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American History Final


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18th Amendment
prohibits alcohol
by anti-saloon league
took 3 yrs to ratify
21st amendment
repeals 18th amendment
tennessee valley authority act
builds dams, develops energy capabilities, spurs this area with industry, overflow of employment opportunities for about 7 states
new deal
deals with social reform
relief, recovery, reform
relief: for the unemployed
recovery: in labor, in agriculture, social security for the needy
"we have nothing to fear but fear itself"
20th amendment
"lame duck amendment"
discusses when the president takes office
before it was march
now it's january
also established for congress (angered them b/c they liked this "break")
22nd amendment
passed 1947 ratified 1951
how long someone can be president for
2 full 4 year terms (and serve up to 10 yrs if u include a partial term served due to a death)
southern democratic group
party of civil rights (wanted them to be decided on by each state)
election of 1948
dem: wanted eisenhower, but settled for truman again
rep: dewey, certain of victory
dixiecrats: thurman

truman's upset victory-- papers already had claimed dewey as victor when truman slipped in
kennedy's unachieved goals
1)federal aid to education--congress thought giving aid to public schools constituted giving aid to private schools which they didn't wnat to do b/c that would be aiding religion
2) medical care for the aged--congress didn't want a national plan of socialized medicine
3) urban development department should be created--congress thought this was too much control given to the federal govnt and each state should handle it alone
johnson's social legislation
1) economic opportunity act--passing war on poverty: $1 bill pledged to change housing conditions and a thing called "job corps" to teach ppl a trade
2) appalachian regional development act--states that were dirt poor: tried to create jobs in this region instead of just giving away free money
3) elementary and secondary school education act--federal govnt is funding education now: includes some very minor grants to private schools
4) medicare act--provided medical assistance to those 65 and older
johnson's govnt reorganization and reform
1) dept of housing and urban development created
2) dept of transportation--rest areas and tourist info centers, restaurants and hotels near roads, gas stations near roads
3) 25th amendment
first black man on the cabinet
under johnson
headed dept of housing and urban development
25th amendment
stemed from eisenhower's illness
who becomes acting president when the president cannot run the country?
the v.p., etc
even if the pres is still alive, just ill
andrew mellon
sec of treasury under coolidge
worked for tax reductions on corporate profits and personal incomes and inheritances
congress cut them all by more than half
helped trim federal budget
frances perkins
under roosevelt
first femal member of the cabinet
sec of labor
john maynard keynes
british economist
argued that depression was a result not of declining production, but of inadequate consumer demand--he thought govnt could stimulate the economy by increasing interest rates and public spending
keynesianism: his theories
general george c marshall
under roosevelt
army chief of staff
assigned eisenhower in charge of planning operations for invading france
marshall plan
sec of state george marshall
wanted to provide economic assistance to all european nationsw that would join in drafting a program for recovery
16 western european nations eagerly participated
the economic coopeeration administration was created as an agency to administer the marshall plan
this plan channeled over $12 bill of american aid into europe, helped to establish an economic revival
general douglas macarthur
army chief of staff under hoover
injured over 100 protestors when he followed orders to get rid of the bonus army
wanted to attack china in the korean war against truman's will
he was widely supported but fired after sending a letter of dissaproval
john foster dulles
eisenhower's sec of state
one of the dominant figures in the nation's foreign policy in the 1950s
massive retaliation: the us would respond to communist threats to its allies by relying on nuclear weapons
tense confrontation= "brinkmanship", pushing the societ union to the brink of war in order to exact concessions
helped to defuse the suez canal crisis
robert f. kennedy
brother of jfk
ran for president against johnson (who withdrew later), eugene mccarthy, and vp humphrey (who joined after johnson withdrew)
assassinated while celebrating his victory of california primary
sandra day o'connor
ronald reagan named her the first female supreme court justice
spiro agnew
vp under nixon
evidence surfaced that he had accepted bribes and kickbacks while serving as governor of maryland and as vp
resigned after charged
24rd amendment
right to vote cannot be denied by the us by reason of failure to pay any tax
26th amendment
right to vote for 18 and up not denied by age
ERA and National Organization for Women
Equal Rights Amendment
Approved to the constitution in 1972 by congress but died by 1982 with loss of momentum

became the nation's largest and most influential feminist organization
responded to the complaints of women by demanding greater educational opportunities for women and denouncing the domestic ideal and the traditional concept of marrieage
addressed the needs of women in the workplace
truman doctrine
truman appeared before congress
said that the US must support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjunction by armed minorities or by outside pressures
requested $400 mill for aid to greece and turkey which congress approved
