigrants come from?

2)why did they come?

3)why did these "second wave" immigrants tend to settle in cities rather then rur
1)southern and eastern europe- italy, greece, poland and russia.

2)in search of greater economic oppurtunity

3)1.mills and factories hire unskilled
2.enjoy people, food and language like themselves.
3.ethnic gruops.

hwo did city polotical "bosses" help immigrants?
created politcal machines to dominate political life

as the flow increaseed after 1880, were the new immigrants welcomed by everyone or was there hostility?
hostility, form some native born americans.

what law passes in 1882, aimed at the chinese?
chinese exclusion act

what is socail darwinism?
"survival of the fittist"

in the 1890's 1o percent of the people owned ___ percent of the waelth.
in the 1890's 1o percent of the people owned 90 percent of the waelth.
in the 1800-1890s, the average workday was ____ hours, ___ days a week
in the 1800-1890s, the average workday was 10-12 hours, 6 days a week

what is a swaetshop?
poorly venilated sweatshops.

did childern work in factories?

1)women volenteers ran the first charities, set up to ease suffering of the needy. a new paid profession developed to help the poor. they were called....____.

2)who did work at the settlement houses?

3)who was
1)settlement houses


3) founded Hull House, settlement house.

in this time there were alomst not gonverntment programs to help the poor. privite charities attempted to do the job alone.

did churches take an active role in charity and socails change after the 1800's?

who was New Yorks's Boss Tweed and what did he run?
Boss William Maroy Tweeed, senator in the NY legislature
what is meant by "voting the graveyards"?
claiming the votes of residents who had been dead for years.
define "conflict of the interest".
mixing personal occupations with public responsibilities.

what is depression?
a time of hugh umemployment, low consumer spending and many business decisions.

what were was the Knights of Labor?
a labor unionm focusing more on fundemental socails changes.

why did its cooperatives fail?
lack of money and poor business desicions.

what was the AFL?
american federation of labor, a foundation in 1886.

who wasnt permitted to join the AFL?
unskilled workers, blacks, women and new immigrents

what was the blacklist?
list of people suspected of disloyality

what was the GRANGE?
an orginazation to help solve farmers problems.

what were the damands of the Populist Party?
a constitutional admendment limiting the president and vice. pres. to 1 term callled for use of a secret ballot.

did the populist party carry any states in the 1892 pres. eleciton?
4 states

what is the gold standard?
(in the 1930's the US went off the gold standard)
every papaer dollar should be worth a specific amount of gold.

what were the roots of progressivism
liberal republicaans of the 1870's and the Mugwumps of the 1880's.

what was a muckraker?
jornalist who exsposed corruption in the business and politics.

what was done by the NYC and state in response to the 1911 triangle shirtwaist company facotry?
improved health and safty rules and shortend work weekends for women.
what is a workmens compensation?
state insurance that supported workers injured on the job
when was the san francisco earth quake?
april 18th 1906
a reform at the local level- what is a city manager?
a person hured by the city or contitutional commission to run the city.

a state level reform- what is a an initiative?
process which citizens propose legislation or constitution admendments
after all the citizen activity, from the 1880's until 1910, you can see wht four new contitutional admendments were passed from 1913 to 1920.

1)how many admendments were added to the US constitution from 1791 to 1913?

2)how many wer
1)5, (122 years)

it was a progressive income tax? when speaking of taxes, what does "progressive" mean?______________?
a tax that aggigns higher tax rates to people w/ higher incomes..............
the cost progresses the higher the income

why didnt president William Mckinley finish his term in office?
he was shot by a anarchist in NY, september 1901

who was the vice president the succeeded pres. William Mckinley after he died?

what was President Rosevelts "sqaure deal"?
goal of fairness and justice for the american people
during his presidency, how many corporations did the federal government sue?
more then 40

what did Roosevelt do to settle tohe coal strike in 1902?
called both aprties to the White house to wokr out and agreement.
incidently in 1906 theodore roosevelt was the first American recipient of the noble prize, for his srevices in concluding the treaty of peace between Russia and Japan at the end of the Russo-Jappanesse War.
incidently in 1906 theodore roosevelt was the first American recipient of the noble prize, for his srevices in concluding the treaty of peace between Russia and Japan at the end of the Russo-Jappanesse War.

in the roosevelt administration, was anythign done to improve the safety in the metal industry.
inspectors were allowed to check meat and make sire it was sanittray and came from good animals.

what did the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) require?
manufactures had to put contents of food and drugs on labels.

what was the Bull Moose Party?
another name for the Progessive Party formend by Theordor Rosevelt during the 1912 presedential election.

did the US Supreme Cpurt uphold federal laws protecting childern who wokred?

what action did the federal governtment take to end discrimination toward balcks?
very little

Brooker T. Washington believed blacks should work on learning a trade and socials political equality would come later. What did W.E.B. Du Bois believe shoudl be done?
blacks shoudl go along with the existing system of racial discrimination.

What is the NAACP, founded in 1909?
National Association for the Advancemtn of colored people.

Did President Roosevelts, Taft and Wilson support managing and protecting natural resources?

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