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UBC COMM 292 - Organizational Behaviour

All terms from COMM 292. Enjoy!

Terms

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Job Enlargement
The horizontal expansion of jobs. (It increased the number and variety of tasks that an individual performed.)
Message
What is communicated.
Bargaining Zone
The zone between each party's resistance point, assuming there is overlap in this range.
challenge
organizational factors that affect creativity: when people are matched up with the right assignments; expertise and skills can be brought to the task of creative thinking (stretched but not overwhelmed)
Need for Power
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. (McClelland's Theory of Needs)
Distributive Justice
The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
situational leadership theory (SLT - see P395)
a theory that proposes effective leaders adapt their leadership style according to how willing and able a follower is to perform tasks
decentralization
the degree to which decision making is distributed to lower-level employees
core values
the primary, or dominant, values that are accepted throughout the organization
threat to expertise
reasons for organizational resistance: change threatens expertise of specialized groups
Effectiveness
The achievement of goals.
matrix structure
an organizational design that combines functional and product departmentalization; it has a dual chain of command
encounter stage
the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possbility that expectations and reality may diverge
Committee
A group composed of members from different departments.
Agreeableness (Big Five Model)
A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. (from Big Five Model)
centralization
the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization
intuitive decision making
a subconscious process created out of a person's many experiences
Projection
Attributing one's own characteristics to other people.
power
a capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B, so that B acts in accordance with A's wishes
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
The reward is given at fixed amounts of output. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement)
bicultural audit
an examination of the differences between two potential merger partners prior to a merger to determine whether the cultures will be able to work together
Autonomy (JCM)
The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. (JCM)
Extraversion (Big Five Model)
A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, and assertive. (from Big Five Model)
building coalitions
types of political activity: joining with other people to create a powerful group
artifacts
aspects of an organization's culture that you see, hear and feel
people orientation
characteristics of culture; the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization
idea champions
individuals who actively and enthusiastically promote an idea, build support for it, overcome resistence for it and ensure that the innovation is implemented
Individual Roles
Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the team on task.
Role Overload
Too much is expected of someone. (Role)
technology
forces for change; faster cheaper and more mobile computers, online music sharing, deciphering of the human genetic code
task structure
contingency dimension of Fiedler contingency model: the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (that is, structured or unstructured)
Task-Oriented Roles
Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished.
framing
error in judgment that arises from the selective use of perspective (that is, the way in which a set of ideas, facts or info is presented) that alters the way we view a situation in formulating a decision
single-loop learning
errors are corrected using past routines and present policies
Integrative Bargaining
Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.
team structure
the use of teams as the central device to coordinate work activities
aggressiveness
characteristics of culture; the degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing and supportive
threat to established power relationships
reasons for organizational resistance: any redistribution of decision-making authority means someone who had power may lose it
constrained choice
organizational factors that block creativity: being given limits on how you can do your work
Communication Networks
Channels by which information flows. (Network)
leader-member relations
contingency dimension of Fiedler contingency model: the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader
prearrival stage
the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization
Encoding
Converting a message to symbolic form. (Coding)
mercenary culture
a certain distinct culture type: low on sociability, high on solidarity
Variable-Ratio Schedule
The reward is given at variable amounts of output. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement)
Role Conflict
A situation in which an individual finds that complying with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another. (Role)
threat to established resource allocations
reasons for organizational resistance: change may be a threat to those who control sizable resources (they are already content)
political behaviour
those activities that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization
Organizational Behaviour
A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and structure on behaviour within organzations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness.
escalation of commitment
an increased commitment to a previous decision despite negative information
Adjourning
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, where attention is directed toward wrapping up activities rather than task performance. (The Five-Stage Model)
Job Rotation
The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another.
change agents
people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities
Need for Affiliation
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. (McClelland's Theory of Needs)
Personality
The stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others.
