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History 1st semester exam

Terms

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Martin Luther
Leader of reformation, writer of 95 thesis,
Reformation
16th century religious movement that sought to reform the roman catholic church and led to the establishment of Protestantism
Peace of Augsburg
peace established between protistants and catholics where people will follow leader's religion
Townshend Acts
Taxes by british on American goods
Petrarch
"father of humanism," wrote poetry, collected classics, interested in secular not church, thought he was better than other scholars
Absenteeism
church offices given to a person who does not show up
Council of Trent
group of reformers, attempted to reform catholic church, reform indulgences
Richmond Mayor
Dwight Jones
2 virginia senators
Jim Webb, Mark Warner
Jesuits
new society of Jesus, organized by Ignatius the loyal, officially recognized by church in 1540
Voter Apathy
when someone could vote but he chooses not to simply because he does not care and cannot be bothered
Van Eyck
Italian artist who painted more soft, curving lines with lots of colorful detail
Coercive Acts
British closed down Boston and wouldn't allow assembly to meet, Virginians were afraid the same would happen to them
Euramus
"prince of Humanism," education and religious reformer, wrote praise of folly which satires the church
Nepotism
dispensing of church offices to relatives
simony
selling of church offices
95 theses
list of complaints written by Martin Luther, tacked up for everyone to see
St. Ignatius
"Ignatius the Loyal," organized Jesuits, began spiritual pilgramage in 1521, read christian classics when injured
Leonardo
Renaissance artist, "master of many," military engineer, scientist, used complex facial features when painting
Peasants' revolt
300,000 german peasants, 100,00 of them died, Luther was against them
Michelangelo
Renaissance artist, made 18 foot sculpture of David, 4 popes commissioned his work
French and Indian war
war between England and France in the colonies, british had a large debt to pay, 1754 - 1763, result was the Treaty of Paris, British victory
tea act
british tax on american tea, lead to boycott of tea and dumping it into Boston Harbor
Predestination
knowing where you are going after death for whole life
Battle of Petersburg
fought during American Civil war, north attacked south and totally beat them after months of trench warfare, petersburg was protecting Richmond meaning if petersburg went down, richmond could too
Charles V
first ruler of united spain, asked Luther to diet of Worms
humanism
the study of latin and greek classics and of the church fathers both for their own sake and to promote a rebirth of ancient norms
Iberia
Spain and Portugal penensula where exploration of slave trade began
Lorenzo de Medici
patron of the arts, from rich medici family, supported michelangelo
Geneva under Calvin
elects to go to heaven, strict moral discipline, unpopular, home to thousands of exiled protestants
Savonarola
Fiery priest who spoke out against the Medici and the new humanism
John Calvin
Humanist, reform minded, lawyer, developed Calvinism
pluralities
multiple offices to one person
anabaptists
result of reformation, ethical, discontented, rural
the depravity of man
man's tendency to sin
Ballot initiative
registered voters, through a petition, can force a public vote on a proposed law
renaissance
revival of ancient learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beliefs by new secular and scientific values that began in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries
stamp act
Revenue producer for all paper products to pay for French and Indian war, Patrick Henry said it was taxation without representation and King George could benefit from Ceaser's example
Cunfucious Relationships
husband and wife, younger brother and older brother, ruler and subject, owner and slave
Patrick Henry
Influencial and radical advocate of the American revolution, gave "give me liberty, or give me death" speech, elected to house of burgesses from luisia county, persuaded house to send troops to war
Machiavelli
Italian diplomat, believed if virtue failed, he should be strict and feared, people needed to listen to their ruler and if they refused, the ruler must be strict so they will be to scared to refuse in the future, drew this conclusion because of violence of Renaissance
Parson's Case
priests were paid with tobacco and when price went up, priests were paid a penny's worth, Patrick Henry challenged crown
Core beliefs of Luther
justification by faith alone, priesthood of all believers, primacy of the bible

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