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Euro Ch. 12-13


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who wrote THE PRINCE
niccolo machiavelli
why is europe separated the way it is?
mountain barriers=boundaries
what accounts for europes eventual dominance
what is the significance of he hundred years war
-england goes into debt
-nobles want more power bc they fought and paid for war
-parliament started
-knights aren't as important bc of longbow and cannon
what was the significance of the pope in avignon
weakened the church-most cardinals were in rome-2 popes-people split up
how did the northern renaissance differ from the italian renaissance?
north was much more serious about religion-less secular but still used renaissance techniques, like learning new languages to read old scriptures
what made plain old kings into "new monarchs"
strong-followed machiavelii-were afraid of nobles so they teamed with middle class
who was the first new monarch of france
louis XI
salt tax in france to subdue the nobility
land tax in france to subdue the nobility
concordat of bologna
agreement-france gives pope money to get control of making bishops
lay investiture
someone unprofessional making someone bishop or cardinaal
why did the french not go along with martin luther against the catholic church
bc they already had the power to make their own clergy
war of the roses
civil war in england-fighting between 2 noble families for power
why did war of the roses make henry VII so much moer powerful
families were exhausted of fighting -let hunry take power-restored order and everyone agreed with it
star chamber
court for nobles
reconquered spain from the muslims-united spain through catholisism
why were jews kicked out of spain
bc they had high positions
why did the renaissance start in italy
bc it had city-states who wanted to show off
what did rafael paint and what was it a symbol of
painted SCHOOL OF ATHENS-greeks-symbol of renaissance
why did rome get sacked by french and germans
didnt follow machiavellis principles, which said that italy had to unite to defend themselves against other strong countires
georgio vasari
painter in the renaissance that used the word rinascita, meaning "rebirth"
people sought to receive personal credit for their achievements, as opposed to the medieval ideal of all glory going to God
where did the renaissacne first take place
the Italian city states
what did the invention of the printing press allow to happen and what did this result in
allowed these cultural trends tospread to other parts of europe, which resulted in the creation of the northern renaissance movement
what helped lay the foundation for the movement known as the protestant reformation
the people in northern europe who dealth with religious concerns during the renaissance
the towns of northern italy were under control who who during the middle ages
the holy roman empire
what was the old nobilitys wealth based on
land ownership
what caused conflict in italy during the middle ages?
old nobility conflicted with new group of wealthy merchants
-residents were free to decide their own fate and this caused violent political existance
"the people" who wanted their share of the wealth and political power
how did the popolo express their dissatisfaction
staging a violent struggle known as the ciompi revolt
ciompi revolt
revolt of hte popolo where for a brief period the poor had control over the convernment-struggle spread through italy
what kind of government did florence and venice have?
republic, but many wealthy families dominated them
wealthy familie who dominated florence-used wealth gained from banking to establish themeselves as behind the scenes rulers of florence and later as hereditary dukes of the city
what did external wars between city states do to the number of dominant city states
just a few dominant city states were left-florence, milan, and venice in the north, papal states in central italy, and the kingdown of napples in teh south
what are a few things that created energy to start the Renaissance?
city-states tensions, economic factors, and geography, Greek colonies werein Italy was center of Roman empire
economy affecting renaissance in italy
italian citystates were more economically vibrant than the rest of the west-carried wool and silk to every part of the continent
geography affecting renaissance in italy
italys central location in mediterranean was ideal for creating links between freeek culture and latin culture
program of study including rhetoric and literature, based on what students in the classical world would have studied
who is the father of humanism?
francesco petrarch
francesco petrarch
coined the phrase "dark ages" to denote what he thought was the cultural decline that took place following the collapse of roman world-learned classical latin instead of medieval latin in order to study important works
how did learning about classic works change from middle ages to the renaissance
middle ages-studied second hand works about it
renaissance: studied the actual classic works
important politician and philosopher whose writings provide an account of the collapse of the roman republic
-worte in a brilliant latin style that pretrach tried to follow
what did petrarch feel about christianity?
did not reject it but argued for the universality of the ideas of the classical age . said classic works still had lessons that were applicable to his own christian age
civic humanists
viewed ciceros involvement in political causes as justification to use their own classical education for the punlic good. did this by serving florence as diplomats
what language did civic humanists study
classic greek
what was one of the most important aspects of the italian renaissance?
