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2b. What were the adjustments were made or proposed in the Half-way covenant?
Adjustments made - Half-Way Covenant (1• In the new world of the Puritans were required to except to confess before their fellows that they had experienced God's saving grace.- First Generation. 2 • More and more children of the earliest settlers failed to experience God's grace in the same fashion as their parents - Second Generation 3.• Hence they did not seek full membership in the churches. 4 • This problem became acute when these children began to marry and have children of their own - Third Generation. 5 • Under the Puritans Reformed theology, converted people had the privilege of bringing their infant children to be baptized as a seal of God's covenant grace.. 6 • However, many of those who had been baptized as infants were not stepping forth on their own to confess Christ. 7 • Yet they wanted to have their children baptized. 8 • The Puritan dilemma was delicate: leaders wished to preserve the church for genuine believers, but they also wanted to keep as many people as possible under the influence of the church. 9 • Their Solution: - was to purpose a "Half-Way Covenant" whereby second-generation New Englanders could bring their third-generation children for baptism and a halfway membership. 10 • Participation in the Lord's supper remained a privilege foe those who could testify to a specific work of God's grace in their lives. 11 • But making such an adjustment the Puritans were able to preserve the interlocking covenants of person, church, and society.)
5a. What was Wesley's view of Original sin
"conceived as inbred sin,innate corruption of heart, as an evil root in man from which all other sins spring forth both inward and outward" Sinful behavior symptomatic of original sin.
8c. Describe Finney's view on the Atonement
Since punishment implies crime, of which Christ had none, Christ then was not punished, and did not bear a penalty. He dies for the government of God (Govermental atonement), to make a just expression of God's abhorrence of sin, and to make a strong impression of the majesty, excellence of the law
8b. Describe Finney's view on Moral Depravity
Sin is merely an act or a deed; not a condition of the human nature. There is no imputation of sin or original sin. The moral appetite is not constituted by the fall as sinful
8a. Describe Finney's view of the Moral Law
Structure of nature. Humans are free moral agents. Follow law go with nature. Go against law and you go against nature.
4b.Describe a central perception which Gilbert Tennant, shared regarding the spiritual state of many parishioners within 18th century early American colonies?
Presumptuous security(Never experienced transforming power from the grace of God. Transforming power distinguishes the authentic. First sign of authentic conversion is "terrible realization" of my lostness) (Substituted Christian culture for Christian conversion)
11b) Describe Schleiermacher's view on the person of Christ.
(Schleiermacher believes that ) Jesus was a human being but had the highest intensity of religious experience . (He was the most religious, most self conscious and in the deepest relationship with God thus he was the most religious. Because Jesus was the most religious, as we watch him, we should desire to be more like him.)
4f. What was the theme of Edward's preaching
Five sermon series on Justification by faith. Sinners in the hands of an angry God from Isaiah 63. Safety fullness and sweet refreshment are two examples.
3. Present a short, synthetically, yet substantial, argument for the existence of a plurality of denominations in early colonial America.
Congregationalists, Lutherans, Fringe Denomination: Congregationalists(Puritans: Mass. Bay Colony and Pilgrims: Plymouth), Lutherans (Delaware(Sweden) and Pennsylvania(German, Fringe Denominations (Moravians: Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Salem, North Carolina...Minonites: Lancaster, Pennsylvania...Quakers: Pennsylvania
7e. What movement was Ebenezer Gay (1696-1787) a part of and what did he believe?
Intro Moderate NE Calvinism. Creeds are not relevant. Reason delivers to us our ultimate concept of what is natural and then points us to reason. Scripture is verified by reason.
6b. Characterize the politician philosophy which formed the background for the American revolt and which was informed by the Scottish Common Sense Realism
all human beings possessed, by nature, a common set morality. (To achieve intellectual confidence and social cohesion Common Sense theorists "achieved these goals by arguing that all human beings possessed, by nature, a common set of capacities—both epistemological and ethical—through which they could grasp the basic realities of nature and morality. Moreover, these human capacities could be studied as scientifically as Newton studied the physical world. Such rigorous study, especially of consciousness, would yield laws for human behavior and ethics every bit as scientific as Newton's conclusions about nature")
1c. Describe with comparison and contrast the ecclesiological perspectives of both groups within early colonial congregationalism. Who are the Puritans and Pilgrms?
(Puritans and the Pilgrims were:)1. Strongly and distinctly Protestants (Calvinistic). 2. (They wanted to) wipe out the vestiges of Roman Catholic worship and doctrine that survived within the Church of England. 3. (They wanted to systematically) restructure the society on the basis of the Bible (and their understanding of its message.) 4. (They wanted to move from) bishop rule to congregational rule. 5. Religious influence( for example was very strong in the governments of early New England.)
