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APHG Chp. 1


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gross domestic product
total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
little ice age
temporary but significant cooling period between 14th and 19th centuries
pacific ring of fire
ocean zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes
religion based of book of way. which promotes oneness with humanity and nature
formal region
region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena.
official count of country's population
place name
places where two or more modes of transportation meet
folk-housing region
region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects the styles of buildings that are particular to the culture of the people who have been living there awhile
international refugees
refugees who have crossed international boundaries
locational interdependence
competitors in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another
disamenity sector
very poorest parts of city often controlled by gangs and drug lords
southern portion of the primeval super continent, pangaea
geographical situation in which something occurs
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
geometric boundary
political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or an arc
country's local community's sense of property and attachment
world city
dominant city in terms of global position
forces that unify a country together
official language
language selected to promote internal cohesion
clearing and destruction of forests to harvest wood for consumption, clear land for agriculture uses
superiority associated with race
local culture
group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a group or community
public spaces where citizens debated
world order in which one state is in position of dominance
functional zonation
division of a city into different regions or zones for certain purposes or functions
people who have fled their country
quinary economic activities
service sector that require high level of specialized knowledge
gravity model
mathematical prediction of the interaction of places- population and distance
capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals
commodity chain
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
supranational organization
three or more states with common shared objectives
green revolution
successful development of higher-yield, faster growing varieties of rice in certain developing countries
political system wherein central government allows various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws
sequent occupance
successive societies leave their cultural imprint on a place
line of map connecting points of equal temperature
movement of upper and middle-class people to urban core areas to surrounding outskirts
actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of fence, etc.
current interglaciation period
real estate agents stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging blacks to move to previously white neighborhoods.
rank-size rule
population of a city will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy
something is given monetary value
agricultural village
small, egalitarian village where most of population is involved in agriculture
cultural trait
single element of normal practice in culture
griffin-ford model
model of latin american city showing blend of traditional elements of latin american culture with the forces of globalization
religious extremism
religios fundamentalism carried to point of violence
activity space
space within which daily activities occur
territorial integrity
right of a state to defend it's border
theoretically, a recognized member of the modern state system where all people see themselves as unified nation
degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location
muslim pilgrimage to mecca
doctrine within islam. personal or collective struggle on the part of muslims to live up to the religious standards set by Qu'ran
intervening opportunity
presence of nearer opportunity
surrounding area served by an urban center
language family
group of languages with a shared ut fairly distant origin
gated communities
restricted neighborhoods
new urbanism
outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries that calls for walkable neighborhoods and diversity of housing
spaces of consumption
areas of a city whose main purpose is to encourage people to consume goods and serivces
urban hierarchy
ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
expansion of ecnomic, political, and cultural processes to he point that they become global in scale and impact
shelter and protection in one state from refugees of another
export processing zones
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax and trade agreements to attract foreign trade/investment
mutual intelligibility
the ability of two people to understand each other when speaking
zones in northern mexico with factories supplying manufacturing goods to the U.S. market
human territoriality
effectors of human societies to influence events and achieve social goals
social stratification
differentiation of society into classes
zoning laws
legal restrictions of land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed where
dowry death
in arranged marriages in india, bride is killed for failure of father to pay dowry
encroachment of desert conditions on moister zone
boundary wthin which a particular linguistic feature occurs
person involved ina form of agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock.
pull factor
positive conditions that attract you to an area
environmental determinism
natural environment has a controlling influence over human life
redistricting for an advantage
homes bought with intent of tearing down and replacing them
slash-and-burn agriculture
burning to clear land for agriculture
period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand
physical-political boundary
boundary defined and delimited by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape
physical characteristics of a person
commercial agriculture
large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land base, factory-type labor forces
mass extinctions
mass destruction of most species
selective immigration
individuals with certain backgrounds are prevented from immigrating into a country
movement of people to clustering of people
whether the place is designed for or claimed by men or women
relative location
regional position on a place in relation to other places
acid rain
caused by oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned
sense of place
meaning attached to a place
cultural complex
set of cultural traits
special economic zone
specific area to attract foreign investment that has special tax incentives
unplanned slum development in margins of cities
wisconsinan glaciation
most recent glacial period of Pleistocene
internal refugee
people who are displaced within their own country
upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city-religious purposes
organic agriculture
agriculture that avoids pesticides, growth hormones...
rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned housing of low-income inner-city residents
stationary population level
no population growth
oldest religions, does not have a single founder or theology
just in time delivery
method where companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production
purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
restrictivepopulation policies
government policies designed to reduce rate of natural increase
examining the enduring impacts of colonialism
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock
time-space compression
effects of living in a world of time-space convergence
majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each distinct. to give majority control
monotheistic religion
belief system in one supreme being
invasion and succession
new immigrants move to and dominante area/neighborhood that was occupied by older immigrant groups
total variety of plant and animal species
social differences between men and women
sacred site
place where people with same religious meet. it holds meaning
global scale
interactions occurring at the scale of the world
cyclic movement
movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves,doing in context of local culture and make it their own
forced migration
human migration flow in which movers have no choice but to relocate
strength of urban center to attract producers and consumers to it's facilities
relative location of place
translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation
guest worker
legal immigrant who has a work visa usually short term
dependency theory
political and economic relations between regions have limited the extent to which some countries can develop
microcredit program
program that provides small loans to poor people especially women in the encouragement of small business
deep reconstruction
using vocabulary of extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
human decision making not environment is crucial factor in development
kinship links
when migrant's go where family or friends have already found success
horizontal integration
ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist at eh same point on a commodity chain
land fit for cultivation
remote sensing
collecting data of earth, through distant objects
absolute location
exact position of place on earth
rectangular survey system
divide parcels of land into series of rectangles
structuralist theory
global economy has power relations that causes economic disparities
discriminatory real estate practice. minorities are prevented from obtaining money
shifting cultivation
cultivation of crops in tropical forests clearing. abandoned after a few years
global language
language used most commonly around the world, based on number of speakers or use in commerce
money migrants send back to families
affiliation or identity within a group of people
extinct language
language without any native speakers
universalizing religion
belief system that adheres to all people and seeks new members
time-space convergence
greatly accelerated movement of good and ideas made possible by technological improvements
backward reconstruction
tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward original language
contagious diffusion
diffusion by contact person to person
forces that tend to divide a country
people or corporations who control access to information
physiologic population density
number of people per area of arable land
degree of direct linkage between two locations
religion based on belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge. splintered from Hinduism
central business district
downtown heart of central city, high land value and concentration of business and commerce
material cultural
art, housing, clothing of a group of people
representative districts are switched according to population shifts
global-local continuum
what happens at global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale
quaternary economic activity
service sector concerned with collection of information and capital
religion is not important part of daily life
break-of-bulk point
location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another
religion in japan that focuses on nature and ancestor worship
person migrating away from a country
lingua fraca
common language used for purposes of trade and commerce
unitary state
a nation-state that has a centralized government
popular culture
cultural traits affected by western society, quickly changing
huge houses
expansion diffusion
spread of an innovation through expanding area
two regions can specifically satisfy each other's demands
process by which people in the local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
modernization model
model of economic development maintains that all countries go through five stages of development
social relations stretched out
central ctiy
urban area that is not suburban, older or original city
subsistence agriculture
agriculture on the small scale
geographic concept
way of seeing the world spatially
philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of confucius
conquest theory
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
how we make sense of ourselves
edge cities
shifting focus of urbanization away from the CBD toward urban fringe.
longlot survey system
land is divided into narrow parcels
independent invention
trait with many cultural hearths that developed independently
manufacturing export zones
host country establishes areas with favorable tax and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
perceptual region
region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea
animistic religions
belief that inanimate objects that are elements of nature possess souls
focal point of ancient roman life
time-distance decay
declining degree of acceptance of an or innovation with increasing time and distance from source
world economic system by a more flexible set of production standards. outsourcing.
expansive population policies
government policies that encourage large families and raising the population growth rate
eugenic population policies
government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others
cultural hearth
place of origin of a major culture
highly organized system for industrial production and labor
population explosion
rapid growth of world's population
cross-promotion of vertically-integrated goods
seeking out regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to uncertainty of real world
loss of uniqueness of a place
primeval supercontinent
folk culture
cultural traits that are small in traditional communities
formal economy
legal economy that is taxed and monitored
dispersal hypothesis
proto-indo european was first carried eastward into southwest asia, then to caspian sea and then across russian-ukrainian plans and on to balkans
high-technology corridors
area along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development, and sale of high-technology products
genetically modified organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering
periodic movement
movement for example college or military service. temporary relocation
associated with promotion of commercialism and trade.
island of development
places built up by government or corporations to attract foreign inventment
in context of local culture the accuracy with which a single stereotype conveys the culture
vertical integration
ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist along a commodity chain
businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support agriculture
luxury crops
non-subsistence crops
participatory development
locals should be engaged in deciding what development means for them and how it should be achieved
cultural landscape
visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
people are ultimate sovereign and have final say
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
space on earth's surface
geographic information system
collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, and analyzed
set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication
friction of distance
increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
McGee model
model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of southeast asia
peace of Westphalia
peace negotiated in 1648 to end the thirty year's war
voluntary travel to a sacred site
doubling time
amount of time it takes population to double
metes and bounds system
divides land based on physical characteristics
laws of migration
five laws that predict the flow of migration
vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below and airspace
language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
Queer theory
political engagement of "queers" with the heteronormative
standard language
variant of a language that a country's elite try to promote
renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families.