eisenhower doctrine
limit federal activities and encourage private enterprise
supported private development of natural resources
lowered federal support for farm prices
removed the last limited wage and price controls
opposed creation of new social service programs such as national health insurance
wanted to reduce federal expenditures
evaluation of the new deal
one of the most controversial periods in US history
falling deeper into debt (critics)
debt is not so bad (defenders)
in hindsight, this was a comparitively slight increase in the national debt--nothing compared to the debt accumulated in WWII
many ppl thought he was trying to revitalize the progressive movement with the new deal
overall, the new deal didn't work: it didn't recover the economy (WWII did)
smoot-hawley tariff
provided the highest flexibility in history
pres could fluctuate tariffs by 60% and nothing was safe
provided us with the opportunity to negotiate/provide goods to different countries for different prices/rates
also provided 1,000s of jobs
taft-hartley act
labor-management relations act
made the closed shop (a workplace in which no one can be hired without being a member of a union) illegal
permitted states to pass "right to work" laws prohibiting union shops (in which workers must join a union after being hired)
also empowered the pres to call for a 10-week "cooling-off" period before a stike by issuing an injunction against any work stoppage that endangered national safety or health
damaged weaker unions in relatively lightly organized industries
mccarran act
mccarran internal security act
required that all communist organizations register with the govnt and publish their records
went backwards and looked at immigration quotas--monitored incoming people from communist countries
truman vetoed, but congress overrode his veto
peace corps
part of the new frontier legislation of kennedy
the greatest legislation he had
didn't just give ppl help, but taught them how to help themselves
led by r. sargeant shriver jr. (who was married to a kennedy)
r. sargeant shriver jr.
married to a kennedy
led the peace corps under kennedy
civil rights act of 1963
illegal to pay women less than men for the same work
title 9: extended to women many of the same legal protections against discrimination that were being extended to african americans and other minorities
civil rights act of 1965
voting rights act
under johnson
provided federal protection to african americans attempting to exercise their right to vote
brown vs. the board of education of topeka
considered the legal segregation of a kansas public school system
supreme court rejected it's 1986 plessy vs. ferguson in which it ruled seperate but equal facilites was okay
declared the segregation of public schools on the basis of race to be unconstitutional
Brown II: rules to implement the court order--desegregate schools (but it had no timetable and no specifics)
the fair deal
starts new trend of...
a) housing act of 1949--slums being torn down and rebuilt every 2-4 yrs
b) minimum wage act of 1949--75 cents per hour (it was only 40 cents before)
c) social security amendments of 1950--revised to help the self-employed
although foreign affairs unquestionably dominated the truman and eisenhower administrations, many important domestic issues presented themselves, including...(5)
1) govnt reorganization and reform
2) advancement of civil rights
3) implementation of social legislation
4) regulation of labor
5) question of internal security
good neighbor policy
in reference to latin american relations

watch out for yourself, your neighbors, and keep on good terms with them through good decisions
agricultural adjustment act
decide on production limits for individual crops
tax on food processing
fdr wanted to find a place for every crop grown and give farmers hope for things turning around
gross farm income increased by half--more stable and prosperous
social security act of 1935
established two types of assistance for the elderly
many americans presently working were incorporated into a pension system--it would provide themw ith an income on retirement
broad categories of workers were still excluded from this though
created a system of unemployment insurance which employers would finance and also established a system of federal aid to people with disabilities and a program of aid to dependent children
food, drug, and cosmetic act of 1938
1) forbids companies to mislabel products
2) must list ingredients to sell the product
3) no false advertisements
johnson act
forbid the sale of US bonds to propogate anything about war
nye committee
complained about profits made during WWI--we must instead be kind to those entrenched in battle and cut the prices
neutral legislation pre-WWII
4 acts that dealt with what could and couldn't be exported to other countries
roosevelt policy pre-WWII
opposed isolationsm
we should do whatever we can to curb totalitarian powers, short of going to war
isolationists vs. interventionists pre-WWII
isolationists--not get involved at all
interventionists--assist the allies
armaments appropriations
congress gave $ to grow the army and navy
split the navy into the atlantic and pacific navys
built aircrafts
lend-lease act
we will sell, lend, lease, trade, etc with any country to our advantage (allies)
atlantic charter
FDR and churchill join forces--we will support british and the ally troops
the great society
against poveryt, disease, ignorance, and racial discrimination
one of the great presidents for getting things done
increase in federal spending
tax cut to promote economic growth
reduced hunger in america
made medical care available to millions of elderly and poor
greatest reduction in poverty in history
election of 1936
how will we get the economy turned around?
