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World History Final Exam Pt. 1


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War of the Austrian Succession
Frederick the second wanted the Austrian land of Silesia, which bordered Prussia. He assumed that because Maria Theresa was a woman, she would not be forceful enough to defend her lands. Even though she had recently given birth, she journeyed to Hungary. There, she asked for Hungarian nobles for aid. They pledged to give her an army. Britain also joined Austria. Although they did stop Prussia's aggression, she lost Silesia at the Treat of Aix-la-Chapelle
Henry VIII
When this man became king of England, he was a devout Catholic. Political needs soon tested his religious loyalty. He needed a male heir. He feared there would be a war after his death if he had no heir. He had many wives and killed/divorced them in trying to get a male heir. He wrote a pamphlet attacking Martin Luther and his teachings. He was given the special title �Defender of the Faith.� His political need eventually drove him to break with the Church.
author of The Prince which examines the imperfect conduct of human beings. He does so in the form of a political guidebook. He examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies. To succeed in such a wicked world, he said a prince must be strong as as a lion and shrewd as a fox
�holy wars� used to gain control of the Holy Land issued by Pope Urban II. Their goal was to recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
The Praise of Folly
an essay written by Erasmus that uses satire to point out corrupt practices of the Church.
John Locke
The philosopher who held a different, more positive view of human nature. He believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. They had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society. He criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-government. All people are born free and equal, with three natural rights-life, liberty, and property. If a government fails to protect these rights, the citizens have a right to overthrow it
Movable type
The printing press had a revolutionary impact on European society. For the first time, books were cheap enough that many people could buy them. New ideas spread more quickly than ever before. The availability of books encouraged people to learn to read and so caused a rise in literacy. People began to interpret the Bible for themselves. This thing was what allowed different words to be written many different times.
Issac Newton
the great English scientist who helped to bring together Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo�s breakthroughs under a single theory of motion. He was certain that all physical objects were affected by the same forces. His greatest discovery was that the same force ruled the motions of the planets, the pendulum, and all matter on earth and in space. According to his law of gravitation, every object in the universe attracts every other object
Mona Lisa
one of the best-known portraits in the world, painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The woman in the portrait seems so real that many writers have tried to explain the thoughts behind her slight smile.
Peter the Great
He is known as " " the Great because he was one of Russia�s greatest reformers. He continued the trend of increasing the czar�s power. He embarked on a long visit to western Europe with the goal of learning about European customs and industrial techniques. He resolved that Russia would compete with Europe on both military and commercial terms. He had a goal of westernization. He built St. Petersburg as access to the Sea
the sculptor and painter who glorified the human body. He was a true Renaissance man. He excelled at almost every area of study. Te was a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. He was influenced by classical art and created figures that are forceful and show heroic grandeur and power. He explored the Renaissance theme of human potential.
Johann Gutenberg
a craftsman from Mainz, Germany, who reinvented movable type around 1440. The method was practical for Europeans because their languages have a very small number of letters in their alphabets. He then invented the printing press. Using this invention, this man printed a complete Bible, the Gutenberg Bible. It was the first full-size book printed with movable type.
Heliocentric Theory
sun-centered theory brought about by Nicolaus Copernicus. He became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements, he reasoned that indeed, the stars, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun
Glorious Revolution
James II became king of England and soon offended his subjects by flaunting his Catholicism. He appointed several Catholics to high office and dissolved Parliament. English Protestants became terrified at the prospect of a line of Catholic kings. James� oldest daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, were invited by Parliament to overthrow James for the sake of Protestantism. James fled to France. Was bloodless.
John Knox
a preacher from Scotland who put Calvin's ideas to work in Scottish towns. Followers of this man became known as Presbyterians. He, along with Protestant nobles succeeded in making Calvinism Scotland's official religion.
