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Renaisance and Reformation Term List

Terms

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Peace of Augsburg
a treaty signed between Ferdinand, who replaced his brother Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the city of Augsburg in Bavaria, Germany
Protestantism
the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation
Index of Prohibited Books
list of publications prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church to protect people from reading books with theological errors
Erasmus
Dutch Renaissance scholar and Roman Catholic theologian who sought to revive classical texts from antiquity, restore simple Christian faith based on Scripture, and eradicate the improprieties of the medieval Church. His works include The Praise of Folly (1509) and On Free Will (1524), a challenge to Luther's views.
Indulgences
The remission of temporal punishment still due for a sin that has been sacramentally absolved.
Inquisition
a former special tribunal, engaged chiefly in combating and punishing heresy
Anabaptists
A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
Anglican Church
the Church of England and those churches that are in communion with it and each other and that share essentially its doctrines and order, as the Church of Ireland, the Episcopal Church of Scotland, the Church of Wales, and the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.
Predestination
the action of God in foreordaining from eternity whatever comes to pass
Martin Luther
German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Luther confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.
Justification (Salvation) by Faith
the act of God whereby humankind is made or accounted just, or free from guilt or penalty of sin.
The 95 Theses
written by Martin Luther in 1517 regarding indulgences; is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation
Henry VIII
King of England who brought about the English Reformation, which included the creation of the Church of England, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing the English monarch as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Queen Elizabeth (Elizabethan Settlement)
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn who supported the establishment of the English Protestant Church
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War
Priesthood of all believers
a fundamental concept of protestanism derrived from several passages of the New Testament
Jesuits
A religious order of men in the Roman Catholic Church; its official name is the Society of Jesus. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in the sixteenth century, the society became the spearhead of the Counter Reformation
Humanism
any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate.
John Calvin
French-born Swiss Protestant theologian who broke with the Roman Catholic Church (1533) and set forth the tenets of his theology, known today as Presbyterianism, in Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, mathematician, and scientist.
Johan Gutenberg
a German goldsmith and printer who is credited with introducing movable type printing,
Presbyterians
a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity
Council of Trent
a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers; redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished various ecclesiastical abuses and strengthened the papacy
Raphael
Italian painter whose works, including religious subjects, portraits, and frescoes, exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance.
Michelangelo
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect; one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance (1475-1564)
Machiavelli
Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations.
Puritans
A group of radical English Protestants that arose in the late sixteenth century and became a major force in England during the seventeenth century. Puritans wanted to "purify" the Church of England by eliminating traces of its origins in the Roman Catholic Church.
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who with his brother Hubert (died 1426) founded the Flemish school of painting. Jan's works, characterized by brilliant coloring and minute realistic detail, include Arnolfini and His Wife (1434). No existing works can be positively attributed to Hubert.
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).

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