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Test 1

Terms

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Denis Diderot
created the Encyclopedia
Galileo
went against the church; telescope; climbed to the top of a tower to drop 2 objects of different weights and see which one hit the ground first; tried for heresy and put in prison
Ptolemy
a Greek who believed all spheres revolved around the Earth; church agrees with hiim
Moravian Bretheren
German pietists who argued against war and violence; they were attacked by the church and the deists; fled to the U.S.; now known as the Pennsylvania Dutch
John Locke
English scientist who wrote Second Treatise of Civil Government; believe people only give up certain rights to the government and have right to revolution
Isaac Newton
Gravity; invented calculus to understand physics; discovered the compound nature of light all before the age of 20
Adam Smith
wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776; argues that if gov. will stay out of it, the country will get more money
Amish
Pennsylvania Dutch; Moravian Bretheren
John-Jacques Rousseau
Swiss Protestant writer who attacks French society and advocates change; encouraged people to seek God in nature not in Church; wrote Social Contract
Count Zinzendorf
leader of the Moravian Bretheren
Social Contract
book that is forefronter of democracy during French Revolution; written by Rousseau
Novum Organum
means New Method
Philosophes
not philosphers but writers who popularize ideas during the Enlightenment
Rousseau
believed that when people gave up their rights they gave them up to each other, not to the government; power should be with the people and gov. should do what people want
Deism
rejected concept of miracles, supernatural, inspiration; look upon God as creating the universe and then stepping back like a watchmaker
Voltaire
writer of epics, tragedies, satire; friends with Fredrick the Great; hated Church; admires England, favors freedom of press, low opinion of human race esp. common man
Flanders
wrote The Structure of the Human Body; argued we should study anatomy
3 supporters of laissez faire government
Quesney, Turgot and Dupont
Montesquieu
wrote Spirit of Laws; came up with separation of powers in France
Pietism
believe religion comes from the heart and God is involved
Enlightened Despotism
servant of the state, not claiming to be sent by God, didn't recognize church authority
1715-1789
Years of the enlightenment period
Thomas Hobbs
believed in idea that in a society without laws man is a wolf to his fellow man; that people trade all rights to the government for protection; Absolutism
Nicholas Copernicus
said that Ptolemy was wrong and that the Earth revolves around the sun in a circular motion
Physiocrates
philosophe who wrote about economics; attacked economy in Europe
Mathematical Principles of natural Philosphy by Newton
main idea of this book was that every body in the universe is in relationship with every other body in the universe
Rene Descartes
invented coordinate geography; mathmatician; wrote Discourse on Method
John Kepler
came up with the theory that the earth and all planets are not in circular motion but in eliptical motion around the sun
John Wesley
established the Methodist Church in the Carolinas
Ben Franklin
U.S. foreign minister to France
cartesian dualism
two kinds of thinking: thinking substance and extended substance; idea in Discourse on Method by Rene Descartes
mercantilism
government dictates what goods can be bought or sold buy merchants
Frances Bacon
wrote Novum Organum; idea was Knowledge is Power
Francois Marie Arouet
Voltaire

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