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[unofficial] McKay Chapter 18: Toward a New World-View [People]

The AP Euro Chapter

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Madame Geoffrin
One of the most famous salons was that of Madame Geoffrin, the unofficial godmother of the Encyclopedia. She gave generous financial aid and helped save their enterprise from collapse. Madame Geoffrin remained her own woman. The salons seemed to have functioned as informal schools where establish hostesses bonded with younger women and passed on skills to them. (p.613)
Immanuel Kant
A Prussian philosophe; he strongly believed in freedom of press and widely supported the efforts of Fredrick the Great.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
David Hume
Building on Locke's teachings, he argued that the mind was just a bundle of impressions. These impressions originate only in sense experiences and our habits of joining these experiences together. Since out ideas ultimately reflect only our sense experiences, our reason can't tell us anything about questions that cannot be verified by sense experience (in the form of controlled experiments or math), such as the origin of the universe and the existence of God. These ideas undermined the Enlightenment's faith in the power of reason.
Denis Diderot
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Nicholas Copernicus
He had revolutionary ideas about the current astrological theory, he believed that the earth rotated around the sun; and was not the center of the universe. He also believed that if this was the case then the universe must be extremely large. However, these ideas were rejected by Catholics and Protestants alike.
Paul-Henri Holbach
German born but French educated Baron Paul d'Holbach he was aggresively atheist and was very determined. He held a deep hostility for Christians and religous people. He wrote "System of Nature" [anonymously] to avoid persecution; in his public life he was known as very generous and witty.
Edward Gibbon
(1737 - 1794) Author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, published in 1776, one of the first modern histories that attempted to explain the past as a guide to the future.
Galileo Galilei
Began the trend of performing experiments, he discovered that object of the same mass fall at the same rate, furthermore, he made a nifty telescope and confirmed that we
Edmund Haley
(Halley's Comet) English astronomer, geophysicist, believed the earth was hollow.
Gottffried Leibniz
A German philosopher; invented the binary system; one of the greatest 17th century rationalists, very optimistic, his major contributions are to physics and technology.
René Descartes
A French philosopher and scientist who revolutionized algebra and geometry and made the famous philosophical statement "I think, therefore I am." Descartes developed a deductive approach to philosophy using math and logic that still remains a standard for problem solving.
Madame du Chatalet
A friend of Voltaire she was a very inspired scientist. Like most women during that time period she was banned from attending the Royal Academy of Science [France] She however learned much of what she knows from private tutors. She translated Neuton's ideas into French and explained many of them to philosophie.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) empiricism; rejected medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
Robert Boyle
[Irish] Boyle's law (more mass = more pressure) regarded as one of the first modern chemists.
William Harvey
First credited to correctly describe the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart
Beccaria
An Italian philosopher and polictician writer of "Crime and Punishment" it condemned torture and the death penalty.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Passionately commited to individual freedom, he strongly attacked rationalism and civilization. He wrote the "Social Contract" believed in "general will" or the common interests of people.
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; He built an observatory and collected data on locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Johannes Kelper
mathmatician, confirmed the heliocentric theory. showed that the planets moves in ellipses rather than perfect circles
Andreas Vesalius
the founder of modern human anatomy
Charles-Louis de Monstequieu
He was a sneaky writer of the reniassance; he often mocked French government with satire. He has a strong belief in the "seperation of powers." He was of the French aristocracy and he believed that the monarchy had far too much power. His theories about government contributed to the constitution of the United States.
Pierre Bayle
wrote Historical and Critical Dictionary examining religious beliefs and persecutions of the past. He found that human beliefs were very varied and often wrong. He concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt, and that one's best hope was open-minded toleration. This skepticism was very influential. His Dictionary was the most popular book in private French libraries at that time.
Clausius Ptolemy
The last great astronomer (Alexandria) his work was to track down the irregularities in astronomical patterns; he believed that the positions of the stars and planets affected the fate of people on Earth. His work enabled stargazers to more accurately track the stars.
Blaise Pascal
French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Born 1756 in Austria. Musical prodigy. Traveled through Europe. Rebelled against church rules. Classical Style,
Voltaire
Greatest of enlightened philosophers; He was educated by Jesuits, and came to challenge Catholic Church. He believed in distant deistic God - a clockmaker who built an orderly world and let in run under laws of science. He hated religious intolerance and felt that religion suppressed human spirit. He wrote Candide against evils of organized religion. He argued for religious toleration in Treatise on Toleration. His deism was intended to construct a more natural religion based on reason and natural law. He was imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 months in 1717. Then he was exiled in England for 3 years, when he came to admire their system of government and advocated freedom of thought and respect for all. Lived on the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia from 1743, where he supporter Enlightened Despotism.
Francois Quesnay
He focused exclusively on economics (French) taught at physiocratic school part of the Economistes
Aristotle
Ancient Greek philosopher; 4th century B.C. his ideas were accepted for 2,000 years with minor revisions. This is due to the fact his ideas made sense to the common man and fit neatly with church doctrines.
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.

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