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Chapter 15


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mary lyon
established an outstanding women's school in mass. advocater for women's rights by women's education.
edgar allan poe
an essentric genius. orphaned early, and cursed with poor health. married his 13 year old cousin. he became an alcoholic. wrote many horrific short stories. had a morbid sensibility. gifted poet. found drunk in a baltimore gutter, dies soon thereafter.
ralph waldo emmerson
a leading transcendentalist writer, and the real founder of the movement. trained as a unitarian minister. encouraged americans to form an intellectual deceleration of independence. a practical philosopher, wrote fresh and vibrant essays that enriched thousands of lives. urged american intellectual patriotism and independence.
robert owen
a wealthy and idealistic scottish textile manager. in 1825, he founded a communal society comprised of about 1000 people in indians. he did this seeking human betterment. it was a massive failure, mainly because many came with the wrong intentions.
emma willard
helped support female secondary schools, important to women's rights. in 1821 she established troy female semminary.
william mcguffy
a teacher- preacher, and very influential. his reading lessons were great;y sold and used, and hammered in lessons on morality and patriotism.
horace mann
a brilliant graduate of brown university. campaigned effectively for better and better funded public education.
william gillmore simms
the most noteworthy literary figure produced by the south before the civil war. a novelist. he wrote eighty two books. his themes were on the southern way of life. became rich, but was never accepted because he was born poor.
henry david thoreau
a poet, mystic, and noncomformist. close friend and associate of emmerson. condemned the gov't for supporting slavery. refused to pay his tax due to this, so jailed and wrote on civil disobedience. strongly influnced and furthered idealistic thought. later influenced gandi and MLK.
brook farm
started in 1841 in mass. had 200 acres of grudging soil. started with about 20 people who held the brotherly ideals of transcendentalism. ran well until a fire in 1846.
seneca falls convention
in 1848, a group of fighting feminists met for a memorable womens rights convention. stanton read a new deceleration, where all men and women were created equal. one resolution demanded voting rights for females. this convention started off the modern women's rights movement.
hudson river school
excelled in the art where a painter paints not a person, but an ideal landscape.
american peace society
a society that, in a sense, declared war on war. it fought for peace and harmony. formed in 1828.
louisa may alcott
tied to the new england literary world, an extremely important female writer. grew up in mass next to those like emmerson and Thoreau, she grew up in the bossom of transcendentalism. she wrote classics like little women to help support her family.
oliver wendell holmes
a scholar. he taught anatomy at harvard. was a prominent poet, lecturer, essayist, and novelist. a nonconformist.
charles grandison finney
greatest of the revival preachers. trained as a lawyer, but decided to preach instead. pungent message with powerful oratory. led massive religious and spiritual revivals. preached old time religion, but was an innovator. denounced alcohol and slavery.
willian cullen bryant
a third member of the Knickerbocker group. a puitan. at age 16, wrote one of the highest quality poems in the u.s. later, he worked for the new york post, setting a high standard.
francis parkman
a historian who cronichled the struggle between britian and france for the control of the new world.
birgham young
saved the mormon movement form collapse in 1844 when he took over after joseph smith and his brother were killed. stern, but an effective leader. led the oppressed mormons to utah.
john audobon
french descended naturalist. 1785-1851. painted wild birds in their natural habitat. ironically, he had to kill all of the birds he painted so he could see them up close.
joseph smith
in 1830, smith reported that he received some sort of golden plates form an angel. when de-coded, he said they formed the book of mormon. founded mormon church, or church of Jesus Christ of latter day saints.
susan b. anthony
raised by quakers. perhaps the world's best known feminist. a militant lecturer for women's rights. fearless exposed herself to the attacks of others for the sake of suffrage.
asa grey
the columbus of american botony. 1810-1888. plublished over 350 books and papers. textbooks set new standard for clarity and interest.
elizabeth cady stanton
a mother of 7 who was such a feminist that she left the word obey out of her marriage vows. she was considered radical in that she advocated suffrage for women.
a primitive form of early photography. perfercted about 1839 by a frenchman. gave painters of portraits some unwelcome competition.
herman melivlle
also intreiuged with good and evil. spent eighteen months onboard a whaler. he jumped ship, and went to live among cannibals, where he, apparently survived, uneaten. wrote the now famous, then obscure, moby dick.
the second great awakening
a huge reaction against the growing liberalism in religion came about in the 1800. a fresh wave of roaring religious revivals swept the northwest and the country. affected even more than the first awakening, it was one of the biggest religious events in american history. made many new converts and sects.
charles wilson peale
from maryland. painted some 60 portraits of Washington, who sat for about 14 of them.
henry wadsworth longfellow
a literary giant who was not activity associated with the transcendentalist movement. taught modern languages at harvard. adopted and read by les cultured classes. most admired poems were based on american traditions.
