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Social Welfare Midterm Vocab

Terms

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Feudalism
a system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners.
Doctrine of Less Eligibility
states that the quality of life of an inmate in a prison must be less than enjoyed by a free laborer outside of the prison
Manifest Destiny
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God), , the belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean
Conservatives
believe that unregulated capitalism will produce prosperity
Dorthea Dix
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Libertarians
seek to curtail governmental control and regulation of its citizens
Temperance
the movement in the 19th century that strove to prohibit alcohol
Mercantilism
a set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Democratic egalitarianism
philosophy that combines the equal political rights of egalitarianism with the universal franchise of democracy.
Individualism
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
The Great Awakening
This was a major religious revival in the colonies, which began in the 1730's with its leader being Jonathan Edwards.
Charles Loring Brace
In 1853 he founded NY Children's Aid Society where he established dormitories, reading rooms, and workshops where the boys could learn practical skills.
Suffrage
the right to vote
Dred Scott Decision of 1857
Supreme Court ruling that declared that slave and descendents of slaves were not persons and therefore not entitled to constitutional protection
Liberals
seek to diminish some disparities in social and economic standing between groups
The New Puritanism
increasing tendency for the young middle classes to accept increasing regulation and self regulation of their life curtailing the "consumption culture"
Laws of Settlement
laws restricting people's movements (from one town to another) to prevent vagrancy
Dawes Act
law enacted in 1887 allowing Native Americans access to their land once they accepted an individual plot of land
Gilded Age
Crucial period for the U.S. during the Civil War and Reconstruction. There was economic prosperity but corruption, etc. in the country
Cult of Domesticity
consigned women to household and familial functions reserving the professional world for men
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Comstock Law
prohibited contraceptives from being distributed though the US mail
Radicals
identify with grass roots movements and seek to expand the welfare state
Herbert Spenser
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
Deontologists
those whose first ethical principals are derived from religions, religious writings and philosophers to pose ethical arguments
Relativists
those who believe that people make ethical choices by resorting to cultural norms
Jim Crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Speenhamland System
practice of economic relief for the poor that was adopted over much of England following a decision by local magistrates at the Pelican Inn, Speenhamland, near Newbury, Berkshire, on May 6, 1795. Instead of fixing minimum wages for poor labourers, the practice was to raise workingmen's income to an agreed level, the money to come out of the parish rates.
Abolitionists
persons fanatically opposed to slavery
Utilitarians
process of assessing outcomes that assigns ethical merit to programs or policy with positive outcome, probable positive outcomes and cost- to-benefit ratios.
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Protestant work ethic
Sociological term used to define the Calvinist belief in hard work to illustrate selection in elite group

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