Peace of Augsburg
Prince Charles and all German princes assembled and agreed that the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler
Zheng He
led the seven voyages of exploration launched by Yonglo to explore the outside world
Ming Dynasty
By the time te first Portuguese ships dropped anchor off the Chinese coast, China had become the dominant power in the region under the rule of the Ming Dynasty. In recognition of China�s power, vassal states from Korea to Southeast Asia paid their Ming overlords regular tribute, a payment by one nation to another to acknowledge submission. They wouldn�t allow outsiders from distant lands to threaten the peace and prosperity they had brought to China following the end of Mongol rule
The Last Supper
a famous religious painting produced by Leonardo da Vinci. It shows the personalities of Jesus� disciples through facial expressions
a series of realistic, sometimes off-color stores written by Boccaccio. They are supposedly told by a group of worldly young people waiting in the villa to avoid the plague sweeping through Florence. It has cutting humor and presents the follies of the characters with some sarcasm.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
the foreign minister of Austria who distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution. He maintained that Napoleon�s expansionist dictatorship had been a natural outcome of experiments with democracy. He had three goals for the Congress of Vienna. He wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries. He wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others. He also wanted to restore Europe�s royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon�s conquests
English Civil War
fought by supporters and opponents of King Charles. Those loyal to Charles were Royalists/Cavaliers. On the other side were Puritan supporters of Parliaments. They were mockingly called Roundheads. Oliver Cromwell led the Puritans to victory. King Charles was put to death after a public trial
The Prince
by Niccolo Machiavelli. It examines the imperfect conduct of human beings. It examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies.
Martin Luther
He was the son of a miner who became a monk. He taught scripture at the University of Wittenberg. All he wanted was to be a good Christian, no to lead a religious revolution. He was troubled by Tetzel's tactics of giving people the impression that they could buy their way into heaven by buying indulgences. He wrote 95 Theses, or formal statements, attacking the "pardon-merchants". His actions began the Reformation, a movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that didnt accept the pope�s authority. Luther was declared an outlaw and heretic. According to this edict of worms, no one in the empire was allowed to give Luther shelter or food. All his books were to be burned. Instead of continuing to seek reforms in the Catholic Church, Luther and his followers had become a separate religious group called Lutherans.
Council of Trent
Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines: The church�s interpretation of the Bible was final. Christians need faith and good works for salvation. The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. The council�s decrees were vigorously carried out.
Russia�s landowning nobles who struggled for power and to control Ivan the Terrible
the technique of writing in their native language used by Renaissance writers. Brought about by the medieval writer Dante.
East India Company
formed to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. These companies had the power to mint money, make treaties, and even raise their own armies. The Dutch East India Company was richer and more powerful than England�s company. As a result, the Dutch eventually drove out the English and established their dominance over the region
one powerful family under which Florence came under rule. They had made a fortune in trade and banking. Although the Medici did not foster true republican government, they aided the Renaissance by supporting the arts. They had their portraits painted and donated public art to the city to demonstrate their own importance.
Thirty Year's War
a conflict over religion, over territory, and for power among European ruling families
Seven Year's War
Maria Theresa (Austria) made an alliance with the French kings. Frederick (Prussia) signed a treaty with Britain. Now, Austria, France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia. Frederick attacked Saxony, an Austrian ally. Soon, every great European power was involved in the war. Fought in Europe, India, and North America, it lasted a long time. It didn't change the territorial situation in Europe
Johannes Kepler
a brilliant mathematician who continued the work of Tycho Brahe. He concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. One of these laws showed that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles as previously thought. His laws showed that Copernicus� basic ideas were true. They demonstrated mathematically that the planets revolve around the sun
Scientific Revolution
Revolution: a few scholars published works that challenged the ideas of the ancient thinkers and the church. As these scholars replaced old assumptions with new theories, they launched a change in European thought that historians call the Scientific Revolution. It was a new way of thinking about the natural world
Powerful samurai who seized control of old feudal estates during the time in Japanese history known as the Sengoku period. These warrior-chieftains became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism Under this system, security came from this group of powerful warlords.
