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Augustus Caesar
(27-14 B.C.) aka Octavian - he fought his was to power by eliminating his triumvirate Marcus Lepidus and Marc Antony to rule by himself. Antony married Cleopatra and he was going to war against them but they killed themselves before he could. He then became Rome's first emperor. While he was in power he rebuilt Rome, and was big on the arts. To feed Rome he got grain sent from Africa. For travel the old roads were fixed and new one was built in other areas. He made it so the emperor had complete power and new tax collectors were set up. In his time Pax Romano started because Rome lived in Peace for a couple hundred years. He was a good emperor but went about getting to power in the wrong way.
Alexander the Great
(300s B.C.) - He came to power at a young age due to the fact the current ruler of Macedonia Phillip II was killed. He was a good general in their army with helpful strategies that brought victories; he had lots of knowledge because Aristotle had been his teacher. Alexander wanted to travel as far east as possible conquering everyone in sight. The Persians were an obstacle, they defeated them at Granicus River and freed Ionians, the next time they fought them the Persian ruler Darius was killed and Alexander decided he was now the ruler of Persia. Alexander now wanted to conquer India and when they got there his soldiers decided they wanted to return to Greece. He wanted to go farther but they went to Babylon which he made the capital of his new empire. His intention was to make a huge empire that took up area in Europe and Asia and unite everyone under his rule. He later became sick from malaria or other disease and died. His empire was split up by three of his old generals, Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Antigonus.
Darius I
(500s B.C.) - he was king of Persia and one of their greatest organizers. He split up his area into provinces and let provincial governors take charge in them, while military leaders and tax inspectors helped them. Persepolis one of the best cities in Persia was constructed by him. He had roads put down for royal messengers and travel. He wanted to have control over the city states in Asia Minor so he went to war with Greece to fight over it. His successor was his son Xerxes.
(400s B.C.) - he was one of the greatest philosophers ever. He was born in Athens to a non wealthy family. He was a teacher who believed the truth is very important. He taught his students to think on their own and learn to debate and defend themselves. He started the Socratic method where he would start an argument and they had to say what they believe is right. Many people did not approve of his method and believed he was poisoning the minds of his students. He tried to defend himself from the polis but finally was given a choice, exile or death. He decided to commit suicide and poisoned himself.
(31 B.C.) - She was the queen of Egypt known as a Ptolemaic ruler. She became queen when her dad died and she and her brother was not old enough to rule. She and Julius Caesar had an affair and they had a child together and named it Caesarion. Caesar and Cleopatra may have wanted to rule together but he was assassinated before they got the chance. Later she became married to Marc Antony which was supposed to be a peace maker between Rome and Egypt and Antony was still going to rule with Octavian. Octavian did not approve and attacked Egypt. Cleopatra and Marc Antony decided to kill themselves rather than having it done by Octavian.
(400s B.C.) - Pericles lived in Athens and was an army general. Athens had been attacked by Persia and the whole city was torched. Pericles who had some power decided it needed to be rebuilt. The Parthenon is a famous landmark today and was built under control of him. He brought Athens to be the best looking city in Greece. He also established the acropolis. Pericles died when a severe plague hit Athens. It killed a big percentage of its population
(400s B.C.) - he was born into a rich family in Athens and was taught by Socrates. He like Socrates became a teacher and taught at a school called an Academy. He made a book on what the perfect society and government would be like, he also remembered conversations Socrates had and recorded them. He was not a supporter of the democracy in Athens and liked how Sparta ran things. Socrates thought people should help their community and not have to much free time. He believed the senses had something to do with truth and that is what he always thought was most important. Reasoning was important to him like his teacher Socrates.
(312 A.D.) - he was a Roman general. He said before a battle he saw a flaming cross in the sky. Because of the incident he had his soldiers have crosses on their shields and he thanked God for their victory. He believed Christianity was right but while he was in power he allowed people to worship whoever they choose thanks to the Edict of Milan. He had churches built in Rome and Jerusalem, this let Christianity grow in population. He established the new capital of Constantinoble. On his deathbed he converted to Christianity and was buried in the Church of Holy Apostles.
(200s B.C.) - he lived in Carthage and became a general of the army in Spain. He attacked a city in Spain that was an ally to Rome and then decided to go for Italy. He got together an army of 40,000 and 40 elephants and they had to cross the Alps to get there. His troops weren't used to the climate and about half of the troops and elephants died there. The survivors went to take on the Romans and it led to the Battle of Cannae, Hannibal's troops won. Carthage later got attacked by Scipio and Hannibal had to go defend it. Hannibal was defeated and they had to give up their land in Spain.
Tiberius Gracchus
(133 B.C.) - he was a representative of the plebeians who thought that the land should be divided out to poor people. He also said they should limit how much land the rich should own. He was murdered during a street fight after the Senate denied his reforms and his brother Gaius died the same way.
King David
(1012 B.C.) - he became the Israelite King after Saul lost in a battle against the Philistines. He was in power for 40 years. He made Jerusalem the capital if Israel and made a new government. His kingdom benefited from his rule because he stretched their borders and made their area larger. He also gave his citizens economic prosperity and his son Solomon was his successor.
