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The Reformation


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Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism?
Mary I (Bloody Mary)
What type of art reflected the spirit of the Catholic (or Counter) Reformation?
What did the Council of Trent say about church language and the Bible?
Speak Latin & use the Vulgate
Why would the printers' guild have supported the reformation?
economic stake, literate & sophisticated, often opposed to gov't
What is baroque art designed to do?
get an emotional reaction
What was the Jubilee Indulgence supposed to pay for?
new St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome
Why did the political structure of Germany and Switzerland make them easier to reform?
small territories governed by princes instead of sovereign monarchies
Why did Zwingli (Reformation leader in Switz.) feel penance was unnecessary?
Christ had already borne the pain for our sins
Where did Luther first defend his 95 Theses?
At the Disputation of Leipzig (vs. Eck)
What agreement made Catholicism the official religion of France?
Concordat of Bologna
According to Calvin, who were the elect?
Those predestined for salvation
What did catholics & Protestants call unbelievers from the other side?
heretics & papists
List 3 ways in which the Catholic Church tried to stop the influence of the Protestant Reformation.
Council of Trent, formation of the Jesuits, the extension of the inquisition & Index
List some of the major causes of the protestant Reformation.
church abuses, indulgences, printing press, "Renaissance" spirit, decline of papacy, new merchant class, etc
What kept Charles V from dealing with Luther quickly & efficiently?
He was always at war (w/ the Valois(Fr), Ottomans) and busy solidifying his large empire
Who was the founder of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus)?
Ignatius Loyola
What were some of the major beliefs of the Anabaptists?
baptism by immersion, separation of church & state, equality, communal ownership of property
Which 2 sacraments did Luther keep?
2-baptism & the eucharest
Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)?
Edward VI
Who said: "We are all eqaul in the eyes of God, members of the Priesthood of all believers."?
List three components of Calvin's strict moral code.
no drinking, no dancing, no plays, religious music in taverns
What league did some of the German Protestant states form for economic gain & mutual protection?
What act by the Roman Catholic Church inspired Luther's 95 Theses?
selling of indulgences
What did the benefice system allow the laity to do?
Buy desireable church offices & benefit economically
Who did Luther side with in the Peasant Revolts in Germany?
German nobility
How did Calvin attempt to create his theocracy known as the 'new Jerusalem"?
a strict moral code
What issue kept the German & Swiss Reformations from uniting?
the eucharest
What religious group did both Lutherans & Catholics despise?
What gave the German princes official control over religion in the German states?
the Peace of Augsburg
What did Martin Luther's parents want him to do as an occupation?
to be a lawyer
Name the major Protestant group in each of the following areas: England, Scotland, Switzerland, North Germany
Anglicans, Puritans, Calvinists, Lutherans
Where did the Council of Trent place church tradition to scripture?
on equal footing
What percentage of protestant converts were "reconverted" by the catholic Reformation?
over 50
What happened when Calvin tried to "reform" Geneva the first time?
exiled to Strasbourg
Why did the geography of Germany and Switzerland make them easier to reform?
Far from Italy, divided into small parts
What was the main reason Henry VIII started the English Reformation?
he wnated an annulment from Catherine of Aragon
Who were some of the great medieval reformers that pre-dated Luther?
Jan Huss & John Wycliffe
What pushed Luther to "discover" justification by faith alone?
His own feelings of unworthiness
How did Luther respond to the charges brought against him at the Diet of Worms?
"Here I Stand, I Van Do No Other" would not change
What did the reformation offer peasants?
political & religious liberation, social betterment

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