oneida community
founded in 1848 in new york, a more radical experiment than other communal living projects. practiced free love, birth control,and selective parenting. flourished for +30 years.
lucretia mott
mothered the women's rights movement. a sprightly quaker who was inflamed when she was not recognized at an anti-slavery convention.
sylvester graham
introduced a fad diet, one of many, that was seen as a cure-all. medicine was very primitive, so these fads took over. introduced a wheat bread and crackers diet.
peter cartwright
was one of the best known meathodist traveling preachers. ill educated but passionate. he went for more than 50 years from Tennessee to Illinois calling for sinners to repent. he was loud and yelled often, and often hit those who were too rowdy. promoted a masculine Christianity.
gilbert Stewart
a competent american painter. a spendthrift rhode islander and a gifted painter. painted many semi-deified portraits of washington.
james russell lowell
a many sided man, he ranks as one of america's greater poets. also a critic, diplomat, essayist, and editor. succeeded john greenleaf whitter at harvard.
nathaniel hawthorne
writing reflected the calvinis obsession between the fight of good and evil. disliked puritans. wrote the classic, the Scarlett letter.
Benjamin stillman
the most influential scientist for the first half of the 19th century. a pioneer chemist and geologist who taught and wrote brilliantly at yale for +50 years.
walt whitman
bold, brassy, and swaggering. highly romantic, unconventional, and emotional. dispensed with many aspects of regular, traditional poetry. handed sex with frankness, books banned in boston. had passionate love for pioneers.
the mormons
a religion founded in 1830s by joseph smith. established a religious oligarchy. rasped rank-and file americans by its strictness. voted as unit, openly drilled a militia. accused of polygamy.
john trumbull
fought in the revolutionary war. a painter. recaptured spirit and scenes of the revolutionary war on his canvass.
resulted, in part, as a move to liberalize america from the strict regime of the puritans. owed much to foreign influences, including Kant and the Buddah. rejected lock's theory that all knowledge comes through the senses. they thought that truth transcends the senses.
dorthea dix
a tireless reformer, she worked hard for reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill. appointed superintendent of female nurses for the union at the outbreak of the civil war. convinced legislatures that mentally ill people were not so on purpose. infinitely compassionate.
they relied on reason rather than on revelation, on science rather than on Scripture. rejected original sin and Christ's divinity, but believed in some sort of supreme being who had endowed us with morals.
Unitarian faith
at the end of the 18th century, this movement gained momentum in new england. a spin off from puritanism. said god existed only in 1 person. stressed essential goodliness of humans, salvation through works. appealed mostly to intellectuals.
james fenimore cooper
1789-1851. the first american novelist. had wide european sale as well- involved great adventures with intriguing plots.member of the Knickerbocker group.
john greenleaf whitter
a fighting poet, also the un-crowned poet laureate of the anti-slavery movement. a less talented writer, he was effective at influencing social action. his poems cried against imhumanity, injustice, and intolerance. moving force, morally, spiritually, and in a humanitarian sense.
william Prescott
famous, one eyed, historian who published reports of the conquest of mexico and peru/
knickerbocker group
blazed brilliantly in the literary heavens form new york. it enabled america, for the first time, to have a literature that matched its magnificent landscape.
washington ivring
an influential and important american writer. 1783-1859. born in new york. first american to gain international recognition as a literary figure. used english and american themes in many stories with dutch themes,. did much to interpret europe to american, and vice versa.member of the Knickerbocker group.
emily dickenson
lived as a recluse in mass, but an imporant poet. er work was not fully appreciated until after her death, mainly due to the fact that she lived as a recluse. created her own original world through her poetry. explored themes of nature, love, and death.
american temperance society
an anti alcohol society. in 1826, formed in boston. soon grew to over a thousand local groups. encouraged many to sign temperance pledges. saw drinking as something which would tear apart american society.
maine law of 1851
prohibited the production and sale on intoxicating drinks. by 1857, about a dozen other states had similar laws. not al of the laws worked, but there was a clear fight against liquor.
george bancroft
secretary of the navy, helped found annapolis. called father of american history. published a super-patriotic work of six volumes of american history.
matthew maury
noteworthy writer. an oceenographer who wrote on ocean winds and currents. promoted safety, speed, and economy.
lyceum lecture association
numbered about three thousand by 1835. they provided platforms for speakers in amny different areas, including philosophy and science. helped adults who wanted to further their education, an increasingly common trend in america at that time.
noah webster
known as the schoolmaste rof the republic, he wrote greatly improved textbooks for use in the classroom. he eventually published a 20 page dictionary, which is not the great webster's dictionary.
louis agassiz
a distinguished french-swiss imigrant (1807-1873). served at harverd for +25 years. a pathe breaking student of bioliogy.

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