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Core Test


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1300-1600- means rebirth
Cultural bridge between middle ages and world today
rediscovery of classic style (art, music, learning, architecture)
originated in Italy, derived tradition from ancient pagan tradition
celebrated hopefulness and rediscovery of man's potential created in the image of God
Time of Da Vinci, Raphael, Michaelangelo
rediscovery of classical texts (philosophers, Bible in original language) during renaissance
sparked by revival of interest in classical greek/roman literature, culture, language
Erasmus, the leading Dutch scholar made a Greek NT availible to scholars and theologians (made study and new translation possible)
His praise of folly-critique of the church eventually led to the reformation
catholic church influenced reformers such as clavin and set stage for reformation
man was final authority, based on reason
Menno Simons
Started as an ignorant priest but later became and Anabaptist religious leader whose followers would become known as Mennonites
Focused in the Netherlands with small pods in Germany
Beliefs include Christian faith expressed by a spotless life and clear doctrine
Deliberate decision and commitment on part of individual to become follower of Christ
separation of church and state
true church of christ will be persecuted
Luther's Revolution
Luther interpreted verses completely different than what church taught
Passage which says the righteous shall live by faith, was interpreted by Catholics meaning only righteous can have faith
Luther was upset that a righteous God would punish sinners and that sinners could not be righteous and therefore could never have faith
Luther reinterpreted the verse to mean that righteousness is based on faith in God, not faith in only those who are righteous
was frustrationed with various church practiced like the selling of indulgences and led to 95 Theses and leaving the church
John Wycliffe
key pre-reformer in England, followers became the Lollards/mumblers
Recieved Doctor of divinity degree focusing on Eucharist from Oxford Univ
Translated Bible to middle english and was against transsubstantiation, special priv for papal hierarchy and saif that it was biblically wrong for monks to live secluded
30 years after death was deemed a heretic at Council of Constance, body dug up and burned at stake
Jan Hus
Prague, Bohemia, 1372-1415
Important pre-reformer with Wycliffe
Less radical and accepted papacy
Chaplain and emerging leader at Charles Univ
Believed in Invisible vs. Visible (Augustinian, predestination, scripture over dogma)
accepts transubstantiation but opposes clerical cup
against simony (selling of church offices) adn fees for sacraments
he was critical of clerical abuses, a papal bull was placed against Hus and in 1415 he was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake (followers called Hussites)
Diet of Worms
1521 Church forced Martin Luther to recant
Debates between Luther and Church, summoned by Charles V, ordered to take back what he said about the pope (against indulgence system, righteous by faith not works)
Luther would not take back anything and said "here I stand"
Ecommunication is ratified by Empire, but was "kidnapped" by Frederick the Wise taken to a castle and forced to translate the bible into german
Via Media
means "middle way"; as a comprimise between protestant and catholic traditions instituted by Elizabeth I
Blended Roman Catholicism and Genevan Protestantism (Calvinism)
Because of this became known as the compromise reformer
her act of uniformity making england protestant, got her excommunicated by pope
radical mindset based on Calvinism
Eliminated Adiaphora (things not essential to the church, organs, stained glass etc..)
preached simplicity in both life and worship
believed in daily worship (quiet times, holiness, and scripture should be applied directly to soul
two types of polity: seperatist, congretional polity which left the church to fix it and non separatist- episcopla which worked inside the church
the were persecuted by elizabeth I and pressured to comply with Act of Uniformity
Act of Supremacy
1534 during reign of King Henry VIII
broke ties with the church and called himself leader of the church and should enjoyed all the benefits that come with it
official start of the English Reformation; came as result of Henry;s request to be divorced from Catherine of Aragon which pope clement VII denied
later repealed by mary I
Act of Uniformity
1559- Elizabet I's act that declared England as officially Protestant
said that everyone must conform to doctines and traditions or be fined
Reinforced the book of Common Prayer and going to church was a legal obligation
Elizabeth was later excommunicated by the pop for this
Episcopal polity
ONe of the basic polity systems of the Protestant Reformation
Episcopal comes form the Greek word Episkopas meaning bishop
Called for a hierarchal form of Church gov with bishops in command
this was practiced in Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran Churches
Led the reformists who wre tired of the hierarchal system to created the Presbyterian system with a representative gov and elders at the head
the breaking of Icons, a part of the presbyterian reforms in Scotland
Was the smashing or removing of religious images considered Idolatry
included latin liturgy prayers, certain rituals, prayers for the dead, stained glass, other things not in scriptures
practed by radicals such as anabaptists/puritans
replaced with simplified sacraments
Secret Exercises
one of the strict facets of Puritanical worship (daily quite times)
came from the biblical idea of prayer closets where people would seperated themselves from the world
simply spend time in prayer and reading of the scriptures
this cam as a result of their beliefs of simple life and worship
Council of Trent
met from 1545-1563, 28 years after Luther's protest and posting of 95 theses
was catholic response to reformation to rejuvenate church and work out issues
main goal was to reaffirm Papal Supremacy, gave voting to Bishops (mainly italian)
Pope Paul III plan was for healing, peace, reform and reaffirmation of 1200 yer old Nicene Creed
Sacraments reduced from 14 to 7
Held in Tritendum a former Roman Colony in alps as political compromise
first of a number of Councils of Trent that met to resolve Catholic Church issues
Ignatius of Loyola
1491-1556 Key in Catholic Reformation, founded society of Jesus
was a page in the royal court at Castile, Spain
Set out to prepare for Knighthood but was seriously wounded so he read the Life of Christ, called to be a spiritual knight for Christ
went on Pilgrimage to holy land but was sent back because of lack of education
wrote guide to prayer and discerment of 26 years
ignatian spirituality aspires to unite with Christ, master the will and action of the world
engages the intellect, imagination, senses and will
Society of Jesus
Founded by Ignatius of Loyola
7 young men took vows of poverty/chastitiy and planned to move to holy land, immitate life of Jesus and preach to muslims but were interupted by world events
1540 the pope officially recognized them and soon became Jesuit order
vowed obedience to pope
spent 14 years in training and traveled worldwide
dual plans were missions and education
today there are 28 Jesuit Univ in US and 1.5 million students worldwide
Main arguement of Luther's 95 Theses against Catholic Church
claimed if people paid the church a fee they could free dead relatives from Purgatory (waiting room) where people were purged of sins before entering heaven
Tetzel was famous indulgence seller near Wittenburg that infuriated Luther
Luthers respnse was tat salvation was not based on money or merit but grace alone
first and most famous group of radicals during reformation
means to baptize again because they believed baptism was for those who chose to have it, not infants
1525 by menno simons and jacob hutter, radical
doctrine- ordinances not sacraments
2 ordinances- baptism and lord's supper
lord's supper was memorial feast
polity- congregational structure of government
radical changes about simplicity of new testament
christ against culture

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