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WS exam OLE


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divine right and the type of government that fits well with it
the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth absolute monarchy fits with it
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
Peter the Great and social reforms
one of Russia's greatest reformers became sole ruler in 1696 believed Russia's future depended on a warm-water port wanted to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques, embarked on "Great Embassy" believed Russia needed to change brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control, abolished office of Patriarch, set up Holy Synod to run the church reduced power of great landowners
war against Sweden
Peter fought Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic Coast 21 years of war Russia won the "window on Europe" he wanted secured it before Sweden officially surrendered it 1703- began building new city on Swedish lands occupied be Russian troops (St. Petersburg)
Philip II
Charles V's son inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies shy, serious, religious aggressive for the sake of the empire seized Portuguese kingdom, king died with no heir, king's nephew empire provided him with wealth
countries involved in the 30 years war
Bohemia, Germany, Austria, Spain, Sweden, France
St. Petersburg
built by Peter the Great on Swedish lands swampy site unhealthful, seemed ideal named after Peter's patron saint building the city was very hard 25-100 thousand people died because of terrible working conditions and widespread diseases Peter ordered Russian nobles to settle in St. Petersburg from Moscow became a busy port in time
heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun Copernicus came up with it
Francis Bacon
English statesman and writer believed that by better understanding the world,scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve peoples lives attacked medieval scholars for relying to much on the conclusions of Aristotle and other ancient thinkers urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions
Isaac Newton
English scientist helped bring together breakthroughs under a single theory of motion great discovery- same force ruled motion of planets and all matter on earth and in space published ideas- The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
one of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life core of their beliefs: reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments of the constitution that protected basic rights such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion Voltaire, Rousseau, and Locke influenced it
influential French writer Baron de Montesquieu devoted to study of political liberty believed that Britain was the best-governed and most politically balanced country of his own day called division of power among different branches, seperation of powers oversimplified
checks and balances
measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others
one of the most brilliant and influential of philosophes real name- Francois Mare Arouet published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama often used satire against his opponents made many enemies and never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, and freedom of religious belief and speech sent to prison twice, exiled to England for more than 2 yrs.
one result of the Thirty Years War
great damage to Germany- trade and agriculture were disrupted, Germany's economy was ruined
"The state, it is I."
Louis XIV
another result of the Thirty Years War
Peace of Westphalia
separation of powers
legislative executive judicial
women and the enlightenment
philosophes took a traditional view toward women some believed in education and equality in marriage for women Mary Wollstonecraft- A Vindication of the Rights of Women, thought that women's education should be secondary to men's, argued that women need education to become successful, urged women to enter male-dominated fields of medicine and politics wealthy women in Paris and other European cities helped spread enlightenment ideas through salons
Joseph II
most radical royal reformer son and successor of Maria Theresa ruled Austria: 1780-1790 introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press, supported freedom of worship abolished serfdom and ordered peasants be paid
a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the enlightenment
Catherine the Great and her contributions to Russia
ruled from 1762-1796 sought access to the Black Sea, won control of the northern shore of the Black Sea expanded empire westward into Poland by the end of her reign, Catherine vastly enlarged Russian empire
Adam Smith
professor at the University of Glasgow, Scotland defended the idea of free economy/free markets arguments based on the 3 natural laws of economics: laws of self-interest, competition, and supply of demand
Bach and his music
German composer baroque period wrote dramatic organ and choral music
Storming of Bastille
July 14, 1789 mob searching from gunpowder and arms stormed the Bastille (Paris prison) mob overwhelmed guard and took control of the building
estates and people in them
3 social classes in France before the French Revolution 1st- clergy 2nd- nobility 3rd- rest of the population

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