Procedural Justice
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
ingratiation
influence tactics: using flattery, creating goodwill, and being friendly prior to making a request
dependency
B's relationship to A when A possesses something that B needs
position power
contingency dimension of Fiedler contingency model: the degree of influence a leader has over power variable such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increases
Channel Richness
The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode.
Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. (McClelland's Theory of Needs)
job content
the tasks and procedures necessary for carrying out a particular job
stages of moral development
the developmental stages that explain a person's capacity to judge what is morally right
innovation
a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process or service
technology
the way in which an organization transfers its inputs into outputs
Functional Conflict
Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.
separation
strategy for merging cultures: the organizations remain separate
freedom
organizational factors that affect creativity: giving a person autonomy to determine the process to tackle the project (intrinsic motivation)
explicit and implicit coercion
how to deal with resistance to change: application of direct threats or force upon the resisters
Employee Deviance
Voluntary actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization, its members, or both.
group inertia
reasons for organizational resistance: group norms are constraining
Mediator
A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives.
Maintenance Roles
Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group.
Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs.
transactional leaders
leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
consideration
the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas and regard for their feelings
Theory X
The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
values
the stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important
Organizational Commitment
A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
Moods
Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
praising others
types of political activity: making important people feel good
Informal Networks
Communications that flow along social and relational lines. (Network)
manipulation and co-optation
how to deal with resistance to change: twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more attractive
organizational support
organizational factors that affect creativity: makes sure there is information sharing and collaboration (so negative political problems do not get out of control)
Exit (Type of Behaviour)
Dissatisfaction expressed by actively attempting to leaving the organization. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive)
Goal
What an individual is trying to accomplish.
distinctive competencies
what an organization delivers better than its competition
virtual organization
a continually evolving network of independent companies - suppliers, customers, even competitors - linked together to share skills, costs, and access to one another's markets
Telecommuting
An arrangement where employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office.
facilitation and support
how to deal with resistance to change: offer a range of supportive efforts, ex. employee counselling and therapy, new skills training, short paid leave of absence
attacking or blaming others
types of political activity: used when trying to avoid responsibility for failure
no discretion (point A - bottom left)
degrees of empowerment: typical assembly-line job - highly routine and repetitive
simple structure
an organizational design characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person and little formalization
referent power
influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits
Fiedler contingency model
a theory that proposes effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader
sexual harassment
unwelcome behaviour of a sexual nature in the workplace that negatively affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for the employee
path-goal theory (see P395-396)
a theory that says it's the leader's job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their individual goals are compatible with the overall goals
Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate.
Extrinsic Motivators
Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards. (Type of Motivator)
building support for ideas
types of political activity: making sure that others will support one's ideas before they are presented
nominal group technique
a group decision-making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion
employee-oriented leader
a leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations
Job Design
How tasks are assigned to form a job.
reward power
power that achieves compliance based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Offering extrinsic rewards (e.g., pay) for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation. (Theory)
Skill Variety (JCM)
The degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities. (JCM)
organizational culture
the pattern of shared values, beliefs, and assumptions considered to be the appropriate way to think and act within an organization
Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behaviour.
learning organization
an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change
metamorphosis stage
the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee adjusts to the work group's values and norms
Compressed Workweek
A four-day week, with employees working 10 hours a day; or nine days of work over two weeks.
inspirational appeals
influence tactics: appealing to the values, ideals and goals when making a request
BATNA
The best alternative to a negotiated agreement; the outcome an individual faces if negatiations fail.
Affective Commitment (Type of Organizational Commitment)
An individual's emotional atachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. (Type of Organizational Commitment)
refreezing
third step of Lewin's Three-step model (for change): stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces
Instrumental Values
Preferable ways of behaving.
electronic meeting
a meeting where members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes
Norming
The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationship and cohesiveness. (The Five-Stage Model)
Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. (Theory)
supervisory encouragement
organizational factors that affect creativity: people need to feel that what they are doing matters to others; managers can reward, collaborate and communicate to nurture the creativity of individuals and teams
Self-Managed Team (or Self-Directed)
A group of 10 to 15 employees who take on many of the responsibilities of their former managers.
