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NC7 study guide


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American Academy of Nursing
an organization for professional nurses in the USA. Focus is on standards of healthcare, nurse professional development, economic and general welfare of nurses. The goal is to transform healthcare so as to optimize the well being of the American people and the world
American Civil War
1861-1865- At the beginning, there was no organized system for caring for the wounded or sick. doctors began developing a short training course for female volunteers. Members existing religious orders began to volunteer and were assigned to larger hospitals. Dorthea Dix was appointed "Secretary of war" to oversee the trained nursing volunteers
American Nurses Association
1897 Federation of state associations. Voluntary professional nursing organization. Serves as a spokesperson/agent for nurses and nursing. Membership is open to professional nurses with a valid license
Balanced budget Act Public Law 105-33 (1997)
this removed the restrictions on Nurse-Practioner billing. It means that NP's can be independent Medicare providers and can bill medicare separately. This law requires a collaborative rather the supervisory relationship between NPs and doctors
Clara Barton
Red Cross; School teacher with no formal nurse training. She founded the Missing Soldier Office during the Civil War.
She and Harriet Tubman tended to wounded soldiers. The convinced congress to ratify the Geneva Treaty which allowed the American Red Cross to act in peacetime
Breach of Contract
liability theory; a contract is a promise or set of promises between two parties. The RN may be asked to witness a one party document
elements of a valid contract
1) parties are competent to contract
2)the contract must concern a legal subject matter
3) There must be a consideration(without it, the agreement is for a gift)
4) there is a mutuality of agreement
breach of warranty
liability theory: These claims are a specific type of contractual claim and are prompted by representations from the HMO that its providers will provide "high quality care" Although the HMO may advertise high quality care, the HMO is not simultaneously guaranteeing non-negligent medical care
Mary Brewster
worked with Lillian Ward and Lavinia Dock to establish the Henry Street Settlement. Pioneer in community health nursing
case mgmt
a process that is implemented in an integrated health care delivery system. the RN is assigned as the case mgr. and is responsible for moving the patient through the continium of care in the integrated system. the case mgr. secures services that are desired and available. Social Workers used to be case mgrs. but rn's are better suited for the task
Critical path
defines standards and outcomes. It creates a multidisciplinary approach and reduces the burden of documentation
Decision making
3 levels
1) immediate- no time for reflection
2) intermediate- time for reflection
3)deliberate- info precedes thinking, consulting and reflection with the objective of making a rational decision
Delegation process
5 steps:
1) define task
2) determine to whom to delegate
3) provide clear communication about expectations
4) reach a mutual agreement about the task
5) monitor and evaluate the results and provide feedback regarding the performance
Luther Christman
male nursing pioneer. Founded the American Assembly for Men in Nursing. He is the founder and Dean Emeritus of the Rush University school of Nursing in Chicago
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act
prevents patient "Dumping" and denial of emergency care when a patient does not have the ability to pay
ERISA Act of 1974
designed to provide consistent application for employee benefits which would include health care benefits
A wealthy 1st century christian convert who founded the first free hospital for the poor.
Freedom of information act
1966; gives people the right to obtain info from public and govt entities by requesting it in writing
Four elements that comprise malpractice
duty, breach of duty, proximate cause, damages
Louise do Gras
Sisters of charity 1633- religious order was founded by St Vincent de Paul; first superintendent; established the first nursing education program
Health care Financing Administration
Agency determines the reimbursement for services to Medicare beneficiaries. It administers the medicare and medicaid programs
Health Care Quality Improvement Act 1986
Effort to control various components of the health care delivery arena. It gave rise to efforts that provided and managed info on health care providers who had been a party in litigation
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
addressed electronic patient info. Developed standards for health info systems for the electronic transmission of health care info
Health Maintenance Organization
Managed care plan with the highest # of people enrolled. Provide services for enrollees with a fixed fee mostly through affiliated providers
Wilma Scott Heide
Nurse and feminist; 1966 National Organization for women (NOW) first president. NOW was formed in 1966.
virginia Henderson 1961
Created the Developmental Model. Influenced by Orem and Maslow, she based her theory on the assumption that the patient is a perosn who needs help moving toward the goal of independence.
HMO Act of 1973
Sets forth the requirements for federally qualified health maintenance organization
Human Genome Project
a worldwide project calling upon scientific teams to collaborate to map the entire human genome
International Council of Nurses
1900; Confederation of national association of professional nurses. One per country. Provides for the sharing of knowledge fo that nursing practice throughout the world is strengthened and improved. Publishes the International Nursing Review
Knights Hospitallers of the Middle Ages
Military religious orders founded by monks in the 11th and 13th centuries.