fdr's landslide victory
election of 1940
roosevelt won for the third time (first time a pres had even run for a third term)
election of 1944
roosevelt chose harry truman as his 4th vp in the 4 times he ran (roosevelt later dies and leaves truman as pres)
election of 1960
dem: kennedy
rep: nixon (served 8 yrs under eisenhower)
4 1-hour televised debates (never before done)
nixon was assumed to win, but the debates showed him as nercous, uncomfortable, etc while it showed kennedy as poised and handsome
kennedy won in a narrow victory
made his bro attorney general
election of 1964
johnson's reelection
a year into his serving (b/c he took over after kennedy was shot)
lots of legwork
media began to play a vital role in elections
he ran a series of commercials: "vote for goldwater and get this..." (shows a white picket fence neighborhood with a nuclear mushroom cloud in the background)
johnson won by a larger margin than anyone ever in history (pop votes)
election of 1920
rep: harding--offered no ideas, return to "normalcy"
dem: fdr--wilson's league of nations
election of 1924
dem ntnl convention couldn't decide b/t mcadoo and smith--both withdrew and they settled on davis
rep coolidge won
election of 1932
rep: hoover for reelection (few ppl thought he'd win)
dem: fdr
roosevelt won by a landslide due to hoover's unpopularity
election of 1952
truman withdrew from the election (he was unpopular due to the stalemate in korea)
dem: stevenson
rep: eisenhower (military hero) with nixon as vp
eisenhower landslide
election of 1956
eisenhower ran for a second term dispite a serious heart attack the yr before
stevenson went against him again
even greater landslide victory for eisenhower
election of 1968
dem: mccarthy then robert kennedy (joined later)
rep: johnson withdrew
robert kennedy was assassinated in june
dem had to nominate humphrey
wallace joined the race as 3rd party runner
nixon was nominated by the rep and barely won
election of 1972
rep: nixon for reelection
dem: wallace ran for nominee but was shot and paralyzed and didn't continue so they nominated mcgovern
nixon won by one of the largest margins in us history
election of 1976
dem: carter
rep: ford (the current pres after nixon left office)
ind: reagan (lost against ford in the primaries)
ford became unpopular after he pardoned nixon
carter won narrow victory
election of 1980
dem: carter popularity lower than any pres in history
rep: reagan--swept victory
election of 1984
rep: reagan
dem: mondale with ferraro (first femal ever on ntnl ticket)
final campaign of the cold war
election of 1988
dem: dukakis
rep: bush
bush attacked dukakis throughout the campaign and won a substantial victory
election of 1992
dem: clinton
rep: bush
ind: perot--popular, but withdrew and then reentered later w/o as much support as before
clinton won
election of 1996
dem: clinton
rep: dole
reform: perot
clinton could campaign in saying that everything was fine while he was pres
clinton won again
election of 2000
rep: bush
dem: gore
cautious campaign
tight race
could not determine who had won florida (so could not determine pres)
wanted recounted the ballots by hand but the rep supreme court overrode the florida supreme court's decision to recount
scopes trial
modernists: evolution
fundamentalists: god's creation
scopes, a biology teacher agreed to teach evolution even though it was illegal (the american civil liberties union in return paid to have darrow, a famous attorney defend him)
william jennings bryan helped prosecute
darrow called bryan to the stand to testify as a "expert on the bible"
scopes was found guilty and fined $100
teapot dome scandal
rich naval oil reserves at teapot dome, wyoming
at the urging of n.m. senator, fall, harding transferred control of these from the navy dept to the interior dept
fall then secretly leased them to two wealthy businessmen and received in return nearly half a mill dollars in "loans" to ease his private financial troubles
fall was convicted of bribery and sentenced to a yr in prison
speculative mania
business scene: standard of living boomed before the crash
manufacturing costs declines
everyone bought stock
life was good
signs of danger: agriculture profits went up
factory wages increased oddly
credit became overused
stock market crash
oct 24: 13 mill shares traded
oct 29: 16 mill shares traded
ppl started pulling their money because they were scared
domino effect-- no real reason
ppl took money from banks and sold stocks
banks froze accounts, which caused even more problems
those who didn't get out in time lost everything
ppl killed themselves