Feedback Loop
The final link in the communication process; it puts the message back into the system as a check against misunderstandings.
mechanistic model
a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a clear chain of command, narrow spans of control, a limited information network and centralization
Low-Context Cultures
Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.
groupthink (see P439)
a phenomenon in which group pressures for conformity prevent the group from critically appraising unusual, minority or unpopular views
strong culture
culture where the core values are intensely held and widely shared
ethics
the study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us whether actions are right or wrong
interacting groups
typical groups, where members interact with each other face to face
Internals (Locus of Control)
Individuals who believe that they control their destinies. (Locus of Control)
Flextime
An arrangement where employees work during a common core period each day but can form their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.
action research
a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate
second-order change
change that is multidimensional, multilevel, discontinuous and radical
Piece-Rate Pay Plan
An individual-based incentive plan in which employees are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
span of control
the number of employees that report to a manager
Fixed-Interval Schedule
The reward is given at fixed time intervals. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement)
expected evaluation
organizational factors that block creativity: focusing on how your work is going to be evaluated
Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict that hinders group performance.
Self-Efficacy
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
production-oriented leader
a leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of the job
behavioural theories of leadership
theories that propose that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from nonleaders
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)
A company-established benefit plan in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.
Cross-Functional Team (or Project)
A group of employees at about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
Task Force
A temporary cross-functional team.
chain of command
the unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom
Task Significance (JCM)
The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. (JCM)
work specialization
the degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs
consultation
influence tactics: getting others involved to support one's objectives
first-order change
change that is linear and continuous
departmentalization
the basis on which jobs are grouped together
expert power
influence based on special skills or knowledge
ignoring the base rate
error in judgment that arises from ignoring the statistical likelihood that an event might happen
Self-Esteem
The degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves.
Communication
The transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people.
Managerial grid (see P393)
a two-dimensional grid outlining 81 different leadership styles
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)
Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
economic shocks
forces for change; rise and fall of dot-com stocks, 2000-2002 stock market collapse, record low interest rates
Profit-Sharing Plan
An organization-wide plan in which the employer shares profits with employees based on a predetermined formula.
selective information processing
reason why individuals may resist change: people hear what they want to hear, and ignore info that challenges the world they have created
attention to detail
characteristics of culture; the degree to which employees are expected to work with precision, analysis and attention to detail
Distributive Bargaining
Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose solution.
Openness to Experience (Big Five Model)
A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual. (from Big Five Model)
Motivation
The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal.
driving forces
forces that direct behaviour away from the status quo
leader-participation model
a leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations
formalization
the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized
boundaryless organization
an organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams
competition
forces for change; global competitors, mergers and consolidations, growth of e-commerce
Cohesiveness
The degree to which team members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay on the team.
The Big Five Model
Notion that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality.
networked culture
a certain distinct culture type: high on sociability, low on solidarity
High-Context Cultures
Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication.
resources
organizational factors that affect creativity: time and money are two that affect creativity
coercive power
power that is based on fear
Halo Effect
Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.
Virtual Team
A team that uses computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
Information Overload
A condition in which information inflow exceeds as individual's processing capacity.
using information
types of political activity: withholding or distorting information, particularly to hide negative information
external motivators
organizational factors that block creativity: focusing on external, tangible rewards
representative heuristic
the tendency for people to assess the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a pre-existing category
corporate social responsibility
an organization's responsibility to consider the impact of its decisions on society
Decoding
Interpreting a sender's message. (Coding)
Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
Distinctiveness (Attribution Theory)
A behaviour rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations. (Attribution Theory)
integration
strategy for merging cultures: new culture is formed by merging parts of each of the organizations
habit
reason why individuals may resist change: tendency to respond in our accustomed ways
Arbitrator
A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement.
Intermittent Reinforcement
A desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating, but not every time it is demonstrated. (Type of Reinforcement)
Task Identity (JCM)
The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. (JCM)
Conformity
Adjusting one's behaviour to align with the norms of the group.
