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History First Semester Exam Review


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What are the Hamas?
the hamas are created as a result of the Oslo accords. they are an arab organization of Palestinians. Rabin is killed by a jew (his own peopl)
When does the split of the Sunni Shia hapen
After Mohammed dies and the caliph must be chosen
Name three reasons the Ottoman Empire Fell
1 jannisaries gain power sultans lose power 2. trade declines 3. higher taxes lead to poverty, dissent among people
Now known as Yathrib it was the place of the first mosque and mohammed increased his followers and they return back to mecca
Recieves the 10 commandments at mount sinai. Pharoahs daughter found h im. Kills Egyptian who is beating Hebrew slave. Burning Bush God freed the Israelites.
How does the Soviet Afghani War end
The soviets lose to much money and time so they leave.
As the soviets lose power they invade. what are theyre reasons?
1. want to preserve communist party. 2. Don't want Iran
Yom Kippur War
1973 Egypt wanted Sinai and Syria want golan heights back
the ottomans take constantinople in 1453 Mehmet. Byzantine empire is no longer.
The sunni believe in this to be the leader of their people they belive the caliph sould be chosen by the people and very pious or religious
12 Tribes of Israel
Isaac had a son Jacob (Israel) who had 12 sons which became the 12 tribes of Israel.
What were four demands from Sadam for the Arab League (golf war)
1. wants kuwait and the united arab emirites to stop over producing oil (concern of Sadam incase price goes down) 2. Persian golf countries help in building irw after the war. (helped stop spread of Shia revolution) 3. Owes 7 billions dollars to Kuwait. and wants this dept wiped (he stopped the iran revolution). 4. Border between Kuwait and Iraq Dispute must be established. Obvi he wants more than for imself. ARAB LEAGUE DOES NOT COMPLY W/ ANY
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty 1922
Gives british control over military and fiscal (economic) policy it was set to last 20 years
What is the Hadith
the words of mohammed written down
Iran-Iraq War 1980
Middle of Hostage crisis. completely isolated- iraq will take advantage of this. No one will help iran b/c of hostge situatin. Has US hostages->no friends or allies. 2nd reason is that Sadam would invade. Iranian revolution he does not want that going into his country. Shia=Ayatolah Sunni=Sadam Khomelni calling on the Shia's to help fight the sunni's. 3rd reason border dispute= Shat al-arab a water way. Supporter= Iraq-US, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Eqypt Kuwait supporst b/c they are sunni and they don't want a shia revolution. Kurds Support Iran. Sadam gasses the kurds and their is also a mass kiling of shia. Kurds just joined Iran side to get their own country. The war ends in cease fire in 1988
Byzantine Empire
This consists of the eastern part of the roman empire. They are responible for starting the crusades. call on the crusaders because they thought the turks might attack them. Pope Urban called on the turk btw. The turks do attack them (competing for holy land) and they survive the crusades
What are the Mujaheed and why are they created
if the commi's are in control who will defend against the soviets? Us equiped the Mujaheed with weapons. Mujaheed=holy warriors.
Who was the initial Caliph and how was he chosen
Abu Bakr and he was chosen by the people
Unilateral Disengagement Plan
2005 Prime Minister of Israel = Ariel Sharon. 21 settlments of Gaza Strip and 4 Settlements of West Bank. They force israelis to leave both places
Who was the great ottoman Sultan
Suleyman who died in battle (age 67 in suicide mission)
Who were moors
spanish islams
The Golden Age ended why?
It came to an end in 1258 whn the Mongols sacked the house of wisdom (river ran black) it was called the "Battle of Baghdad"
Who do Muslims believe Abraham is ?
according the the Qu'ran abraham was neither jew nor christian but a universal ancestor of monotheists
a term for the phrophet of the religion Zoroastrianism. Religion based off of Good thoughts, Good Words, and Good Deeds. First Monotheistic Religion. Persian King = Vishtapa. Good = Spenta Mainyu vs Bad = Angra
What is the Mecca Kaaba
a worship place of idols in mecca
who are the kurds
they live in southern turkey but turkey doesnt want to give up a lot of their population so they can not get their own country. They speak kurdish. in 1983 Sadamm gasses kurds with mustard gas because they were in support of Iran in hopes of gaining their own country.
