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Drama 3


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breaking a scene down into its beats and noting obective and obstacle for each
Issues in Realism
- Questions of moving from the margins to the center - Rewriting lost history -Canon formation - what is an African Amrican dramatic literature
A Raisin in the Sun written by
Lorraine Hansberry (born in chicago, father was a real estate broker)
3 Elements of Theatre
Actors, Play (some narrative), Audience
Giacomo Torelli
- Chariot and pole system to change wing, drop and border at once - ropes connected to turn table
Crane and Plot device
Deus Ex Machina
change brought about by recognition (moment where someone's fortune changes - downfall)
The one weakness that is the undoing of the protagonist - mistake born out of expressing too much out of a specific characteristic
Aristotle's 6 elements of Tragedy
- Plot (events that evoke terror and pity) - Character - Diction - Thought - Spectacle - Song
Charles Gordone
First African American to win Pulitzer in 1970
Charles Fuller
Won the pulitzer in 1982 - was in the army
August Wilson
- Pittsburgh Cycle - Wrote the "Piano Lesson" - 1997 public debate over "color blind" casting
Writer on many themes, including stories adapted for children's theatre - "The resurrection of Lady Lester" (teaches at uofm?)
Non-realism and black feminist writers
Glenda Dickerson (created pices based on personal stories, folklore, and news items "Kitchen Prayers") Ntozake Shange ("For colored girls who have considered suicide", choreopoem) Anna Deavere Smith (famous for documentary theatre, "Fires in the mirror"..also did roles from All my Children) Suzan-Lori Parks (Tone and rhythm convey a lot, "Top Dog/Underdog")
Roselee Goldberg
Artists anxious to escape the constricions of traditional, established forms "Live art by live artists" "Performance Art from Futurism to the Present"
John Cage
"The Future of Music" - using incidental sound as musical instruments - 4'33" - a concert where the musicians sat there for 4 minutes and 33 seconds - the performance was the incidental noise of the audience
Merce Cunningham
dancer who felt that pedestrian movements (walking, standing, leaping) could all be used as part of dance
Alan Kaprow
18 "Happenings" - 3 rooms, 6 simultaneous events in each - audience sent "props" and told where to sit and when
no singular truth
no universal truth
art should be funny
everything has been done before
MTV Generation
everything is about 'image,' there is no depth
Information age
the "media" generation
Laurie Anderson
performance which uses technology, music, stand-up comedy, animation - work is about the role of technology and the media in our lives - "Home of the Brave"
Annoyance Theatre - Chicago
"The Brady Bunch" - putting television pop culture on stage
Karen Finley
An attempt to get the audience to examine the ways in which they look at and objectify women and how that is a part of sexual abuse, rape, and sexism - "Constant State of Desire" "We Keep Our Victims Ready"
Holly Hughes
autobiographical stand-up comedy and storytelling, in which she pushes the limits in talking about lesbian sexuality - "World Without End" "Preaching to the Perverted"
- Funds art on all levels - National Endowment for the Arts: costs americans 36 cents per year
in 1990, funding was yanked from Holly Hughes, Karen Finley, Tim Millder, and John Fleck for "indecency"
Augusto Boal
Developed his Forum Theatre techniques and theories of Theatre of the Oppressed - 1971: "Theatre of the Oppressed" - Arrested, tortured, and exciled from Brazil in 1971
4 Forum Theatre Basics
1. Knowing the body - excerises to help get in touch with bodies 2. Making the body expressive - using the body to express ideas, like acting out animals or simple actions 3. Theatre as language - simulatneous dramaturgy, image theatre, forum theatre 4. Spectators (or spect-actors) intervene directly in the action on stage or try to change the outcome
Sue-Ellen Case
Feminism and Theatre (1988)
Jill Dolan
The Feminist Spectator as Critic (1991)
Liberal Feminism
the idea that women are as capable as men and should be alowed to succeed in all the areas in which men succeed - ERA..??
Canon Formation
Discovering lost women's history
Beth Henley
a liberal feminists who wrote the movie "Crimes of the Heart"...EJ loves this movie
"Night Mother" 1983
written by Marsha Norman - "kitchen-sink" realism - Compared to Arthur MIller and Death of a Salesman - Debate over whether it could enter the canon or not: Universal experience?