Conciliator
A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent.
Affective Conflict
Conflict that is emotional and aimed at a person rather than an issue.
modular organization
a small core organization that outsources major business functions
empowerment
the freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments
rituals
repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization; what goals are most important; and which people are important, and which ones are expendable
socialization
the process that adapts new employees to the organization's culture
exchange
influence tactics: offering favours or benefits in exchange for support
conflict managers
roles of team leaders: leaders help process the conflict when disagreements surface, leader minimizes the disruptive aspects of intrateam conflicts
rational decision-making model (see P430)
a six-step decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
legitimate power
power that a person recieves as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization
statistical regression to the mean
the statistical observation that an above-average performance is often followed by a lesser performance, while a below-average performance is more likely followed by a better performance; the result is average performance over time
social trends
forces for change; internet chat rooms, retirement of baby boomers, rise in discount and "big-box" retailers
limited focus of change
reasons for organizational resistance: organizations are made up of interdependent subsystems: one cannot be changed without affecting others
organic model
a structure that is flat, uses cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, has low formalization, possesses a comprehensive information network, and involves high participation in decision making
Consistency (Attribution Theory)
A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time. (Attribution Theory)
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others.
participatory empowerment (point B - middle)
degrees of empowerment: situation of autonomous work groups that are given some decision-making authority over both job content and job context
Instrumentality
The belief that performance is related to rewards.
Terminal Values
Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime.
Ethics
The study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and informs us whether actions are right or wrong.
Team
A small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another.
level 5 leaders
leaders who are fiercely ambitious and driven, but their ambition is directed toward their company rather than themselves
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
A model that identifies five core job dimensions and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.
Normative Commitment (Type of Organizational Commitment)
The obligation an individual feels to staying wiht the organization. (Type of Organizational Commitment)
structural inertia
reasons for organizational resistance: organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability; change may challenge stability
compliance
response to power: person goes along with the request grudgingly, puts in minimal effort and takes little initiative in carrying out the request
groupshift
a phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual group members become exagerated because of the interactions of the group
satisfice
to provide a solution that is both satisfactory and sufficient
Attribution Theory
The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
Nonverbal Communication
Messages conveyed through body movements, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocaed on the basis of this progress.
Kotter's (see P517)
eight-step plan for implementing change; a more detailed approach built on Lewin's three-step model
dominant culture
a system of shared meaning that expresses the core values shared by a majority of the organization's members
Consensus (Attribution Theory)
A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. (Attribution Theory)
moving
second step of Lewin's Three-step model (for change): efforts to get employees involved in the change process
innovation strategy
a strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services
rational persuasion
influence tactics: using facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas
innovation and risk-taking
characteristics of culture; the degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks
Risk-Taking
A person's willingness to take chances or risks.
Negotiation
A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and try to agree upon the exchange rate for them.
fear of the unknown
reason why individuals may resist change: change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the known
Intrinsic Motivators
A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. (Type of Motivator)
Type A Personality
A personality with aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people.
personal appeals
influence tactics: appealing to loyalty and friendship when asking for something
Communication Apprehension
Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.
Job Satisfaction
An individual's general attitude toward his or her job.
Cognitive Conflict
Conflict that is task-oriented and related to differences in perspectives and judgments.
pressure
influence tactics: using demands, threats and reminders to get someone to do something
coalition tactics
influence tactics: getting the support of other people to provide backing when making a request
Feedback (JCM)
The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individul obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. (JCM)
charismatic leadership
leadership that critically examines the status quo with a view to developing and articulating future strategic goals or vision for the organization, and then leadering organizational members to achieve these goals through empowering strategies
Gainsharing
A group-based incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money to be shared.
Role Underload
Too little is expected of someone, and that person feels that he or she is not contributig to the group. (Role)
environment
those institutions or forces outside the organization that potentially affect the organization's performance
availability heuristic
the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them rather than complete data
Productivity
A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency.