some ppl thought the world was ending, etc
league of nations
a permanent international organization to oversee world affairs and prevent future wars
the US refused to join the league
most americans wanted to isolate themselves from WWI
manchurian invasion/crisis
the japanese were afraid of the soviet union and the chinese leader kai-shek: he would expand his govnt's pwr in manchuria (officially a part of china but over which the japanese had maintained informal economic control since 1905)
japan's military leaders launched an invasion of northern manchuria
japan then moved into china and killed thousands despite hoover's warnings
fads of the 1920s
new amusements: marathon dancing, flagpole sitting, goldfish swallowing, crossword puzzle tourneys, board games
attire: low-crowning caps, bellbottoms, racoon coats; long-waisted knee-exposing dresses, rolled stockings
popular expressions
long campaign against drinking--not as good at work, not a family image, no church, domestic abuse, not moral fibers US needed, etc
18th amend
volstead act
wickersham commission
21st amend
volstead act
enforcing prohibition (not going so well)
people took bribes to look over speakeasies
wickersham commission
15 ppl studied for 2 yrs on how to fix the prob of speakeasies
no one can fix this
ku klux klan
rebirth of the klan as a major force in amercian society
the first clan had died in the 1870s
concern about blacks gradually became secondary to concern about catholics, jews, and foreigners
4 mill members
feared anyone who posed a challenge to traditional values
saco-vanzetti case
two italian immigrants, sacco and vanzetti were charged with the murder of a paymaster in mass
the case was weak and prejudiced, but because both men were confessed anarchists, they faced a widespread presumption of guilt
convicted and sentenced to death
3 greatest technological advances in the 50s
1) transistor-- led to transistor (portable radio) and the computer chip later on
2) computer
3) automobile-- post- WWII, the car goes from transportation tool to luxury tool: colors, power brakes, pwr steering, automative transmission options
selective training and service act
21-35 yr old men required to register
800,000 selected for 1 yr training program
westerm hemisphere strategy
determined by base location, etc, how to strategically set up defense
transfer of destroyers
we made an agreement with GB that they could have 50 (very old) destroyers
occupation of greenland and iceland
built bases as part of western hemesphere strategy
good position above europe
rosenberg case
members of the communist party
the govnt claimed they received secret info and had passed it to the societ union
convicted and sentenced to death
national security act of 1947
new dpt of defense that would oversee all braches of the armed services
ntnl security council that governed foreign and military policy
CIA would be responsible for collecting info thru open and covert methods
gave the pres expanded pwrs with which to pursue the nation's international goals
38th north latitude
korean war fought over 38th parallel (N vs S<--our side)
north backed by communism
in the end, it was a draw-- the parallel stayed in place
black revolution
during kennedy's time
sit-ins: peaceful demonstrations
many students beat, carried out, gased out
the black revolution was how to deal with the injustice experienced by the blacks
some white young americans joined the cause also
freedom rides: a convoy from one destination to another
these ppl seen as communists and rebels
de-segregation of univerisites
martin luther king
truman's unachieved goals
1) civil rights (poll tax and grandfather clause still valid)
2) ntnl health insurance
c) federal aid to education
montogomery bus boycotts
rosa parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat to a white passenger
the city's black community organized a boycott of the bus system to demand an end to segregated seating
japan's post-WWII reconstruction
the US lifted all restrictions on industrial devlopment and encouraged rapid economic growth in japan
truman's executive order
he decided to probe all of the govnt employees to investigate for communists
2000 resigned in protest
212 were fired for "reasonable doubt of loyalty"
hiss case
chambers, editor of TIME said a friend of his in the 30s (hiss), a former dpt of State official was passing deocuments to communists for money
5 yrs in prison for pergury
trial of communist leaders
smith act led to this:
all members of the amercian communist party-- assumed to be communist leaders so they were sent to jail, executed, etc
