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World History Glencoe


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All French people belonged to one of three estates, or orders of society. Describe these estates.
The First Estate was made of Roman Catholic Clergy. The Second Estate was formed by the nobility. The Third Estate consisted of all other Frenchmen.
What characterized the First Estate?
Bishops & Abbots make up the higher clergy. They controlled between 5 & 10% of the land in France. There disposals were the revenues from the land and the tithes.
The lower clergy was made up of Parish Priests. They came from poor backgrounds and were socially more a part of the third estate. Many lower clergy ran schools & cared for the poorest and resented the higher clergy.
What characterized the Second Estate?
It formed approx. 2% of the population. Owned approx. 20% of the land. They lived in great style. They held high post in both the military & the government. Some resided at Versailles. Their main income came from fuedal peasants who lived and worked on their land.
What are the characteristics of the Third Estate?
They made up 90% of the population. Bourgeoisie belonged to the third estate. They had very few political rights or priviledges. The majority lived in towns and cities. Many of the Third Estate lived in the slums of Paris. The peasants were the largest group and lived in the rural areas.
Which Estate started calling for change and why?
The Third Estate were tired of the unfair social structure. As a growing population put increasing demands on resources, and the cost of living in France increased, the peasants' anger rose. Nobles had begun charging more use of equipment such as mills and wine presses.
What were the complaints of the Artisans?
They were faced with higher prices while their wages stayed the same.
What were the complaints of the bourgeoisie?
Although they were prosperous, they wanted more political power.
Why were the nobles of the Second Estate unhappy?
They resented the king's absolute power and wanted to increase their political influence in the government.
What contributed heavily to France's growing debt?
The 1700s had begun with debts from the wars waged by Louis XIV and the extravagent court Louis the XV had further enlarged the debt.
Who is Marie Antionette?
She was Louis XVI's wife.
How did the banks respond to the growing debt of the government during the reign of Louis XVI?
They refused to lend the government money.
How did Louis XVI respond to the growing debt?
He began to tax the nobility and clergy. But they refused to be taxed.
He ended up summoning the Estates-General to meet at Versailles after the crop failures in 1788 & 1789 and when the priviledged classes refused to aid the government.
Who were the Estates-Generals?
Delegated representatives of each estate.
What did Louis XVI hope to accomplish with gathering the Estates-General?
He hoped that the gathering would agree to taxes on the First and Second Estates.
How many votes did each Estates-General receive?
Was it fair that each Estates-General received one vote?
No. The First and Second Estate together only represent 3% present of the population but controlled 66% of the vote.
Why did the Third Estate disagree with the plan for the gathering at Versailles where they would only receive one vote?
They felt that they represented more of the population so therefore should have a majority vote.
Describe the main ideas of the philosophes.
They viewed the world in a scientific way. They believed the world had a fixed set of laws that God had created. I.E. The world was a machine.
What were the two theories the Philosophes believed?
Lockes Political Theory and Newton's Scientific Principles.
List the major ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau.
Voltaire believed happened for the best and he believed in freedom.

Rousseau believed that people should rely on instinct and emotion. He also believed that man was born free and every where he is in chains.
Why were Frederick II and Joseph II ideal examples of the enlightened despot?
They believed that even though they had absolute power they were the "first servants of the state."
What is the Tennis Court Oath?
The National Assembly promised not to diband until they had written a constitution for France.
How did society and the king react to the ideas of the national assembly?
The first and second estates fought to keep their privlages while the third estate believed in complete social equality. Debates and fights rose in the streets of Paris and the king gatherd troops around his palace.
What is Bastille and what does it symbolize?
Bastille is a prison the symbolizes the injustice of the monarchy.
What happened in the fall of the Bastille?
A huge mob surrounded the Bastille in hopes to steal weapons to defend the national assembly. The prison commander lowered the draw bridge. The mob freed the 7 prisoners and the soldiers killed 98 rioters. This outbreak resulted in the formation of a revolutionary gvnt in Paris.
What caused the great fear?
The storming of the Vastille released a wave of violence.
Who is Marquis de Lafayette?
He aided the colonist in the American revolution.
What were the national assembly's reforms?
The nobles voted to end their privlages.
Feudalism was destroyed.
Nobles gave up feudal dues and exemption from taxation.
All male citizens could hold gvnt, church, and army office.
What did the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizens" state?
All ppl are equal befor the law. Freedom of speach, press, and religion. It didnt grant equal rights to women.
What happened in the March to Versailles?
The king refused to accept the new reforms.
A mob gathered around Versilles and forced the King and Queen to move to Paris to support the National Assembly.
How did the National Assembly finance the gvnt?
WIth the backing of a liberal bishop, Maurice de Talleyrand, the Assembly desided to sell the church to pay off gvnt debt.
What is the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
it placed the French church under the control of the gvnt and turned the clergy into electrd salaried officials.
What type of gvnt did the constitution of 1791 represent.
A unicameral legislature.

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