the revival of greek
why was the revival of greek important?
allowed westerners to become acquainted w/ that part of the classical heritage that had been lost during the middle ages- ex. greek philosopher plato
platos ideals that were important to renaissance writers
beauty and truth exists beyond the ability of our senses to recognize them
-we can train our minds to make use of our ability to reason and thus get beyond the limits imposed by our senses
pico della mirandola
passages from the renassaicne about platonic view of human potential
who wrote THE COURTIER
what did THE COURTIER describe
described the ideal man of the age--a man who knew several languages, was familiar with classical litearture, and was also skilled in the arts
what did lorenzo valla do
1. proved that the donation of constantine, a document in which constantine turned control of the western half of his empire over to the papacy, would not have been written by constantine. the word fief was used by cnstantine in describing the transfer of authority to the pope, a word that valla knew was not in use until the 8th century around 400 yrs after constantines death
2. took his critical techniques to the vulgate bible, the standard latin bible of the middle ages, and hsowed that the author mistranslated a number of critical passages from the greek sources
leonardo bruni
humanist scholar who created an educational program for women
what did he leave out of his program
the study of rhetoric or public speech, critical parts of the male education, since women had no use for these skills
chistine de pisan
italian who was the daughter of the physician to the french king charles v-wrote THE CITY OF LADIES to counter the popular notion that women were inferior to men and incapable of making moral choices
differences in art from medieval to renaissance
1. artists were considered individuals instead of anonymous craftsmen
2. competed for the patronage of merchans and bankres
3. more naturalistic style than spirtual message
what was the dominant method of painting in italy and where did it begin?
oil paint-northern europe
the use of contrasts between light and dark to create 3-d images-used in renaissance
single point perspective
style in which all elements within a painting converge at a single point in the distance, allowing artists to create more realistic setting for their work
high renaissance-when did it end
end of 15h century
high renaissance
when rome replaced florence as the great center of artistic patronage
why did high renaissance switch to rome?
florence experienced religious backlash against the new style of art, while in rome a series of popes were very interested in teh arts and wanted to beautify their cities and palaces
art after the high renaissance
late renaissance or mannerism
late renaissance or mannerism
art that showed distorted figures and confusing themes and may have reflected the growing sense of crisis in the italian world due to both relgigious and political problems
leonardo da vinci
was a military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist, and inventor-painted mona lisa
-sculpture David
-commissioned by 4 different popes
-sistine chapel in the vatican for julius II
why was michelangelos sculpture "david' important?
florence's propoganda to inspire citizens in their long struggle against the overwhelming might of milan
michelangelos last work in the sistine chapel
final judgment
why was the northern renaissance more religious
christianity had arrived later there and northerners were still seeking ways to deepen their christian beliefs and understanding and display what good humanists they were
2 christian humanist writers
erasmus and more
what did erasmus and more do
criticized the church, meaning to find ways to better it, not for people to stray from it
1. wrote IN PRAISE OF FOLLY, criticizing what he thought were the problems of the church
2. HANDBOOK OF THE CHRISTIAN NIGHT-inner faith as opposed to outer faith
3. translated new testament in latin
sir thomas more
wrote UTOPIA-a civilization in which political and economic injustices were limited by having all property held in common
what did Henry VIII do to More
had him executef for refusing to take an oath recognizing henry as head of the church of england
where did the greatest achievements in arts in northern europe in 16th and early 17th centuries take place?
in england
why did new ways to produce text become important?
number of literate people rose when number of universities increased
who invented the printing press
johannes gutenberg
proof that the printing press was important
number of literate people increased
-reformation spread
geoffrey chaucer
sattire of clergy
john wycliffe
questioned the wordly wealth of the church and the selling of indulgences
-urged followers to read the bible and interpret it themselves
-translated the bible into englsh
what were john wycliffe's followers called
jan hus
argued that it was the bibles authority and not the institutional church that mattered
-was horrified by immoral conduct of clergy
-thought everyone should get to do what the clergy got to do during ceremonies
-was called to the council of constance and condemned as a heretic and burnt at the stake
what did his death lead to
his followers in bohemia staged a rebellion, which took many years to put down
Bruni 2
developed the word humanism, which means "new learning"
the prince: 2
how ruler should gain, mantain, and increase political power
-safer for a ruler to be feared than loved

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