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History - Church and State


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"5 Good Emperors⬝
(100s) – a period in which Roman rulers used extreme moderation. Each of the emperors picked a successor.
3rd century Crisis
(200s) – near collapse of the Roman Empire. Ruled by over 35 generals.
a “heretic” view of the Christian faith originated by Arius, which states that Jesus Christ and God were not of the same substance. Declared heretical at the First Council of Nicaea.
Augustine of Hippo
(300s-400s) – Was a priest of the Hippo church, before becoming the bishop. Lived by the monastic rule. Wrote “The City of God”.
Boniface VIII
(1300s) – As Pope, issued some of the most boldface claims to temporal and spiritual supremacy. Got into a quarrel with Philip of France.
a castle located in Tuscany. Henry IV went to Canossa in 1077, and begged Pope Gregory VII to life the excommunication that had been placed on him.
(800s) – king of the Franks. Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor. Known for starting a new renaissance in literature and art.
Charles Martel
(700s) – won the battle of tours, and stopped the Arabs from spreading Islam in Europe.
Christine de Pisan
(1400s) – French poet and one of the first women authors in Europe. Wrote “Dit de la rose”, a commentary to the Romance of the Roses.
Concordat of Worms
(1122) – an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Henry V. Ended the Investiture Controversy. Allowed for bribe-free elections of bishops, but allowed the Emperor to be present at elections, and invest those elected with their lay-rights.
Council of Rheims
selected Leo IX to be the next Pope. Dealt with bringing reforms to the church.
Courtly love
a formalized system of admiration and courtship directed at a member of the opposite sex, usually toward a person married to someone other than the admirer. Upper class.
(200s-300s) – Roman emperor. Ruled the Eastern half of the empire. Process of Tetrarchy began, and four emperors were in control of the Roman empire.
Donation of Constantine
(“320”) – fraudulent document which purported Pope Sylvester I and his successors sovereignty over Rome, Italy, and the entire Western Roman Empire. Popes used the document as reasoning to assert power over Italy in 1400s.
Fourth Lateran
(1213) – summoned by Pope Innocent III, who made over 70 decrees, including producer and punishment for heretics, papal order, and rules of conduct for the clergy.
Gregory I
(500s) – gave power to the position of Pope. Worked for understanding between Eastern and Western Europe. Sent Augustine to convert the Anglo-Saxons.
Gregory VII
(1000s) – Became Pope during the Investiture Conflict. Weakened his position by calling a excommunication on Henry, only to have him repent, and then excommunicated again.
Henry II (of England)
(1100s) – Saw the writing of the first legal textbook (“Common Law”). Became entangled with secular/church courts and Thomas Becket.
Henry IV (of Germany)
(1000s) – Began the Investiture Controversy, by insisting that secular rulers be allowed to pick clergymen. Was excommunicated from the church.
religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church. i.e. Arianism.
(900s) – first count of the House of Savoy. Supported the Emperor of Rome during the campaigns of Rudolph of Burgundy, and received land in return for his services.
Leo IX
(1000s) – Pope that saw reforms were needed in the Church. Went on a “tour” bringing together clergymen together, to discuss reforms, and to issue decrees.
(500s-800s) – a dynasty of Frankish kings. Kings appointed counts to settle disputes, which led to a feudal system.
Pepin the Short
(700s) – King of the Franks. Father of Charlemagne. Became king after gaining support from the papacy – repaid them by going to war with the Lombards.
Philip II (of France)
(1100s) – also referred to as Philip Augustus. Unified and consolidated France, and took Normandy from King John. Popular with the people.
Philip IV (France)
(1300s) – Took hefty taxes from the French clergy, which enraged the papacy. Created laws which forced clergy to pay, and limited the papacies powers in the nation.
Robert Grosseteste
(1200s) – Bishop of Lincoln.
Romance of the Rose
(1200s) – a scathing attack on women in late medieval culture.
(100s) – considered by many to be most important disciple of Jesus. Wrote a large portion of the New Testament.
(1000s) – method of teaching and learning. For example, the Bible would be read, and then a commentary of it would be written based on the scholar’s viewpoints.
Thomas Aquinas
(1200s) - Catholic philosopher who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy.
Unam Sanctam
(1300s) – a papal bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII. Declared that the Pope was the head of the church, and that every human was subject to the Church. Damaging to Boniface.

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