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World History II Midterm Key People


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Jean Jacques Rousseau
wrote "discourage on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind"; women are naturally diff. then men; emotions important in human development; "emile" (education of the natural man)
William Harvey
explains the circulation of blood
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
Mary Shelley
wrote "Frankenstein"; believed industrialization would alienate people from the natural world
Robert Fulton
Built first paddle wheel steamboat "the Clermont"
Leonardo da Vinci
born in florence; painted mona lisa; scientist; interested in anatomy; designed tank, helicopter; inventor; "Renaissance Man"
Artist; architect; built statue of David; designed ceiling of sistine chapel (fresco); Pieta (marble sculpture)
Czar Nicholas II
leader of russia at the beginning of WWI; mobilized troops
a French writer and philosopher; philosophical sport and defense of civil liberties including freedom of religion and right o a fair trial; "Treatise on Toleration" (All men are brothers under god); strong opponent of catholic church; exiled to england; spoke out against censorship and unjust laws; thought england was better than france
Rene Descartes
studied geometry; Cartesian plane (x-y axis); contributed to scientific method
an English philosopher; wrote Leviathan; established foundation for most of western political philosophy
Klemens Von Metternich
Austrian minister; wants to return land; against revolution ideas; wants to censorship of press and organized groups; i don't like him
Suleiman the Magnificent
controlled ottoman empire; took over areas of Mediterranean and Asia; ruled almost 50 years
Napoleon Bonaparte
Lieutenant of French army; crowned himself emperor; spread principles of revolution (legal equality, religious toleration, economic freedom, nobility and clergy lost privileges); had control of Europe; exiled several times
Nicolaus Copernicus
argued for heliocentrism
Martin Luther
wrote "95 Theses"; professor; rejected the selling of indulgences; believed that it had no authority over purgatory
Emperor William II
German emperor; gave Austria-Hungary a blank check for WWI (gave confidence to AH which started the war)
Ignatius of Loyola
founded jesuits; supported the counter-reformation
James Watt
Scottish engineer; improved steam engine so it could contribute to cotton production
Andreas Vesalius
anatomic illustrator; drew naked skeleton; founder of modern human anatomy; wrote "on the body"
Johann Kepler
mathematic formula; explains planetary motion (ellipsis)
Robert Owen
believed that if people lived in a cooperative environment, they would show their natural goodness
Maximilian Robespierre
leader of the French Revolution; influential member of the committee of Public Safety; instrumental in the reign of terror that ended with his execution; preached democracy and suffrage; Mountain;
law of inertia; improved telescope; moon isn't a perfect sphere; wrote book supporting heliocentrism; put under house arrest by Court of Inquisition; mathematician
botanical studies of plants; famous for self-portrait
french social commentator and political thinker; famous for articulation of the theory of separation of powers which is implemented in any constitutions throughout the world; wrote "spirit of the law"; 1st political scientist
Charles Darwin
wrote "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" and "The Decent of Man" which argued that humans had animal origins; created the concept of humans as part of the natural world; believed in organic evolution; believed in natural selection; raised controversy because he made humans a product of nature and not god
painter; painted Birth of Venus
Zheng He
Chinese explorer; created his own world map; the prohibition of his explorations led to chinas decreased influence in the world
Cesare Beccaria
Italian philosopher and politician; wrote
artist; "School of Athens" (fresco)
Charles Dickens
rejected romanticism; wrote about the realities of life; wrote "Oliver Twist" and "David Copperfield"; his characters inspired social reforms because they were "real"
portraitists; "Four Horseman of the Apocalypse"

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