Divine Right
absolute monarch's goal was to control every aspect of society. They believed in divine right-the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects
the term means rebirth. In this case a rebirth of art and learning. It began in northern Italy and later spread north. Italy had three advantages that fostered the Renaissance: thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the classical heritage of Greece and Rome
Edict of Nantes
the declaration of religious toleration in which Henry IV declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities.
Calvin taught that men and women are sinful by nature. Taking Luther�s idea that humans cannot earn salvation, Calvin went on to say that God chooses a very few people to save. Calvin called these few the �elect.� He believed that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved.
The Courtier
by Baldassare Castiglione. They taught how to become a "Renaissance man"; A young man, said Castiglione, should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Upper-class women also should know the classics and be charming.
a Protestant group that baptized only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian. They said that people who had been baptized as children should be rebaptized as adults. They also taught that church and state should be separate, and they refused to fight in wars.
Shah Jahan
He was a cultured man who could not tolerate competition, however, and secured his throne by assassinating all his possible rivals. He gad a great passion for two things: beautiful buildings and his wife. He had the Taj Mahal built to enshrine his wife�s memory. He also built the Red Fort at Delhi and completed the Peacock Throne.
Prince Henry
The nation�s most enthusiastic supporter of exploration who�s dreams of overseas exploration began when he helped conquer the Muslim city of Ceuta in North Africa. He returned to Portugal determined to reach the source of treasures in the East. He also wished to spread the Christian faith. He�s often called Henry the Navigator.
Line of Demarcation
drawn to divide lands claimed by Portugal from those of Spain
Renaissance man
A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a "universal man". Later ages called them this. He should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. In addition, he should be a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman.
Ignatius of Loyola
a great reformer of the Catholic Reformation. He wrote a book called Spiritual Exercises that laid out a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study. He then gathered followers and the pope made them a religious order called the Society of Jesus. They were commonly called Jesuits.
a small, highly maneuverable, two- or three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration from the 15th century
Catholic Reformation
A reformation process to help Catholics to remain loyal was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself. The Jesuits played a large role in the Reformation
Congress of Vienna
A series of meetings in Vienna called to set up policies to achieve the goal of a new European order-one of collective security and stability for the entire continent. They wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries. They wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others. They also wanted to restore Europe�s royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon�s conquests
the period in which Charles II ruled England. Called this because Charles II restored the monarchy. He also restored the theater, sporting events, and dancing, which the Puritans had banned
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
a Polish cleric and astronomer who was troubled by the problem of the geocentric theory no accurately explaining the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. He became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements, he reasoned that indeed, the stars, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun. This became the heliocentric theory
Frederick II
Ruler of Prussia, who, despite bitter memories, followed his father�s military policies when he came to power. However, he also softened some of his father�s laws because he believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people. He participated in the Seven Years� War against Maria Theresa in Prussia
founded by Ignatius of Loyola. A religious order called the Society of Jesus. They concentrated on three activities. First, they founded superb schools throughout Europe. Second, they tried to convert non-Christians to Catholicism. Third, they wanted to stop Protestantism from spreading.
Maria Theresa
a young woman named heir to the Austrian throne. She was an able devoted to her family. Unlike many monarchs, she married for love. As empress, she decreased the power of the nobility. Very religious, she cared more for the peasants� well-being tan most rulers. She limited the amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do.
He discovered the law of the pendulum. He found that a falling object accelerates at a fixed and predictable rate. He successfully built his own telescope. His observations and laws of motion supported the theories of Copernicus. His findings frightened both Catholic and Protestant leaders because they went against church teaching and authority. The church put him under house arrest which is where he eventually died
Louis XIV
the most powerful ruler in French history. In Louis� view, he and the state were one and the same. Louis weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils. He increased the power of the government agents called intend ants, who collected taxes and administered justice. He devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance. He built the palace at Versailles. He left France as a power to be reckoned with in Europe. He left staggering debts and resentment over the royal abuse of power
Leonardo da Vinci
he was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist. He was a true �Renaissance man,� deeply interested in how things worked. He painted the Mona Lisa The Last Supper. He was a genius.

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