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Comm in Everday Life


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What are Dewey's 6 processes of reflective thinking?
1- recognize symptoms of illness
2- diagnose the cause of ailment
3- establish a criteria for wellness
4- consider possible remedies
5- test to determine which solutions will work
6- implement or perscribe the best solution
What is the Functional Theory? (ex. whats the purpose? who created it?)
Orginally proposed by PARSONS to account for repetitive practices and events in everyday life. Roles, Rituals, and Practices are a form of CEL and all represent a form of social system.
Every group or society must fulfill four cultural imperatives according to the functional theory... what are they?
1- Adaptation
2- Multifunctionality
3- Contextual Functionality
4- Functional Alternatives
What are the Four Functions for Effective Decision Making? (functional perspective)
1- Analysis of the Problem
2- Goal Setting
3- Identification of Alternatives
4- Evaluation of positive and negative alternatives
Prioritizing the functions...
describe this process?
all four functions need to be accomplished to max the probability of a quality decision. No single function is inherently more central than the others. The requirements of a given task and context effects the priority.
What is the role of communication in fulfilling the functions?
Most scholars believe that discussion among members has a significant effect on the quality of group decisions. Communication is best when is dosent obstruct or distort the free flow of ideas. Hirokawa believes that comm plays a more active role in crafting quality decisions.
What are the three types of communication in fulfulling functions/in the group decision making process?
1. promotive
2. disruptive
3. counteractive
What is symbolic interactionism?
no so much a theory, more of a theoretical perspective, or core of common assumptions about:
a the "glue" that holds social groups together
b. the cole comm plays in the formation and maintenance of a society
c. assumes individuality comes from a society and not vice versa)
What are the 5 goals of a theory?
1. advances a reasonable expectation
2. the explanation is relatively simple
3. has testable hyrothesis
4. can predict behavior
5. offers a practical advice on achieving important comm goals.
What is the scientific approach of Symbolic Interactionism?
Iowa (Kuhn) Social Scientist- better to take context away to con control its effects and reveal underlying structures
What is the Humanist/Blumer approach to the Social Interactionism Theory?
Herbert Blumer- coined the term "Symbolic Interactionism"
What is the definition of "Meaning" in relation to Symbolic Interactionism?
Meaning- The construction of social reality. Meaning arises out of the social interaction that people have with each other. Humans act toward people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things. Once people define a situation as real, the consequences become very real.
What is the definition of "Language" in relation to Symbolic Interactionism?
Language is the source of meaning. Meaning is negotiated through the use of language- hence the term symb. interactionism.
Interactionists claim that the extent of knowing is dependent on the extent of naming. Symbolic Interactionism and lan are not just a meant for intelligent expression, but the ways we learn to interpret the world.
What is the meaning of "thought" in relation to Symbolic Interactionism?
Thought is the process of taking the role of another. Symbolic Interactionists describe thinking as an inner conversation. Mean called this inner-dialogue "minding". Humans require social stimulation and exposure to abstract symbol systems to engage in conceptual thought processes. According to Mead, humans have the unique ability to "take the role of another".
What is "The Self" in context with Symbolic Interactionism?
Symbolic Interactionists are convinced that THE SELF IS A FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE. One has to be a member of a community before their consciousness of self sets in.
What is the "Me"
the Me is viewed as an object. The image of "self" seen in the looking-glass of other people's reactions.
What is a community made up of?
the socializing effect of others expectations. Consists of individuals who make their own choices, yet to form alliances they align their actions to fit what others are doing.
What is the "generalized other"?
The generalized other is a concept used in the social sciences, especially in a field called symbolic interactionism. It is the general notion that a person has of the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society. Any time that an actor tries to imagine what is expected of them, they are taking on the perspective of the generalized other. -Composite image that we form of the community (mead).
What is the "generalized other" based on? (2 things)
1. An overarching looking-glass self that we put together
2- from the reflections we see in everyone we know.
What are the 6 applications of Symbolic Interaction?
1- creating reality
2- meaningful research
3- generalized other
4- Naming
5- Self-fulfilling Prophecy
6- Symbol Manipulation
What is Meaningful Research (one of the applications of symbolic interaction)?
Mead advocated study thru participant observation, a form of ethnography.
What is intimate distance? how far?
Intimate Distance (0 to 18 inches). This is the distance of playful wrestling and lovemaking. Enforced closeness in crowded elevators doesn’t count; Hall is talking about the voluntarily selected gap between people who are drawn to each other. At this close range, vision is distorted and any vocalization is a whisper, moan, or grunt. Our main ways of judging the intervening space are through body heat, smell, and touch.
What is Personal Distance? and how far is it?
Eighteen inches marks the outer edge of our territorial bubble and the beginning of personal space. Here we lose the sense of body heat and all but the most powerful odors. Eyesight begins to focus, and vocalization comes into play. Although only ritualized touch is typical, the other person is still at arm’s length, available to be grasped, held, or shoved away. Where a person stands within this range shows the closeness of the relationship. (18 inches to 4feet).
What is social distance? how far?
4-10 feet
This is the zone of impersonal transaction. We now have to rely solely on what we can see and hear. By the middle of the range, the eye can focus on an entire face when the distance is more than eight feet, it’s OK to ignore another’s presence and it’s easy to disengage from a conversation.
Public distance- What is it and how far?
10 ft to infinity-
Once you’re this far out, you can no longer pick up subtle nuances of meaning from the face or tone of voice. The eye can take in the whole body at a glance. It’s the distance of the lecture hall, mass meetings, and interactions with powerful figures until such time as they bid you to come closer.
What is a SIGN?
A sign is something we directly encounter, yet at the same time it refers to something else. Thunder is a sign of rain. A punch in the nose is a sign of anger. An arrow is a sign of whatever it points toward.
What is a SYMBOL?
most symbols have no natural connection with the things they describe. There’s nothing in the sound of the word kiss or anything visual in the letters h-u-g that signifies an embrace. One could just as easily coin the term snarf or clag to symbolize a close encounter of the romantic kind.

Because words are arbitrary symbols, they have no inherent meaning. Like chameleons that take on the coloration of their environment, words, according to Richards, take on the meaning of the context in which a person encounters them

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