consists of Holy thursday= last supper eucharist, Good Friday= Jesus Dies, Easter Sunday= Rose from dead 40days before= lent 40 days after= acension
Who dd they recruit for their army (the ottomans)
Balfour Declaration
British and Zimist
Who do the merchants belive built the Mecca Kaaba
What does Islam mean
submission to the will of god
When Muawiyah came into power the ummayid dynasty came into power. they were known for spreading from spain to India. They ruled from 660-750 CE They had Damascus as their capital and they spread islam. The spanish muslims were called "moors"
Punishments for Sadam after the Golf War
1. Economic sanctions (penalities) on oil . They hurt the ppl more than Sadam. and put him further into dept. 2. Un inspectors check for WMDs Sadam doesnt comply and the sanctions become greater. 3. US no longer friends with Iraw
Describe population of sunni vs shia in Iraq
majority is Shia but the minority Sunni is in control
135 CE the dispursin of the Jews everywhere.
Opposing group to Shia believe that Uthman should be the caliph
Mohammed came from a family of what?
Bedouins, family lived in Mecca but they moved alot so they encountered many christians and jews
What happens after the Iran-iraq war
Sadam and the US establish a relationship
Who supports the Mujaheed
The United States and Saudi Arabia
Roman empire Falls in what year
476 CE
Operation Desert Shield 30 Nation Cohalation against Sadam
give sadam a deadline which said he had to get out of kuwait.
A movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Mohammed and his followers traveled from Mecca to Medina in 632 CE
Judiasm. A book that show's how to apply the Torah to your Daily Life.
Why was suleyman great
he creates a system of laws and Suleymaniye which was a mosue named after him
Who are the byzantines finally taken down by
the ottomans
Al Qaeda
members are arrested at camps
What was the Great Schism
Roman Catholic vs eastern Orthodox (no trinity woman preists)
Who are the "four true caliphs"
Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmah, and Ali
Rosh Hashanah
Jewish new year
Church formed around this man
Oslo Accords
Israel was represented by Rabin and the PLO was represented by Arafat. Two things were established 1. Israel allow Gasa strip and West bank to be self governing. 2. In return the PLO has to reconize that israel exists.
what caused WW1
1) Surbs wanted independance from Austria-hungary. 2) killed franz ferdinand 3)allied-france, britain and russia, US (1917) Axis- Ottomans, Germany, Austria-Hungary
What does Sadam do after the Arab League rejects his requests?
within a couple of days he has kuwait under his control he invaded it. he has missiles pointed at Saudi Arabia. if he got control ovr kuwait, kuwait and iraq would have too much power b/c of al the oil they have.
A part of the Avesta supposedly written by Zoroaster
Who was the second Caliph and what was he known for
Umar he was known for the Qu'ran, Muslim calendar, and the spread of Islam
Palestinian Liberation Organization
The Holy book of Zoroastrianism
What Happens when Mohammed is 40 years old
angel gabriel appears and tells im that he is the 1 the phrophet of the 1 god allah.
After the Soviets leave who take over the Mujaheeds?
they divide into tribes. such as the taliban and al qaeda
Suez Canal Crisis
1956 they tried to nationalize it -limit jews from using it US steps in Eisenhower says to stop what they are doing. ie british french and israel.
What is the Qu'ran
the literal word of God not writen by Mohamed only translated through him.
Ten Commandments
The Moral Laws of the Hebrew God Yahweh. First 4= Establosh Hebrew Relationship with Yahweh Other 6-> Importance of family, values, and self restraint. Covenant = solemn agreement with Yahweh.
What are Janisarries
strong military fighters most feared troops in the western world
holy Book of Judiasm. First 5 books of Moses. 61 Commandments 365 Don'ts 240 Do's
Camp David Accords 1979
talk about peace. Egypt represented by Sadat. US represented by Carter. Israel represented by Begin. Three things established 1. Israel removes troops from Sinai. 2. Israel gets access to the Suez Canal. 3. Missed opportunity= Palestine and israel not discussed. feel carter missed an opportunity.
What Ruler declared support for Christianity and was baptised on his death bed
Intifada 1987
the first intifada was when the palestinian liberation organization PLO (leader yasar arafat) attacked some israeli soldiers.
the Shia believe that leader is called an imam and this "caliph/imam" should be a direct descendant of Mohammed They want Ali- 11 descendant 12 imam =caliph
Operation desert Storm
Deadlines pass and Sadam doesnt move. Op desert shield becomes operation desert storm. Phases of the war = 1-air attack on Sadam 2-troops push him out of Kuwait.