Loyalty (Type of Behaviour)
Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive)
Role Ambiguity
A person is unclear about his or her role. (Role)
bounded rationality
limitations on a person's ability to interpret, process, and act on information
Workforce Diversity
The mix of people in organizations in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, age, and demographic characteristics such as education and socio-economic status.
Expectancy
The belief that effort is related to performance.
trait theories of leadership
theories that propose traits - personality, social, physical or intellectual - differentiate leaders from nonleaders
decisions
the choices made from two or more alternatives
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
commitment
response to power: person is enthusiastic about the request, shows initiative and persistence in carrying it out
Externals (Locus of Control)
Individuals who believe that their lives are controlled by outside forces, such as luck or chance. (Locus of Control)
brainstorming
an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives
Values
Concepts or beliefs that guide how we make decisions about and evaluations of behavioiurs and events.
McClelland's Theory of Needs
Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. (Theory)
education and communication
how to deal with resistance to change: one-on-one discussions, memos, group presentations/reports; help employees see the logic behind change
double-loop learning
errors are corrected by modifying the organization's objectives, policies, and standard routines
restraining forces
forces that hinder movement away from the status quo
Neglect (Type of Behaviour)
Dissatisfaction expressed by passively allowing conditions to worsen. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive)
Quality Circle
A work group of 8 to 10 employees and managers who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes of the problems, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions.
participation and involvement
how to deal with resistance to change: those opposed can be brought into the decision process
Cultural Intelligence
The ability to understand someone's unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures in the same way as would people from his or her culture.
Theory Y
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.
Job Sharing
The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job.
Group
Two or more people with a common relationship.
communal culture
a certain distinct culture type: high on sociability, high on solidarity
managing impressions
types of political activity: bringing positive attention to one's self or taking credit for positive accomplishments of others
Problem-Solving Team (or Process-Improvement)
A group of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.
Contrast Effects
The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered.
work group features
organizational factors that affect creativity: a diverse group of people are more likely to come up with more creative solutions, as long as team members share excitement over the goal, are willing to support each other and recognize each other's unique knowledge and perspective
Role
A set of expected behaviours of a person in a given position in a social unit.
Valence
The value or importance an individual places on a reward.
Selective Perception
People's selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Interactional Justice
The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager.
surveillance
organizational factors that block creativity: being watched while you are working
Grapevine
The organization's most common informal network.
Conscientiousness (Big Five Model)
A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement-oriented. (from Big Five Model)
Group Diversity
The presence of a heterogeneous mix of individuals within a goup.
assumptions
the taken-for-granted notions of how something should be
Perception
The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Machiavellianism
The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
liaisons with external constituencies
roles of team leaders: leader represents the team to other constituencies, secures needed resources, clarifies others' expectations of the team, gathers info from the outside and shares this info with team members
utilitarianism
a decision focused on outcomes or consequences that emphasizes the greatest good for the greatest number
Performing
The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. (The Five-Stage Model)
creativity
the process of creating novel products, ideas or procedures that are potentially relevant or useful to an organization
Emotions
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.
associating with influential people
types of political activity: building support networks
Conflict
A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.
Efficiency
The ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work.
beliefs
the understandings of how objects and ideas relate to each other
stability
characteristics of culture; the degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth
rational
refers to choices that are consistent and value-maximizing within specified constraints
impression management
the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them
Job Enrichment
The vertical expansion of jobs. (It increases the degree to which workers control the planning, execution, and evaluation of their work.)
Continuous Reinforcement
A desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated. (Type of Reinforcement)
Emotional Intelligence
An assortment of non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.
Contingency Approach
An approach taken by OB that considers behaviour within the context in which it occurs.
Channel
The medium through which a message travels.