demographic transition
based on western european experience of changes in population growth undergoing industrialization.
central place theory
Walter Christallr that explains how and where central places should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another
agricultural surplus
production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her family
practice routinely followed by a group of people
tower attached to a muslim mosque
study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and interviewing people
established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country
identifying against
constructing an identity by first defining the "other" and then by defining ourselves as "not the other"
map making
synthetic organic compounds used in refrigerants and as propellants. destroy ozone
push factor
leave their home. negative conditions
poor countries ties the value of its currency to that of a wealtheir country and abandons its currency
hunt for a cache using GPS
dependence on a single agricultural commodity
large supercities
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
clustering of people or activities. businesses benefiting from close proximity
primary economic activity
extraction of natural resources
natural increase
number of births over deaths
dispersal of jews now more widely used
religious fundamentalism
movement to return to the foundations of the faith
systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation
informal economy
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored
industrial deconcentration due to technological advances and increasing costs due to competition
transformationof an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
most recent epoch of the late Cenozoic Ice Age
ethnic neighborhood
neighborhood situated in larger metropolitan city and comprised of a local culture
sound shift
slight change in a word across languages with a sub-family
caste system
strict social segregation of people-india
stimulus diffusion
diffusion in which cultural adaptation is created from initial introduction
regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy
primate city
country's largest city.
system in which eldest son inherits all of the land
functional region
region defined by particular set of activities within it
chain migration
migrants move along and through kinshp links
global positioning system
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places
homo sapiens
human species
feng shui
chinese art and science of placement of buildings, homes, and cities to channel flows of sheng-chi in a favorable way
absolute location of a place
cultural diffusion
expansion and adoption of a cultural element from place of origin
centers or nodes of high-technology research
global division of labor
phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world
to outsource to a third party located outside of country
in muslim culture, person who leads prayer services.
township-and range system
rectangular land division designed by Thomas Jefferson
environmental stress
threat to environmental society by human activity
people lose originally differentiating traits when they come into contact with another society or culture
step migration
migration to a distance location that occurs in steps
community faith where everybody follows shaman-teacher/healer
religion based on teachings of jesus
tertiary economic activities
economic activity is associated with provision of services
nostratic language
believed to be ancestral langauge of pro-indo- european
heartland theory
political power based in the heart of eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominant the world
hierarchical diffusion
diffusion in which idea spreads by passing first through most connected places
cultural barrier
prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas, or practices unacceptable in that particular culture
animal domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
distance decay
effect of distance on interaction
ethnic religion
religion particular to one culturally distinct group of people
mass depletions
loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species
international migration
human movement involving movement across international boundaries
toxic waste
hazardous waste causing danger from chemicals and infectious organisms
arithmetic population density
population of a country expressed as an average per unit area
tightly knit group of people which similar language, religion, culture
gross national product
value of all goods produced by a countries individuals even if they aren't located within the country
location theory
logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of ecnomic activity.
child mortality rate
number of children that die before 5th birthday
entrenchment of colonial order
critical geopolitics
reconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians
urban morphology
study of the physical form and structure of urban places
economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange on world market
central place
any point or planin the urban hierarchy having a certain economic reach or hinterland
dramatic increase in hispanic population in a given neighborhood
porous, water holding rocks that provide millions of wells
secondary economic activities
activity involving the processing of raw materials
greenhouse effect
blanket like effect of the atmosphere in heating up the earth
cultural appropriation
cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit
final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
movement to unite jewish people of diaspora
territorial representation
system wherein each representative is elected form a district
creole language
language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue
concentric zone model
structure of american central city that suggests existence of five land-use rings
germanic languages
lanuages that reflect the expansion of peoples out of northern europe to the west and south
blanket of gases surrounding earth
spatial distribution
physical location of phenomena
urban realm
widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis. model of large US cities
person migrating into a particular country
politically organized territory
period of sustained warming
mental map
image or picture of way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception
cadastral map
large scale map depicting value and ownership of land for purposes of taxation
pidgin language
two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
dialect chain
set of contiguous dialects in which dialects nearest to each other are closest related
sanitary landfills
disposal sites for non-hazardous waste
relocation diffusion
diffusion through migration
regional characteristics of a language
companies move industrial jobs to other regions
global warming
earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced green house effect
least cost theory
which location of manufacturing establishments is determined by minimizing costs in labor, transportation, and agglomeration

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