7h. What is Moderate NE Calvinism?
dennes Original sin-denies total depravity,Denies original sin, man can make right choices, Sins of commission are the only sins that you do. Christ influences the decision.(Proponents:Nathaniel Emmons Jonathan Edwards the Younger. Timothy Dwight Nathaniel Taylor "Sin is poor moral choices" If salvation is free, it cannot be the result of some kind of a transaction Denies it because it is unfair. It illogical, it is unfair, it is silly Penal substitution is impossible. The sacrifice shows us how much that God hates sin. Jonathan Edwards (younger)Governmental influence of the atonement God hates sin. Reform your life. Horace Bushnell-God reveals himself in three different persons, but is not eternally coexist as Father Son HS Moral influence of the atonement—Christ is showing me how much he loves me to get me to stop sinning. Regeneration happens by choosing to do right)
4d. What was the theme of Frelinghausen's preaching
Evangelistic Preaching to his own congregation.
2b plek. What were the adjustments were made or proposed in the Half-way covenant?
Baptize babies to make them part of community but were excused from the ecclesia, Because they were not part of the ecclesia, they could not participate in communion. This was Instituted because not all experienced converting grace, Had to keep colony alive but for church to keep its authority they had to have some sort of covenant with God, Could not legislate converstion which became problematic with subsequent generations.
13. Explain and criticize the attempt of New England theologians to deviate from the orthodox faith, specifically their modifications of sin, grace, atonement and the person of Christ (Bushnell).Who are two key figures of Moderate NE Calvinism (ie Consistent Calvinism)? Nathaniel Taylor (1786-1858).
-denies imputed sin, original sin. Offensive to the American way. No one had a vote in the garden. Whatever is happening politically, will affect the theological. Sin is the poor moral choices, the acts. 7)Horace Bushnell (1802-76). all religious lang. is poetical, not literal. Denies everything that taylor denied. Denies the penal substitutionary atonement. Moral influence theory of the atonement-when Christ died on the cross, it is to influence me because you see what love does. Christ shows the degree of how much He loved me. He does not pay anything. So my heart is to be influence morally to stop doing what I have been doing and start doing love. -modalist. God reveals himself as the father, son, and spirit. He does not eternally exist as father, son, and spirit.
10a What is the attitude of slavery before Napoleon's demise?
Both North and South disfavor and distaste slavery but did not ban practice; there was double standard
15. Explain and criticize the attempt of New England theologians to delineate the orthodox faith, specifically their modifications of sin, grace, atonement and the person of Christ (Bushnell)
denies original sin. (no imputed sin. denies total depravity. sins are poor moral choices. sins are not due to a sin nature) pelagian view of sin. (grace is not God doing for us what we cannot do for ourselves) denies penal subtitutionary atonement. affirms governmental theory. affirms moral influence theory. Christ is an example. (Bushnell was a modalist. Christ is not eternally existent. Christ died to show us how much God hates sin in the governmental view and to influence us to turn from away from our evil ways in the moral influence view.) (the view on sin is not orthodox. the view of grace is not augustinian or orthodox. denying the penal substitutional is also not orthodox. and of course modalism is not the orthodox view of the Trinity.)
12.Describe Hegel's view on the interrelation between History, Absolute Mind, and Dialectic.
Hegel viewed the Geist or Absolute mind manifested itself through history by a dialectic process which went through an idea being a Thesis, which had its own anti-thesis. These two together produced a synthesis. This then began a new thesis with its anti-thesis and then brought about the next synthesis. Throughout history every new thesis is better than the previous thesis until we reach the climax of history when the Geist fully reveals itself in the ultimate Synthesis and then history is over.
Jesus was the most ethical human being. (So we should follow Jesus who was the most ethical.)
11d) What is Ritschl's View on the person of Christ?
5c. What was Wesley's view of prevenient grace
Something of this if found in every man as soon as reason starts to dawn, all know there is a difference between good and evil. We may say to everyone, that God, not nature, has shown everyone what is good. God universally dispensed grace and that allows man to determine right from wrong. The conscious is not natural and any conscious you have is spiritual and of the Holy Spirit, not Adamic. Man's instinctive ability to distinguish good and evil is the evidence of the presence of prevenient grace. In other words, the Spirit is at work in everyone.