The Heidi chronicles (1989)
- Written by Wendy Wasserstein - What does this play say about the feminist movement???? -
Radical Feminism
in the 60s and 70s, r.f. wanted to do away with gender categories altogether - androgyny was the ideal
Cultural Feminism
- idea that men and women are culturally different - women are superior (reproduction, intuition, spiritual connection) - women close to nature, men removed and violent - male art forms are also inferior (like classical music) - Consciousness-rasing groups, ritual, separatism
"Helene Cixous"
- the stage is a body, one gesture is enough - attempts to subvert male language through movement - supposes that there is a uniquely "female" form of communicating
At the Foot of the Mountain
- non-linear plays - written collectively - avoid narrative authority - (perceived as white, middle-class, male, and heterosexual)
Ashes, Ashes
ritual that connects the impending nuclear holocaust with the male tendency towards destruction of living things - invites the audience into a grief ritual where they envision saying goodbye to a loved one as the bomb drops
"The story of a Mother II"
- performance ritual where performers recite their matrilineage and celebrate the strengths of their female ancestors **CONTRADICTIONS: privileges mother/daughter relationship as a common experience among all women, while simulatenously critiquing the family model...and... collapses differences between women while simultaneously trying to subvert white, straight male oppression**
Materialist Feminism
- the idea that gender and sexuality are culturally constructed categories which have material (money/power) consequences - performance strategies based on Brecht's idea of showing how representation naturalizes certain subject positions
Mae is trapped by poverty with 2 men who use her - Henry is teaching her to read, but is crippled by an accident - when Mae decides to leave, the other guy kills her *shows how poverty and illiteracy work along with male domination to subjugate women**
"The Conduct of Life"
- A man abuses his wife and kidnapped girl to be his servant/mistress - he is also in charge of torturing prisoners - wife shoots him to free herself, but puts the gun in the girl's hand **Shows a myriad of power relationships along both gender and class lines**
"Lust and Comfort"
- 2 people try to redefine their 20-year relationship acting out codependence, and the search for independence - gender & sexuality shift continuously
Sanskrit Theatre of India
- mostly extinct except for Kathakali Theatre - Stores from the Ramayana
Movement (angika)
an elaborate scheme of facial expression, mime, and gestures, accompanied by movements, poses, and attitudes - most important are the hand gestures (hastas) through which the performer interprets the text
Singing (vachika)
performed by vocalists, and not the dancers themselves
Convey mood (satvika)
or psychological condition of the character - a performer gains complete control of all facial muscles to convey a specific bhava (love, laughter, sorrow, anger, energy/heroism, fear, astonishment, tranquility)
Characters in Kathakali are 5 major types (make-up and costuming)
1. Green (pacca): heroic, divine 2. Knife (kathi): heroic but lustful and arrogant 3. Beard (Tadi): Red -evil, white-pious, black-hunter 4. Black (kari): a demoness 5. Shining (munukku): ALL women, brahmins, sage, messengers, charioteer [special make up (teppu): birds, coward]
Latin America
- native ritual drama - spanish, portuguese, french, and english colonizers tried to wipe out native performance - in the spanish colonies, church autos replaced native drama to attempt to convert native people - also, populart entertainment and theatre from europe
Rabinal Achi
the only surviving native drama - a Guatemalan ritualistic battle between 2 great powers - believed to include song, dance, and elaborate costumes
El gueguense
A hybrid drama from Nicaragua which uses a blend of spanish and nahautl to comic effect - an old man is called by governor to pay taxes. The old man tricks gov into agreeing ot pay him and to allow his daughter to marry the old man's son
A guatemalan domestic drama + mayan mythology - If Nina is happy she can return to city - a mask, the Chama Soluna, causes time to run backwards and the train to crash causing Nina's grateful return
a conglomeration of forms and styles
recyling part of another text in your new text
Poco Pomo
postcolonial postmodern
the use of someone else's style or culture without permission
synchreticism, two or more cultures blending with distinctive characteristics of each

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