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Chapter 7

Terms

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Constantine
supported Christianity throughout the Empire
Marc Antony
a general and ally of Caesar's who drove out conspirators took control.
aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills
martyrs
Christians who were put to death for their beliefs
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
elected consul then ruled as a dictator.
Horace
poet who wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles
Ovid
poet who wrote love lyrics and the Metamorphoses
rabbis
religious scholars of Judaism
Ptolemy
a scientist and scholar from the great egyptian city of Alexandria who developed a system of astronomy and geography-the Ptolemaic system
Pax Romana
200 year period of peace in Rome.
Jesus
the Son of God who was crucified and died on the cross to save all people from sin
Punic Wars
3 conflicts between Rome and Carthage over control of the Mediterranean and oversea expansion
dictator
absolute ruler who had power over army and courts could rule for up to 6 months
pope
"father" in Latin; patriarch of Rome who claimed to be supreme over all the other patriarchs
Cleopatra
daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family, put on the throne as a Roman ally by Caesar
praetors
to help the consuls by commanding armies
tribunes
10 officials who had some power over actions made by the Senate and other public officials.
Augustus
lead army to declare war on Mark Antony
the Gracchi
Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius.
Scipio
Roman General.
Julio-Claudian Emperors
relatives of Caesar that rules the empire for the 54 years after Augustus
Patricians
powerful land owners who controlled the government
Goths
Germanic tribe made up of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths who threatened invasion to the empire
veto
refuse to approve
bishops
headed church in each city
Virgil
greatest of Roman poets, wrote the epic poem the Aeniad
triumvirate
a group of three men responsible for public administration or civil authority
Five Good Emperors
five rulers who led Rome for almost 100 years during the Pax Romana
censors
registered citizens according to their wealth, appointed candidates to the senate
inflation
a rise in prices caused by a decrease in the value of money
checks and balances
prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful
Huns
Germanic tribe called Franks who threatened invasion to the empire
Vandals
Germanic tribe called Franks who threatened invasion to the empire
Spartacus
led a slave revolt in which more than 70,000 slaves took part in.
patriarchs
bishops of the administrative centers for the church in the last years of the Roman Empire
consuls
ran the government, commanded the army, and could appoint dictators (served one-year terms)
Diocletian
emperor whose efforts slowed the Roman empires decline;he appointed co-emperor and two assistants because size was too big.
gladiators
trained fighters,usually slaves, who fought in areas as entertainment
Galen
physician who wrote several volumes that summarized medical knowledge
euquites
a class of business and landowner people.
Attila
leader of the huns
Julius Cesar
Marius' nephew whom became a popular general
Tacitus
great Roman historian who wrote Annals
republic
a form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state
Gnaeus Pompey
joined Julius Caesar and Licinius Crassus (formed the first Triumvirate)
Plutarch
a Greek who wrote Parallel Lives ( a collection of Greek and Roman biographies)
Gaius Marius
roman general who was elected consul who brought major changes to the roman political scene
Plebeians
made up most of the population (farmers and workers)
Hannibal
One of the greatest generals who led Carthage.

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