6a. Characterize the politician philosophy which formed the background for the American revolt and which was informed by John Locke
Autonomous Spheres: State and Church. (the state: functions to protect life and property privilege. has no power over religious societies or individual religious beliefs. The church: is a free, voluntary, spontaneous society. has authority of leadership by consent only. has no recourse to force. functions to teach and exemplify peace and goodwill to all. has no power to enforce religious faith. meets to witness, proclaim views and draw others by love. (All found on pg. 49 of class notes) 1)Nurture morality 2)No civil authority 3) Does not impose its will on the state
4c.Describe a central perception which Jonathan Edwards, shared regarding the spiritual state of many parishioners within 18th century early American colonies?
Surprising Conversion Boo! Licentiousness within church and abandonment of young people. People painted their own picture of God(Substituted Christian culture for Christian conversion)
What is HT102?
Church history part two
8a. Describe Finney's view on Moral Law
The very structure of nature (humans) is that we are free moral agents. One can go with nature or against it, responding to motives
2a plek .What was the Ecclesio political theory of MBC
Covenant nation Promises of Israel given to Puritans (to conquer New World as Israel conquered Canaan)(England=Egypt Red Sea=Atlantic Canaan=Native Americans)Had to Hold place in church to take part in state, Wanted to be a Christian Theocracy, Viewed themselves as the New Zion, a city upon the Hill.
7b. How was Radical New England Calvinism subdivided?
Intro, Moderate, and Radical
7f. What is Moderate Radical NE Calvinism?
Rise of Unitarianism-Doctrine of Trinity is denied. Became very prevalent. Most accepted it as the norm. Dedham case (1820) church belongs to the neighborhood not the neighbors. NOUAUA-unitarian association started. Reject trinity because it is less rational. The Hollis Chair - the clash at Harvard College (1805).Made to teach Calvinist Theology. Harvard fills the post with a Unitarian Andover Seminary is founded three years later(1808) to teach calvinism.
1d. Describe with comparison and contrast the ecclesiological perspectives of both groups within early colonial congregationalism. What did Puritans do?
Puritans. Wanted to purify the Church of England and reform it towards stricter Calvinistic theology, while still being associated with the Church.
8b. Describe Finney's view of Moral Depravity
No imputation of original sin.Sin is an act or a deed
6c. How will this lead to a negative ecclesiastical/theological result of the Revolution
results take precedence over theology (The rise of individual, democratically religious themes. The rise of the secular state. Analyzed negatively, the combination of revivalism and disestablishment meant that pragmatic concerns would prevail over principle. What the churches required were results—new adherents—or they would simply go out of business. Thus, the production of results had to override all other considerations". In the negative results take precedence over theology. Ecclesia is the first place where the corporate model moves into the church. Now things have to practical, relevant, and contemporary instead of is it ancient or within the tradition or is it orthodox or is it true? God is on longer authoritative, we reserve the right to leave a church if we don't like where the church is going or don't like what the preacher says.)
1a. Describe with comparison and contrast the ecclesiological perspectives of both groups within early colonial congregationalism what are the convictions?
Four Main Convictions (The Puritans and the Pilgrims, together known as the Congregationalists, had four main convictions:)1. Personal salvation was entirely from God.2. The Bible provided the indispensable guide to life. 3.The Church should reflect the express teachings of Scripture. 4. God created the society as one unified whole.
10b What is the attitude after Napoleon's demise?
North disfavor slavery then South pro-slavery, three responses; 1. Gradualism, educate the slaves to that they will be useful to the society; 2. recolonization: recolonize them back to Africa free; 3. Immediatism: persuade renunciation of slavery immediately
11a) Describe Schleiermacher's view on the essence of Religion.
(At its essence,) Religion is all about Feeling. (Religion is transcending into yourself and being self conscious of your personal relationship with God. The Degree to which you experience that relationship is the degree to which you are religious.)
7a. How was New England Calvinism divided?
Radical and Moderate
9b What are the differences in evangelical features of the 1st and 2nd Great Awakenings
Started by pastors VS started in colleges; through preaching conversion to congregation within church community VS camp meetings in persuasion of surrender to God to do what He wants you to do and prayer meetings for revival
10c What are the causes for shift on the views of slavery before and after Napoleon's defeat in 1815?