Muslims say they don't really need a church...why?
because they belive god is always with you
The founder of Judiasm "father of monotheism" Born in Ur. Abraham married Sarah who was unable to have kids. Then Sarah did have a son = issaic. (JEWS) Abraham and his maid Hagar had a son named Ishmael. (MUSLIMS)
Ahura Mazda
Name of the God in Zoroastrianism. He has six attributed called his "Amesh Spentos" which include: Divine Law, Powerful, Beneviolent, Pure, Perfect, and Immortal.
Golden Age of Islam
Baghdad was flourishing eye surgery, scholars from all over the world came to study, algebra invented, medical and science advances
How do muslims view their religion
as a continuation of the Judeo-christian tradition. The jewish scriptures an jesus are incorporated in the Qu'ran they believe jews and christians deviated from allah or god and they fell into corruption and error
5 Pillars of Islam
1) the profession of faith 2) Daily Prayer 3) Payment of the Zakat 4) Fasting in the month of Ramadan and 5) The pilgrimage to Mecca
holy city Iran
Under what empire was the Hagia Sophia built
the ottoman
Sykes Picot Agreement
1916- Secret agreement between the British and French. Just promised Rab nation and now want to divide it up. British get Iraq, Palestin and Trans Jordon.(impt to have Iraq=persian golf=india) French get= Syria and lebanon. In conflict with the Arab revlt because the british already promised this land and is now giving it to the French
Who is allah
muslis believe that the jews and christians god is the same as their allah
What Ruler declared Christianity an official Religion
Kaaba is what
merchants think abraham built this The place at mecca where the idols were kept then destroyed
Cairo Conference
1921 Military and political future of the Middle east. Iraq-Monarchy King Faisal not best selection but chosen by british, Mecca from mecca not iraq, sunni always put minority in power. Military= Officers-Sunni. Average Soldiers-Shia. Left out Kurds and Assyrians.
What empire did the ottomans attack first
the byzantine they took over bursa (byzantines 1st capital) impr b/c this enalbed ottomans to establish a seat in the government
How did the ottomans treat those they conquered
allowed them to carry on with their religion
a Shiite terrorist organization with strong ties to Iran
What Happens after the Roman Empire Falls
Christianity Spreads
What is the trinity
christian belief in the father son and holy ghost
What was destroyed in the reclaiming of Mecca
The Kaaba
What was Important abot the Battle of Badr
"gives religion credibility" b/c mohammed was supposedly out numbered by meccans
Arab Revolt
1916-1918 Sherif of Mecca (son of of king of syria) Husain. Makes an agreement with the british, arabs revolt with help of british against the ottomans, makes 1 arab nation, king of Syria=faisal. Revolt from Mecca against the ottomans
Ango-Iraqi Treaty 1930
British to be consulted on 1. foreign policy 2. economic matters 3. all british interests (oil) The difference with the anglo iraqi treaty is that Iraq actually gets something- Military/financial support and Sponsership to league of nations
They ruled from 750-1258 Under them was the house of wisdom and the Golden age of Islam moved from damascus to baghdad
Bible Consists of what
Old Testament - 5 books of Moses , New Testament - Gospel- Jesus
Why was Mecca Important
big trading center
who were the Ghazis
warriors of the faith who were to bring islam to the world
What happened after the yom Kippur war
US oil embargo in 1973 because OPEC was is anti-israeli and they were punishing the US for supporting israel. The embargo consisted of no oil given to US, and a 70% increase in price.
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon
1st Pope
Who are two british allies
the assyrians and the Kurds -both promised own states by the British
1995 they emerge as the government but are ousted in 2001
Who was Jesus
teacher, healer, miracle worker
What religion belives their god can not be portrayed by picture statue or icon
Muslims believe this about Allah who has n physical attributes
Who is most upset about Mohammed being a phrophet
the merchant because they are polytheistic and they sell idols at the center of trading (mecca)
In 2002 Afghanistan declared war on who?
In Islam who runs the church
the imam
What is the Hijrah
Mecca to Yathrib (Medina)
What is the first event in hte Muslim Calendar dated back to
the Hijrah or the trip from mecca to medina
What is the Afghani Communist party in control of before the war
the government
What is a Caliph
succesor of the phrophet Mohammed

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