betty friedan and the feminine mystique
affluent wives and mothers living in comfortable subvurbs yet frustrated and unhappy with no outlets for their intelligence, talent, college education, etc
space program/ neil armstrong
rivalry with the soviet union
sputnik launched
federal policy encouraged and funded efforts to improve scientific education in schools, etc
explorer I launched by us a yr later
NASA created
astronauts because the nation's most revered heroes
shepard first man in space
mercury, gemini, apollo program
land men on the moon
fireside chats
first pres to make regular use of the radio
explained in simple terms his programs and plans to the ppl
helped build public confidence in the administration
techonoligical advances of the 30s
1) air conditioning: office buildings
status symbol that everyone wanted
2) nylon: fabric weaved into clothing, stocking, bags, cargo hold (rope), etc
3) motion pictures: enough $ to go to the movies even if you didn't have $ for food
ppl went to escape life's horror
fdr could clip a 2 min presentation before film started
4) fm frequency: "only a fad"
ppl broke into offices at the dem ntnl committee (these ppl were directly tied and funded by the white house)
mounting evidence that nixon had been involved in illegal efforts to obstruct investigations of the episode
tapes discovered with complete evidence
nixon impeached
first pres in american history to ever resign
ford became pres
attack on pearl harbor
they would not stop invading china like we wanted so we cut off our exports and they attacked us
some ideas there might be an attack, speculation of where this attack might be, no one supposedly thought it would be at pearl harbor
became leader of the societ union
glasnost (openness): dismantling of many of the pressive mechanisms that had been conspicuous features of societ life for oever half a century
perestoika (reform): an effort to restructure the rigid and unproductive societ economy by introducting, among other things, such elements of capitalism as private owenership and the profit motive
tiananmen square
bloody massacre
beihing, china
crushed the democracy movement and restored hard-liners to pwr
collapse of the ussr
coup collapsed
many republics declared independence
gorbachev resigned
berlin airlift
truman ordered a massive airlift to supply berlin with food, fuel, etc
continued for over 10 months
u2 incident
ussr shot down an americna U-2 (spy plane) over russian territory
held captian hostage
angered khrushchev-- he broke up the paris summit and uninvited eisenhower to visit the ussr
kennedy assassination
lee harvey oswald shot and killed him
jack ruby a few days later killed oswald
johnson sworn in
warren commission-- 26 volumes investigated the assassination in depth
oveta culp hobby
served as director of newly created women's armny auxiliary corps
named head of fed secruity agency (now a cabinet position)
james forrestal
nation's first sec of defense under truman
became sec of navy
george meany
builder of modern AFL-CIO
sherman adams
assistant to pres eisenhower
works progress admin
provided relief to the unemployed
ntnl youth admin
tried to help jumpstart youth workforce and finding a job
civil aeronautics act
charge for airplace fairs, building landing strips
dropping bombs on japan
we were in a position to force japan to surrender over time, yet we dropped them anyway
we dropped a bomb in a secluded area to show them the effects
they didn't respond so we dropped one on a city
no response still so we dropped the second one
they finally responded
hoover commission
built to study and reorganize the executive branch of the gvnt
36 proposals-- all but 3 adopted
2 unions came together
adolph hitler
the leader of the nazis
very popular
took pwr in 1933
believed in the superiority of the aryan ppl
wanted to extend german territory to create living space for the master race
overtook austria
killed himself later
benito mussolini
leader of the fascist party in italy
nationalistic and militaristic
invaded ethiopia in what the US feared would be the beginning of a world war
american and british troops conquered sicily and moved toward italy
mussolini's govnt collapsed and he fled north to germany
winston churchill
british prime minister
requested arms from the US
released the atlantic charter with the US (it called for destruction of the nazi tyranny)
new frontier
housing act of 1961
minimum wage act of 1961
social security amend of 1961
peace corps
steel management corps crisis
trade expansion act

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