Madeline Leinenger 1970-1980
introduced the concepts of Transcultural nursing and caring nursing
Mens Rea
mental state required to fulfill elements of critical charges. The state of mind must accompany conduct. "The person charged must have intent with the conduct, making the action deliberate rather than accidental." Documentation is used to establish the state of mind/intent
Mildred Montag
1959; her doctoral research changed nursing education; She published the results of "Community College Education for Nursing" a five year project that resulted in the establishment of the Associate Degree in Nursing
National Commission of Nursing
1983; A three year chartered commission sponsored by the American Hospital Association, hospital research and education Trust and the American Hospital Supply Corportation; purpose was to develop and implement action plans to provide practical solutions to confront nursing problems. The recommendation to improve the nursing environment were shot downby the AHA. The commission recommended that the desirable goal for entry level nursing be the BSN
NCSBN- National Council of State Boards of Nursing
1978;Members are State and Territorial Boards of Nursing. It collaborates on common interest matters, issues affecting the public health, safety and welfare which includes the development of licensing exams. Develops and refines the National COuncil Licensure Exams (NCLEX) and Registered and Practical Nurses
Betty Neuman
1972; developed the Systems Model based on line of defense. This says that each patient has a usual range of responses to stress that maintain equilibrium(normal lines of defense). In usual situation, the patient uses flexible lines of defense (lines of resistance) to stabilize the situation.
NLN; National League of Nursing
Membership open to nurses, consumers and friends. The mission is to advance quality nursing education that prepares for future changes in the profession. Publishes Nursing and Health Care. It is the official accrediting agency for nursing schools
National Student Nurses Association
An autonomous student financed and run organization established in 1952. Publishes "Imprint, the NSNA Newsletter, The Dean's Notes, Business book and Getting the Pieces to Fit"
Nursing for the Future; The Brown Report 1948
Funded by the Cargegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Sage Foundation. Study conducted by the National Nursing Council analyzed the changing needs of the nursing profession. The study recommeded that schools of nursing be located in universities and colleges. It also recommended that nursing education should be mainstream education and could be divided into professional as well as practical
Dorthea Orem 1959
Developed the Self Care Model. There are three related theories: Self Care, Self Care deficit and nursing systems. Orem believed that nursing should focus on the self care deficit because the nursing system is designed as supportive and it should provide education as needed by the patient
Ostensible(apparent) Agency
Doctrine says that the HMO or other managed care system can be held vicariously liable for the medical malpractice of the contract doctor when 1) the pt looked to the institution(HMO) rather than the doctor for care and the 2) HMO created a reasonable presumption to the pt that the doctor was its' agent.
Outcomes Management
A tool useing new technology that combines costs and quality to measure and evaluate current and past practices with the goal of improving clinical practice
Peer Review Organization (PRO)
the govt instituted PRO's as a mandate from the 1983 Medicare legislation. It established mechanisms for quality assurance by private entities in a competitive market. Consumers are members on govt mandated PRO's. PRO's review only Medicare services and payment is tied to the outcomes of the Peer Review. Peer review is used as an internal and external employee evaluation and as a legal tool but peer review results are generallynot admissable in court
Hildegard Peplau 1952
Known as the Pioneer of psychiatric nursing. She developed the interpersonal relations model (process-organized). She said that a person is an organism that lives in an unstable equilibrium and life is the process of striving in the direction of stable equilibrium which is never reached except in death
Pew Health Professions Commission; 21 competencies 1995
a continuation of an ealier 1990 report. Tries to assist policymakers and educaiton institutions to produce health care workers who meet the changing needs of the US health care system. It made specific recommendatio to all health professionals i general and specifically to disciplines including nursing
She was the first deaconess identified in the Bible. Paul identified her as providing nursing care. The Deaconesses were the first public health nursing organization. It is the earliest record of Christian nursing
Problem Solving (7 steps)
1 define the problem 2) gather relative info 3) analyze the info 4) develop solutions 5) make a decision 6) implement the decision 7) evaluate the solution
Productive conflict
produces stress or tension and can often lead to results that are "out of the box." The basic goal of conflict management is to prevent escalatio of a conflict
Professional literature
Often magazines or newsletters, this is usually defines current nursing practice and is used to determine whether a nurse' practice is up to date. this is contrasted with manuals and reference books which are not usually as current as the literature
The Reformation (1500ad)
Protestant churches formed and monasteries closed. Male nurses disappeared and women become the primary nursing providers from them on. The Sisters of Charity, a con cloistered order including Protestants formed in Paris. The Church of England established the Sisters of Mercy in Dublin Ireland in 1832
Res Ipsa Loquitur "The thing speaks for itself" (Corporate Negligence/Liability Theory)
This permits the jury to conclude negligence without proving the facts. ie: the patient dies of peritonitis and the surgeon left an instrument inside during surgery. The jury can rule against the surgeon because it seems obvious that the error of forgetting to remove the instrument caused the complication which caused the death of the patient
Respondeat Superior "Master-Servant Document"
employer can be held liable to employee based on 3 factors: 1) the level of control exerted by the employer over the employees' work 2) the method of payment 3) the parties understanding regarding the relationship
Melinda Ann Richards (Linda)
Considered America's FIRST trained nurse. she developed new nursing programs and improved on existing ones. She was very active in founding national nursing organizations and was the forst president of ASSTSN
Isabel Hampton Robb
She made radical changes in nursing education. She cut down of the student's workday to ten hours and eliminated the free private duty services
Martha Rogers 1970
Developed " the science of unitary man" model. the person is a unified field which is continually interacting and exchanging matter and energy with ther environment. She concluded that well being is reflected in patterns and organization of this energy field. She saw the nursing role as one to act to promote and facilitate symphonic interaction between man and environment
Sister Callista Roy 1970
She developed the Adaptation Model. The model is influence by system, stress and adaptation theories. This model assumes that the patient adapts their behavior to cope with stimuli from environmental stressors. Stressors disrupt the patient's state of equilibrium and illness results. The nurses' role is to assess the adequacy of the patients' coping and maybe change the patients response potenial by bringing the stimuli to the point where a positive response is possible
Margaret Sanger
With her sister, she opened the first birth control clinic in the US in Brooklyn NY. She battled for decades over the distribution of birth control info.