Siddhartha Gautama
(500s B.C.) - he was the founder of Buddhism. During his childhood he was a Kshatriyan prince who didn't know about the suffering and illness of other people. He decided to find out why people suffered and left his family and travel around India looking for answers. For seven years he looked for answers by fasting and self denial. While he meditated one day he realized "enlightenment" was the answer and he preached it to others and was called Buddha, which means "Enlightened One"
(1480 B.C.) - she became Pharaoh of Egypt. She and her husband/half brother Thutmose II ruled together until he died. Then her stepson Thutmose III wasn't old enough to take control. They shared the power until she found a way to take control. She manipulated everyone and said Thutmose I had meant for her to rule the whole time. Even though she was a woman and the Pharaoh is usually a man she still did not change rules. Under her rule she put together a project of building a funeral temple and tombs to honor the dead. She had turquoise mined for jewelry and trade items. When Hatsheput died Thutmose III became the new Pharaoh and he tried to act like she never existed.
Julius Caesar
(44 B.C.) - he was one of the best generals and leaders of politics Rome ever had. He started out being born to a rich family, then when he came to power he, Pompey, and Crassus formed a triumvirate which means they shared the power three ways. They were able to manipulate senators and tribunes to their liking of running things. Caesars next move was to win military battles to advance him in power. He defeated the Celts in Gaul, and Germanic tribes and Britain and Rome took over them. The triumvirate split up when Crassus died and Pompey and Caesar didn't politically get along. Caesar then defeated Pompey and got all the power and put himself in charge and the government was like a monarchy. While he ruled he gave land to the poor, and gave them more job opportunities. One of his most important reforms was the calendar that we use today. Even thought he was one of the best rulers Rome ever had he was assassinated by Brutus and Cassius and March 15, 44 B.C.
(200s B.C.) - one of the rulers of India. He had a tough army that tracked down enemies and murdered them. His vast empire covered about 2/3 of India. He didn't really think much about how intense battles were till he rode through one and saw how barbaric it was killing people. Seeing their mangled bodies shocked him so he realized it was time for a change. He decided not to use war but to and convert to Buddhism. He made the Rock Edicts that talked about how to be good towards other humans written in Sanskrit. To help people and be a good ruler he established hospital and veterinary clinics. To make travel easier he had roads laid down with rest stops for breaks. Even thought he was for Buddhism he had no problem letting people practice Hinduism.
(1 A.D. - 33 A.D.) - he was a Jew born in Nazareth. He traveled preaching the message about God. He told how he is loving to everyone equally, and forgiving to everyone. His disciples were his followers who helped him. Many Jews did not believe Jesus was the messiah. In 33 A.D. Pontius Pilate believed Jesus was just a trouble maker and had him crucified. After he died his disciples had seen him rise from the dead. They told everyone he really was the son of God and to become Christians. Peter one of his disciples set up churches, and Paul spread it as well.
(54 A.D.) - he was one of the Julio-Claudian Emperors. He was an immature ruler who wasted money on gambling and music. He was one of the most messed up rulers because he killed his mother, wife and some of his senators due to him being paranoid. He thought everyone was trying to overrule him. He was blamed for the great fire of Rome because he wanted to rebuild Rome in his own way and it caught on fire shortly after that. Hbe did not like Christians either. He was later sentenced to death for treason but killed himself anyway.
(600 and 500s B.C.) - he brought the Chaldean Empire to it best height. He took over Jerusalem and Tyre to gain their land and extend the boundaries of his empire. He put the people of Babylon into exile to get rid of them and take over their land as well. One of the Seven Wonders of the world was made by him because he wanted to make it for his wife, it was called the Hanging Gardens. It was one of the most beautiful sites in Babylon seen from all over. While Nebuchadnezzar was in power research on astrology and star and planet patterns were done. That was the start of a lot of what we know about astronomy now. Their was a decline after he died, the next rulers were not as skilled and him. The empire was later taken over by Cyrus II and his Persian army
(300s B.C.) - Considered one of the greatest minds of all time. He lived in Athens Greece and wrote hundred of books on all kinds of sciences. He taught how people would live a better life if it was normal. He unlike Plato believed the senses were useful; he was an observer who recorded his information and started it for other scientists. He was not always right about his information he thought the earth was the center of the solar system. Aristotle thought the best government would be a mix of all types, monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. He also thought the best class to rule was the middle because it was not at the bottom or top and was controlled and did some controlling as well.
(1370 B.C.) - his real names is Amenhotep IV and he rose to power as pharaoh in Egypt in 1370 B.C. His wife was named Nefertiti who supported him as he ruled. He believed that the Egyptians should stop worshipping many gods and only worship the god Aton who was the sun disk god. He changed his name to Akhenaton because it means "spirit of Aton", he was thought of as being equal to Aton. He moved Egypt's capital away from Thebes to a city because it was dedicated to Aton. Many of the Egyptians still liked to worship many gods and refused to just worship Aton. The army also did not do well. He was succeeded by Tutankhamen when he died who changed the religion back and made Thebes the capital again.

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