Proactive Personality
A person who identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful chance occurs.
legitimating tactics
influence tactics: claiming the authority or right to make a request, or showing that it supports organizational goals or policies
transformational leaders
leaders who inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization, and have a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers
economic factors
reason why individuals may resist change: worry they won't be able to perform new tasks or to their previous standards
delegation
assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific duties, allowing the employee to make some of the decisions
Self-Monitoring
A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust behaviour to external, situational factors.
resistance
response to power: person is opposed to the request and tries to avoid it with such tactics as regusing, stalling or arguing about it
organizational structure
how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated
competition
organizational factors that block creativity: facing win-lose situations with peers
Forming
The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. (The Five-Stage Model)
nature of the workforce
forces for change; more cultural diversity, aging population, many new entrants with inadequate skills
creating obligations
types of political activity: doing favours for others so they will owe you favours later
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting blame for failures on external factors.
Affective Events Theory (AET)
The theory that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and that this emotional reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction.
Systematic Study
The examination of behaviour in order to draw conclusions, based on scientific evidence, about causes and effects in relationships.
assimilation
strategy for merging cultures: new organization takes on culture of one of the merging organizations
subcultures
minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation
Formal Networks
Task-related communications that follow the authority chain. (Network with an s)
troubleshooters
roles of team leaders: leaders sit in on meetings and tries to help resolve problems, leader contributes by asking penetrating questions, by helping the team discuss problems and by getting needed resources from external constituencies
Emotional Labour
When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions (to maximize organizational productivity). (ex. enthusiasm or loyalty)
Proxemics
The study of physical space in interpersonal relationships.
Norms
Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group's members.
Skill-Based Pay
Pay based on how many skills an employee has or how many jobs he or she can do.
Storming
The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. (The Five-Stage Model)
Attitudes
Positive or negative feelings about objects, people, or events.
knowledge management
the process of organizing and distributing an organization's collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time
appreciative inquiry
an approach to change that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance
initiating structure
the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of employees in order to attain goals
situational, or contingency theories
theories that propose leadership effectiveness is dependent on the situation
coaches
roles of team leaders: leaders clarify expectations and roles, teach, offer support, cheerlead and do whatever else is necessary to help team members improve their work performance
Expectancy Theory
The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them.
information power
power that comes from access to and control over information
Prejudice
An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group.
Variable-Interval Schedule
The reward is given at variable time intervals. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement)
Emotional Stability (Big Five Model)
A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is calm, self-confident, and secure. (from Big Five Model)
Motivating Potential Score (MPS)
A predictive index suggesting the motivation potential in a job.
unfreezing
first step of Lewin's Three-step model (for change): change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity
world politics
forces for change; Iraq-US war, opening of markets in China, hurricane disasters in US Sept 2005
heuristics
judgment shortcuts in decision making
Kinesics
The study of body motions, such as gestures, facial configurations, and other movements of the body.
cost-minimization strategy
a strategy that emphasizes tight cost controls, avoidance of unnecessary innovation or marketing expenses and price cutting
fragmented culture
a certain distinct culture type: low on sociability, low on solidarity
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others.
bureaucracy
an organizational design with highly routine operating tasks, achieved through specialization; formalized rules and regulations; tasks that are grouped into functional departments; centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command
job context
the reason for the job being done; it reflects the organizational mission, objectives and setting
Voice (Type of Behaviour)
Dissatisfaction expressed by actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive)
security
reason why individuals may resist change: threatens their feelings of safety
self-management (point C - top right)
degrees of empowerment: employees have total decision-making power for both job content and job context
team orientation
characteristics of culture; the degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals
Organization
A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Role Expectations
How others believe a person should act in a given situation. (Role)
Continuance Commitment (Type of Organizational Commitment)
An individual's calculation to stay with the organization based on the perceived costs of leaving the organization. (Type of Organizational Commitment)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. (ex. ESTJ)
mentor
a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee
Variable-Pay Program
A reward program in which a portion of an employee's pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance.
imitation strategy
a strategy of moving into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been proven
outcome orientation
characteristics of culture; the degree to which management focuses on results, or outcomes, rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve these outcomes
Filtering
A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receivers.
negotiation and agreement
how to deal with resistance to change: exchange something of value for a decrease in resistance

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