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Renaissance and Reformation Term List

World History I

Terms

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Raphael
A few years younger than Michelangelo, Raphael was widely admired for his artistic talent and "his sweet and gracious nature."
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
Queen Elizabeth (Elizabethan Settlement)
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded the Catholic Mary I and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated; her reign was marked by prosperity and literary genius (1533-1603)
Peace of Augsburg
German rulers decide if they are Lutheran or Catholic 2.If a German Ruler took property from the church before 1552 they can keep it 3.Bishops go to states of their religion 4.Lutheran is the only other religion
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
The 95 Theses
commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with the Church's sale of indulgences, and this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism. Luther's popularity encouraged others to share their doubts about the Church and to protest against its medieval ways; it especially challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the Reformation and the birth of the Lutheran, Reformed, and Anabaptist traditions within Christianity.
Presbyterians
A member of a protestant church governed by presbyters (elders) and founded on the teachings of John Knox
Protestantism
the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation
Johan Gutenberg
Born in Mainz, Germany, he printed the first complete edition of the Bible using a printing press with movable type.
Inquisition
a severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Priesthood of all believers
Luther did not believe in a hierarchical structure, but a communion of believers.
Predestination
(theology) being determined in advance
Erasmus
Born in 1466, he was one of the most important scholars of the age.
Michelangelo
He was a sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet.
Indulgences
Sold by the clergy, it was a way for the church to make money; people would pay money to have their sins forgiven
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Humanism
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
Index of Prohibited Books
Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Church were banned. Possession could be severe
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Justification (Salvation) by Faith
saving someone or something from harm of from an unpleasant situation
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Reformation Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority.
Machiavelli
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor who summoned Luther to the diet at the city of Worms
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.

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