Napoleon defeated, Britain reorient themselves to build economy, decide to dominate textile industry, high demand for raw materials (cotton), there is vacant land after Indians move West in SE suitable for growing cotton to meet English demand which can make good fortune when they satisfy the demand, technology: cotton gin processes cotton faster and creates demand for more cotton, therefore high demand of labor to harvest cotton, and slaves are cheapest and most efficient, slaves become key to the economy in the South, so pro-slavery, don't want abolition
2a. What was the Ecclesio political theory of MBC
The ecclesio-political theory of Massachusetts Bay Colony was that the Pilgrims -(1 • Believed that they had a special covenantal relationship with God. 2 • The landed on American land , like a "New City on the Hill," similar to Jerusalem. 3 • Similar to the Nation Israel who were freed from the bondage in Egypt, they were freed from the Church of England. 4 • Similar to the Israelites being considered as the Children of Abraham, they too believed that the Puritans were the chosen Children of Abraham. 5 • Similar to the Israelites who crossed the red sea, the Puritans crossed the North Atlantic. 6 • Similar to how Canaan the promise land was initially inhabited by the Philistines and Canaanites, the American was inhabited by the Native Americans. 7 • They believed that Yahweh fought their battle to inhabit the land,)
7d. What were the views of Jonathan Mayhew (1720-66) and what movement was he associated with?
Intro Radical NE Calvinism 1.There is a difference between right and wrong 2.Humans can discern right and wrong 3.Humans naturally obligated to exercise that discernment. No prophet or divine revelation needed
5b. What was Wesley's view of Free Will
absolutely denied natural free will. (Nature is the state of man after the fall. That nature has only an evil will.) The will of man is by nature free only to evil, every person is given a measure of free will to all men by grace. (Grace is the same as Augustine. It is God doing for man what man cannot do for himself.)
What is the password
11c) What is Ritschl's View on the essence of Religion?
(For Ritschl,) The essence of religion is Ethical. (In being ethical, it rejects all metaphysical and mystical forms of Christianity - these are just crazy talk by old theology. We are redeemed when we are brought away from this teachings of old Christianity. To the degree that you are ethical you are religious.)
7c. Describe Intro Radical NE Calvinism?
Charles Chauncey (1705-87).(Chauncey believes conversion can be reasoned into. If I can show you how to live better and the results of it you will do it) Original sin is unfair, because we weren't represented. No condemnation without representation. Moral turning away from misbehavior based on reason...NOT SUPERNATURAL
8c. Describe Finney's view of Atonement
Governmental view, denies penal substitution
4e. What was the theme of Gilbert Tennant's preaching
Challenges presumptuous security by explaining that congregants who have had sacraments and catechism may not have been converted until having "terrible realization" of my lostness
1e. Describe with comparison and contrast the ecclesiological perspectives of both groups within early colonial congregationalism. What did the Pilgrims do?
Pilgrims or "Separatists": (1 • They wanted to re-introduce first century Christianity in the seventeenth century.. 2 • They wanted to reject their own culture and wanted to embrace another culture. i.e. the culture of the New Testament Church of the first century. 3 • Hence, they separated or resolved to migrate to a more friendly environment.)
1b. Describe with comparison and contrast the ecclesiological perspectives of both groups within early colonial congregationalism. What did they disapprove of?
(Puritans and the Pilgrims strongly disapproved the system of the Episcopalian (Protestant) Church of England because:)1 The Bishops still ruled the church government, 2. They followed many lavish rituals and traditions like the Roman Catholics.3. Pageantry and liturgy (empty display and observances was still in practice.)
9a What are the difference of theological features between 1st and 2nd Great Awakenings?
Problem to tackle: Christian culture substituted Christian conversion VS New England Theology separated from orthodox faith; View of conversion: Justification by grace, realizing one's utterly lost VS Experience of faith, dramatic conversion; View of faith: Faith is something human cannot manipulate, totally work of God VS Faith is believing that you can do what God wants you to do; View of atonement: Penal substitutionary atonement VS Governmental view of atonement; View of sanctification: Works and faith together, works as natural result of true faith VS practice of exercises as evidence of faith, power to change moved by the Holy Spirit; Process of awakening: Captivated by God's beauty, affection to God VS methodical influence to make one surrender to God to do what God wants you to do
7g. What was Radical Radical NE Calvinism aka Transcendentalism?
God is innately within. Listen to the still small voice within me. Huge push of self reliance. Revelation is not when an apostle addresses me. It Is not when the eternal son of God positions himself on the mountain and preaches to me. Reject miracles. Reject original sin. Emphasize self -reliance. Ralph waldo emerson-revelation takes place intuitively. Theodore Parker- Christianity rests on intuitiveness.Christianity is something moral. Transcend into myself to find myself intuitively.
4a.Describe a central perception which Frelinghausen, shared regarding the spiritual state of many parishioners within 18th century early American colonies?
Perfunctory orthodoxy (Mayo illustration) (Substituted Christian culture for Christian conversion)

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