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Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635), Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France; played major role in the St Lawrence River area earning him the title of "Father of New France."`
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class, members of the HIGHEST SOCIAL CLASS
How were the Spanish successful in overtaking the Natives?
their victories were quick and lasting; they had weapons - guns and cannons; fearsome animals -- rode horses and had ferocious dogs; they seemed like gods to the Native Americans; many Native Americans hated their Aztec overlords and assisted the conquistadors in overthrowing them; FINALLY - disease played an important role - Native Americans had no immunity to the diseases the Europeans had - epidemics of small pox and other diseases wiped out entire communities
What was the Renaissance?
a period of intellectual and artistic creativity that took place between 1300 and 1600; this period changed the way Europeans thought about themselves and the world as it encouraged them to pursue new ideas and set new goals; it also encouraged an age of exploration and discovery; with this came a renewed interest in classical Greek and Roman learning
What does circumnavigate mean?
to sail around the world; some of Magellan's crew were the first to complete a circumnavigation of the globe; unfortunatley Magellan was killed and did not get to complete this journey
What caused Christopher Columbus's interest in exploration?
the reading of Marco Polo's "Travels"
Which conquistador conquered the Aztecs?
Hernan Cortes
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498), Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
When Columbus died he still thought he had reached Asia, which mapmaker discovered that these were actually new continents?
Amerigo Vespucci
Who was Vasco da Gama?
the first explorer to sail around Africa to Asia; he completed the eastern sea route to Asia (it took a year from 1497 to 1498)
How did Europeans learn about the products from Asia?
As more explorations took place, people began to learn of goods that could be bought and then traded - they learned of cinnamon, pepper, cloves, spices, perfumes, silk, and precious stones
What did Dias call the tip of Africa?
Cape of Storms - later called Cape of Hope
What is an astrolabe?
an instrument used by sailors to observe positions of stars; an instrument that helped with exploration as it enabled sailors to determine their latitude while at sea; better instruments meant improved exploration
Who claimed San Salvador in the Caribbean for Spain?
Christopher Columbus
When did Queen Isabella and King Fernidand finally agree to finance Columbus's voyage?
after 7 years they agreed in 1492 when the last Muslims were driven out of Spain
What was Portugal's role in early exploration?
Portugal played an important role in early exploration - first King Henry the Navigator sparked interest with his school; Portugal also wanted to establish a trading post along the west coast of Africa looking for gold and wanted a water route to Asia
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches, movement begun by Martin Luther, movement that began to correct problem in the Roman Catholic Church. It caused a split and the development of Protestant Churches
Who agreed to finance Columbus's voyage westward to Asia?
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
What did Columbus called the land he found?
San Salvador
Henry Hudson
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River, Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
Which mountains did Columbus think were the Himalayas?
the one's in Cuba
Columbus left Spain on August 3, 1492 aboard what ships?
Nina, Pinta, Maria
How did Maraco Polo affect exploration?
his book became extremely popular - letting Europeans know of his travels in China - this increased Europe's interest in China as explorers realized fortunes could be found there
Why did the Italians study the Greek and Roman classical works with new interest during the Renaissance?
they wanted to improve their knowledge of people and the world
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557), French explorer who discovered the St. Lawrence river in Canada while looking for the Northwest Passage
Hernando de Soto
Spanish explorer who discovered and claimed the Mississippi River for Spain, Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.
Native Americans
lived in great poverty
What are plantations?
a large estate developed by the Spanish to raise crops such as tobacco and sugarcane; Native Americans were used to do the work
What does Pacific of the Pacific Ocean mean?
What is a strait?
a narrow twisting passage of sea - a narrow passageway connecting two larger bodies of water; Magellan had found one of these passageways in 1520 allowing sailing through a narrow, twisting sea passage to the Pacific; this strait bears his name - Magellan's Strait
Enslaved Africans
LOWEST SOCIAL CLASS; had no rights
What were the different levels of social classes in early Spanish settlements?
peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, Native Americans, and enslaved Africans
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain, led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. conquistador responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. captured Tenochtitlan. He had heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior so he began to stroke inland. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.
Why did early exploration begin?
it began as countries wanted to expand trade as they worked toward mercantilism; Prince Henry the Navigator established a school that taught sailing, geography, mapmaking, and astronomy - this sparked European interest in exploration; early exploration began as a result of European countries wanting to find routes to Africa looking for gold and to Asia
When did Columbus reach the Bahamas?