Shared governance
AKA "shared ownership in an organization" It's a management style in which staff nurses are given responsiblity and expected to participate in decision making. It requires free flow of info and that management and staff agree upon the basic principles. It gives increased job responsibility to staff nurses
State Board of Nursing (SBON)
these are created by the legislature and members are appointed by the governor to oversee the practice of nursing. Major responsibility is to ensure that the Nurse Practice Act is carried out. It is involved with education, licensure and discipline
An act by the state legislature what becomes law. Statutes are enacted to prescribe conduct, define crimes, create government bodies, appropriate public monies and to promote the public good and welfare. At the local level, government adopts "ordinances" At the state or federal level, they are called regulation
Study of Credentialing in Nursing: a New Approach 1979
Study sponsored by ANA and conducted by the Center for Health Research at the Wayne State College of Nursing. It recommended establishment of a national nursing credentialing center, should have principles applied to credentialing, produced position statements that addressed the definition of nursing; entry levels into practice; accountability and competence
Team Nursing
this involves rn, lpn and unlicenses assistive personel caring for the needs of multiple patients. It became popular after WWII because of the nursing shortage. The main disadvantage is that it doesn't provide for continuity of care. The team leader (rn) has managerial and staff duties. the team leader assigns patients to team members according to their skills and experience. It is the team leaders' job to communicate between the doctors and the staff.
In 335 AD christianity became the official religion of Rome. The Bishops became responsible for care of the sick, poor, widows and children. The Bishops designated special groups called deacons and deaconessess to assume this responsibility. The deaconesses were widows, virgins and matrons
Time Analysis
Its purpose is to identify time wasters and prevent them. This model helps establish long and short goals. There are four categories: 1 urgent and important 2) important and not urgent 3) urgent and not important 4 ) not important or urgent
Time management
goal is effectiveness, not efficiency. It is essentially about planning (a left brain activity) and requires linear thinking and the ability to dissect or analyze tasks that make up an activity. It requires clarity of thought and purpose. You must be able to focus FOCUS= Follow One Course Until Successful
Torts (corporate negligence)
A tort is a legal wrong; Assault:menacing a patient; battery:physically contacting a patient who does not give permission for the contact; false imprisonment:unlawfully restraining a patient; invasion of privact: making information about the patient public knowledge; abandonment: unilateral severance of care; fraud: intentional deception that results in injury to the patient; slander and libel
Total quality management
a tool that is used in business to measure efficiency, satisfaction, and quality aka cqi
Harriet Tubman
worked with Clara Barton to tend to wounded soldiers during the Civil War
Unproductive conflict
The type of conflict that usually benefits from intervention, either from a facilitator. The facilitator may look to raise the conflicted persons' consciousness about the issue causing conflict. There are three general techniques: controlled discussion; role reversal; hidden agenda counseling (in this type, ther person says what they want to say to an empty chair)
Utilization review
The gatekeeper; controls the allocation of capital and human resources. The external utilization review determines what is customary and reasonable as it relates to health care and the cost of reimbursement. Traditional utilization reviews did not provide an opportunity for health care consumers to appeal an internal decision
Lillian Ward 1867-1940
Key figure in community Health nursing. SHe introduced school nursing for children. She worked with Mary Brewster and Lavinia Dock to establish the Henry Street Settlement (clinic for the poor)in NYC. She trained at the NY Hospital school of nursing. She participated in Rural Nursing, service meetings, correlated demographics with mortality and morbidity statistics. This resulted in the founding of the National Organization of Public Health Nursing and she became the first president of this group
Jean Watson 1979
She Developed the theory of caring. This is based on three assumptions 1) caring is a universal social behavior 2) care for self is necessary before care for others 3) care and love are the cornerstones of humanness. The nurses role is to emphasize the humnanistic dimension of nursing that can only be practiced interpersonally

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