Oct. 12, 1492 - though he thought he was in the Indies
What effect did the printing press have on exploration?
this invention helped books such as "Travels" gain a much wider circulation - thus more people knew about explorations
Why did people/explorers become interested in India, China, and the rest of Asia?
exotic goods form the East (these places) appeared in European marketplaces
Who was Marco Polo?
he was an explorer - one of the first westerners to travel to China by land; He went to China with his father and uncle - spent 17 years there working for Kublai Khan; he observed first-hand the advanced Chinese civilization; his family returned to Venice in 1293. He was captured in 1298 during a war between Venice and Genoa. While in prison, he dictated his book "Travels" to Rustichello da Pisa
What are pueblos?
one of the types of settlements in the Americas; they were towns established as centers of trade
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Explorer; in 1513 and in 1521, he explored Florida, thinking it was an island. Looking for gold and the "fountain of youth", he failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow.
Spanish and Native American parents
Francisco Pizzaro
He was from Portugal he went to Peru in 1532; he crushed Incas; took lot of money, conquered the Incas, Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
Who did the Treaty of Tordesillas favor?
it gave Portugal more land, but it still favored Spain
What distance did Columbus think it was from Europe to Asia based on Ptolemy and what was the actual distance?
thought it was 2,400, but it was 10,600 miles
What is Ferdinand Magellan known for?
discovered the Strait of Magellan, named the Pacific Ocean, circumnavigated (his crew) the earth
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America, A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
What is the line of demarcation?
an imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole divding the Americas between Spain and Portugal which was drawn by Pope Alexander VI to help Spain and Portugal protect their claims - it granted Spain the lands west of the line and Portugal the lands east of the line
What does Renaissance mean?
French word for "Rebirth"
Who was Vasco Nunez de Balboa?
the Spanish governor of Panama; was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1513
What were some of the technological advancements that made exploration possible?
the astrolabe, better maps, better ships with stern rudders, triangular sails, and cannons
Who did Columbus first present his plan to find a route westward to Asia?
Why did early exploration begin?
exploration grew as European Christians became concerned about losing access to the Holy Land as Muslim power grew. As a result, explorers launched nine expeditions known as crusades to regain control of their holy sites
What is a conquistador?
a Spanish explorer in the Americas in the 1500s; they received grants from Spanish rulers and had the right to explore and establish settlements in the Americas; in excchange for these grants they agreed to give the Spanish crown 1/5 of any gold or treasure found; this allowed Spanish rulers to launch explorations with little risk - if these explorers failed, they lost their own fortunes, but it they were successful, they and Spain gained wealth and glory
Who was Pedro Cabral?
explorer who claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500
Which conquistador conquered the Incas?
Francisco Pizzaro
Who are the Americas named for?
Amerigo Vespucci
What affect did the movable press have on Marco Polo's "Travels"?
more people were exposed to this book because the printing press made it easier and quicker to produce books
What called for the line of demarcation to be moved 800 miles to the west (1494)
Treaty of Tordesillas
Who established the line of demarcation?
Pope Alexander VI
Describe the plantation system.
large estates where crops were grown for sale or trade; most crops were sent back to Spain; grew tobacco and sugarcane; the Spanish used Native Americans to work until enslaved Africans were brought from Africa; mid-1500s Spanish brought thousands of slaves from West Africa; those who survived were sold to plantations; plantation slave labor was an essential part of the economy of the colonies
First to circumnavigate the globe (at least his surviving ship did) he was not successful, but one of his ship's did circumnavigate, He did not actually go around the world because he was killed in a battle in the Philippines, but still gets the credit.
What is mercantilism?
the theory that a state's or nation's power depended upon wealth. Rulers wanted to increase their nation's wealth by acquiring gold and silver and through developing trade; it did provide great opportunities to make money, but also increased rivalries between nations
Why was it necessary to attempt to reach Asia by sailing west?
to avoid Muslims who blocked land routes
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Americas; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Why was there conflict between Spain and Portugal?
Portugal rejected Spain's claims to the West Indies - as a result the line of demarcation was created by Pope Alexander VI
Who was the first explorer to reach the southern tip of Africa in 1487?
Bartholomeu Dias
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation, a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

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